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I • • - # 

Darvarb (Tollege libratn^ 



Class of 1838 










bt lewis ramshorn 






s^jrv, /^X 


^/U/cj ■'^'^<^^^'^'^ 


Entered according to Act of Congress, m the year one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-nine, by Francis Lieber, in the Clerk's Office of 
the District Court for the District of Massachusetts. 








The author of the present work published, a few 
years ago, a book, the whole title of which I will 
here give in translation, because it indicates some of 
its important features. It is, " Latin Synonymies, 
upon the Basis of Gardin-DumesniPis Synonymes La^ 
tins, recast and augmented, by L. Ramshorn ; as a 
new Edition of the Universal Latin Synonymes of 
Ernesti." The names of Ernesti and Gardin-Dumes- 
nil, the latter of whom published the first edition of his 
Synonymes in 1777, are well known to all acquaint- 
ed with the modern history of philology. Upon the 
works of these two scholars, then, Dr. Reimshorn, a 
distinguished philologer and practical teacher in Ger- 
many,, has built his own, adding from the rich treas- 
ures of the science of languages, so abundant in 
his country. Comparative philology and etymologic 
knowledge, now zealously and successfully cultivated 
in Germany, form a science which exhibits to us 
order, organic connexion, depth of meaning, and pro- 
gressive developement, where before disorder, dis- 
jointedness, caprice, or a barbarous want of perception 
seemed to exist, in so great and vast a sphere, embrae- 


ing many tribes and generations, that the scholar who 
enters deeper and deeper into this comprehensive 
system, extending over Asia and Europe, ancient and 
modern, feels as we may imagine one to feel, who 
beholds the firmament for the first time dfter being 
informed, that all its glittering hosts move in order, 
and according to the wisest principles. Neither the 
present cultivation of this branch of philologic knowl- 
edge, nor that of any other, appertaining to the study 
of antiquity, has been without its due influence in 
the composition of the abovementioned work, which 
makes it, in my opinion, a production of singular 
merit. My friends agreed with me, that an abridg- 
ment, adapted to our schools and colleges, would sup- 
ply a want which has long been felt by those who 
instruct in Latin. So soon, therefore, as I became ac- 
quainted with the fact, that Dr. Ramshorn himself had 
prepared a " school edition " of his work, I resolved 
to translate it into English. I have done so, and feel 
convinced, provided I have performed my task with 
any degree of success, that few works can be ofiered 
to all who study or promote the study of antiquity, 
more welcome than this. Had I not felt convinced 
of this fact, I should not have undertaken it ; for 
translating is an irksome occupation, and I will 
frankly own, that, occupied as my mind was, at the 
same time, with labors far more congenial, I was 
once well nigh giving up my purpose. I remembered, 
however, what Cicero says of Brutus : '* (luidquid 
vult, valde vult;" and resolved, in my limited sphere, 
not to remain behind the Roman. If, therefore, the 
reader is of a peculiarly charitable disposition, the 


merit of patience is all I claim, or can possibly claim, 
at his hands. 

In a few instances, where it was imposi^ble to 
express the precise shade of meaning, conveyed by 
the Latin term, by a corresponding English word, 
or even by a paraphrase, I have given a German or 
French word, if these languages furnished an exact 
counter-term ; but, as I have in no case done so with- 
out trying, to the best of my ability, to approach as 
near as possible to the sense of the Latin by English 
words, I hope I shall not be blamed by the critic. 
My own additions, chiefly relating to the English 
idiom, are so few, that, successful or not, they can- 
not be considered as in any degree affecting the 
merite of the work. Clearness, that is, the most ex- 
act expression of the peculiar shade of meaning of 
the Latin term, has been my chief aim ; I have freely 
made use, therefore, of English terms, not frequently 
employed, of a colloquial character, or, in some cases, 
of a bold formation, or of sentences which cannot be 
considered as elegant, so that I obtained my main 
object, that is, the nearest possible approximation to 
the precise Latin meaning* 

That part at the beginning of this work, which 
treats of Latin Terminations, will be considered by 
many as containing now and then views too bold or 
fanciful. Still I did by no means feel authorized to 
omit it, partly on account of its own merit, which 
will be more available however for the teacher than 
the pupil ; partly because the author refers to it in 
the main body of the work. - The Index, unfortu- 
nately wanting in many dictionaries of modern syn- 
onymes, will be found a very convenient addition. 


Synonyme is a term which denotes various rela- 
tions between words. Some synonymes stand in the 
relation of genus and species to each other, so that 
the specific idea of the one is contained in the generic 
idea of the other. Of these Aristotle speaks in his 
Categories ; others are more accurate terms, furnished 
by advancing intercourse, science or art, or any other 
knowledge or skill, for expressions used less definitely 
in common life ; others designate notions related only 
to one another, or which have branched out from 
different roots, yet arrive at nearly the same point, 
carrying ' along with them, however, some modifica- 
tion of the idea, adhering to them from the original 
root ; others mean actually the same, yet differ in 
form ; which form still imparts a difference to them, 
in specific cases, under the hand of a skilful writer; 
for instance, a difference of elegance. Annual and 
yearly mean exactly the same, 1 believe ; but a writer 
of nice feeling will prefer the one or the other, ac- 
cording to the circumstance, whether the general 
character of his writing makes the more positive 
Saxon, or the more technical Latin element in our 
idiom preferable at the time. So do the words besieg- 
ing and beleaguering mean exactly one and the same 
thing. Similarly related words are met with in Latin ; 
the one of old Latin stock, the other of later introduc- 
tion from the Greek. Some synonymes become such 
simply because exactly the same thing is designated 
in one part of a country by one term, in another by 
a different one. But there are few instances, indeed, 
in which a word has been adopted by the general 
language of the cultivated, and has not soon received^ 


or rather formed for itself, a peculiar shade of mean- 
ing of its own. Still it ought to be remembered, 
that there are actually words which differ simply as to 
form or sound, and by which the scholar is strangely 
misled, if he starts with the axiom, that there are 
no two words meaning exactly the same thing, in 
the same language, — an error, it seems, which may 
be perceived in far the greater number of works on 
synonymes. That there are equivalent words may 
be seen at once, if we remember, that some Latin 
words end both in is and tis, without a shadow of 
difference in meaning. 

The reader will find, that the author has in several 
instances grouped together terms which denote ac- 
tions or things different in themselves, yet belong- 
ing to one another ; at other times, words which 
etymologically differ but little, and yet designate 
entirely different and frequently opposite things. I 
believe the scholar will thank him for what, in a 
work on synonymes of the author's vernacular tongue, 
would appear as a transgression of the strict limits, 
drawn by the term synonyme. 

As to the quotations I have only to remark, that 
in many cases in which the explanation given is 
entirely sufficient to show the exact force of the 
Latin, the quotation exhibits the same term in a 
slightly different or figurative meaning, and, secondly, 
that the name only of the author from whom the 
quotations are taken, has been cited, for the sake of 
brevity. The larger work mentioned at the begin- 
ning of this preface, contains the entire citations, so 
that the reader may rest assured, that the respective 
quotation is to be found in the author cited. 


To my young readers, who will not fail to try 
their juvenile wit upon the author's peculiar name, 
I wish to remark, that there are no better means 
of msOting ourselves perfectly acquainted with a for- 
eign language, and acquiring a thorough knowledge 
of our own, than a careful study of those clusters of 
words by which a number of related ideas, a family 
of notions, is successfully expressed, in a foreign 
tongue, yet differently from the mode which our own 
idiom pursues ; in the same manner as there is no 
better way of discerning and thoroughly understand- 
ing our own advantages or deficiencies, individual 
or national, than by a candid comparison of ourselves 
with others, be this by travelling into other regions 
and nations of our own times, or into other ages 
by studying history. 

Columbia, S. C, December, 1838. 


§ 1. A word receives a specific meaning by its termina- 
tion or terminal form ; and becomes, through it, a part of 
speech. This terminal form, the inflective part in nouns 
and verbs, is added to the last sound of the root either im- 
mediately, or mediately through a short connecting vowel ; 
t, more rarely u^ e. g. car-o^ urhs ; len-Uer^ serv-ttus^ doC' 
umenium, also pi-etas ; or to the characteristic vowel of an- 
other form ; manus^ manu-hrium ; salus, sdlu-ber. 

§ 2. The root of a word consists generally of a short 
syllable, ending with a consonant; of many Latin words, 
however, it is lost, if it has not been preserved in other 
ancient languages. That word in which it is preserved with 
the least addition, and in its original meaning, is called the 
primitivum or original word ; the other words derived from 
these are called derivata^ if they are words formed by a 
change of form and not by entire composition. These de» 
rivata may be denominativa^ pronominalia^ numeralia^ ver- 
halia^ and adverhialia. The signification of the primitivum 
is the base of that of all derivations, but it is greatly modi- 
fied by the various forms. 

§ 3. The oldest nominal forms contain the personal pro- 
nouns ; the others the declensions : 

a. The third declension is the oldest on account of the 

generality of its forms ; for, through, them, it designates 

only existence and its modifications, and contains most 

original words ; the monosyllabic almost exclusively. 

J. The first and second distinguish clearly subject and 

quality, person and thing, and the genera, 
c. The fourth declension designates permanent conditions, 
as such, and in some, inanimate objects, e. g. acus, arcus^ 


2 Substantive Forms. I. 

d. The fifth contains only denominations of essential prop- 
erties, hence only feminine nouns. This is also the 
reason why it had, at an early period, many words in 
common with the third and first declensions, as quies^ 
quiei^ quie ; plehes^ plehei^ and the long Ablative ter- 
minations fame, mole, tabe ; farther, materies and mate- 
ria, &c. 

§ 4. In the third declension there are, besides, the mono- 
syllabic radical words without form, as lac, sol, ren, lar, 
cor, fur, 

A. Substantive Forms. 

1. 1. S, the general form designating existence, 

a, attached to the last radical sound, or fused with it : sus, 

urbs ; mas, laus, mors, pax, grex, nix. 
ft. with a vowel in nubes, quies ; navis, lapis; honos, 

custos; lepus,palus. 

2. tas. Gen. tat is, designates quality ; tus. Gen. tut is, 
property. Juventas is youth distinguishable by early years, 
delicacy, and blooming beauty ; juventus, youth in its vigor 
and strength, opp. senectus ; juventa, the whole age, period of 
.youth. Senectus, old age as condition of decreasing powers, 
but also venerable on account of greater experience ; senecta, 
old age as the last period of man's life ; senium, old age 
with its complaints and burdens, oppressive age. Veritas, 
truth as quality ; verum, as the True itself. 

II. O, as active form, designates in, 

1. 0, Gen. tnis, fem. a thing which effects that which is 
designated by the original word : Adspergo, the liquid which 
bespatters something, makes wet. 

0, Gen. onis, masc. a subject, distinguishing itself by that 
which is expressed by the original word : Capito, naso, one 
who has a large head, long nose ; opilio {ovis, ovilis), shep- 
herd ; the numeral nouns : unio (the one-hood, if I were to 
make a word, not one-ness, which is unitas), a unit, temio, 
a Three; the diminutives: pusio (pusus), a puny little boy, 
jmmilio (pumilus), a little dwarf, senecio (senex), an elderly 
man, homuncio (homo), a little man (manni-kin). 

2. it), Gen. bnis, fem. intransitive activity, action with- 
out transitive effect upon something else ; communio, com- 
munion, as equal participation of several individuals in one 

Substantive Forms, U, 3 

thing ; communitas^ community, as quality of that which is 
common among them. Obsidio^ siege, active, on the side 
of the besiegers ; obsessio^ passive, on the side of the be- 
sieged, the being besieged ; ohsidium^ the besieging of itself:' 
Dolahella primo sui incessu solvit ohsidium. Tac. Colluvio 
(luere^ lavare^ belongs to Jluere^ pluere^ the same root in our 
Zte), the conflux of all sorts of drains ; colluvies^ these drains 
themselves, drainage. 

3. tio^sio^ Gen. onis, fem. a supinal form, activity with 
regard to an object or a suffering, passive subject. Xe^o, 
selection, lectio {legere^ lectum), the reading, perusal, the act 
of reading, inasmuch as it is performed with a book. Mo' 
tio, motion, which stirs a body ; mottis^ see § 3, c. motion, as 
the state in which a body happens to be. Largitio^ a liberal 
present, or rather presenting, as action ; largitas, abundance 
of gifts. Dignitas^ dignity. Temperies^ § 3, d, the just prop- 
erty of a mixture with reference to the relation between its 
ingredients ; the moderate condition of weather ; temperatio^ 
the proper mixture of several ingredients into one mass, the 
observing of proper' measure in a thing. Offensio (offeU' 
dere)^ the knocking against, e. g. pedis ^ and the offence, 
which some one takes ; hence the cause which produces it, 
insult, and angry feeling, attracted from another upon us by 
our offending him ; offensa^ the unpleasurable feeling, arising 
out of what is offensive, the offence as active, the insult we 
offer, we are guilty of. Visio^ the seeing, the looking at, the 
sight as action ; visus^ the seeing as condition, that is, the not 
being blind but being seeing, sense of sight ; visum^ that 
which is seen, vision in dream. 

4. do. Gen. dinis^ fem. with preceding long vowel 
(e, i, u), a condition, which represents that which is desig- 
nated by the original word, as phenomenon, i. e. as something 
appearing : Nigredo {niger)^ the condition which makes, 
e. g. hair, look raven-black ; formido {forma) ^ the scare- 
crow ; testudo^ that which has the quality of a testu (an earth- 
en, arched cover of a vessel). 

5. tudo^ Gen. dlnis^ fem. as supinal form, a property, 
which represents that which is designated by the original 
word as existing, condition or state : Dulcedo^ sweetness, af- 
fecting the organs of taste, e. g. mellis^ vini ; dulcitvdo^ as 
the property of the sweet itself: Gustatus dulcitudine prceter 
ceteros senstis commovetur. Cic. Asperitas^ roughness, un- 
evenness as quality ; aspredo^ as property, which makes the 

4 Adjective Forms, III. ~ 

touching person feel it ; asperitudo^ aspritudo^ as condition 
of that which is rough, e. g. calculi. Servitus^ the situation 
^f a slave, slavery ; servitudo, the condition of this state, in- 
asmuch as it is connected with disgrace, oppression, hard 
labor ; servitium^ slave-service, slave-labor, also, collectively, 

6. — go. Gen. gtnis^ fem. with preceding long vowel 
(a, ?, w), represents the idea expressed by the original word 
as property in concreto : Vertigo (vertere)^ giddiness ; lanugo 
(lana)^ the first wool-like hair of the beard. Salsugo^ salsi- 
lago^ a salt substance ; salsedo, the salt taste of a substance ; 
scSsitudo^ the permanent salt property of a thing. 

ni. OJR as passive form : 

1. or^ Gen. oris, masc. designates a state, which is ef- 
fected in the abstract : Clamor (clamare)^ the screaming. 
Albedo (alhus)^ the white property of a thing striking the eye ; 
albugo^ the white which adheres, generates somewhere, e. g. 
in the eye ; alhor^ the white of the egg, used by later writers 
for album or albumen ovi, Amaror^ the bitter taste, which 
is produced by something bitter ; amaritas^ bitterness as 
quality ; dmaritudo, as natural property. Stupor^ the as- 
tounding, the state of mental stagnation, also as transitory ; 
stupiditas (stupidas), want of feeling, of sensitiveness as re- 
maining quality. 

2. ^or, 5or, Gen. oris, mas. — trix^Gen, trtcis, fem. 
supinal form, the elHected state, in concreto^ i. e. a person, 
by whom that which is indicated by the original word, has 
been performed or is still performing : 'Victor {vincere^ vie- 
tum)^ the victor, victrix^ the female victor; funditor {funda)^ 
the slinger; olitor (olus)^ the kitchen gardener. Aleo (alea)^ 
the dice-player, as gamester ; alealor^ one who makes a pro- 
fession of playing dice. 

B. Adjective Forms, 

§ 5. An adjective denominates a quality as a mark pecu- 
liar to such objects as are distinguishable by the same from 
others. If the adjective is only applicable to quite a specific 
class of objects, or sufficient to designate the peculiar notion 
which expresses the object, without other aid, it may stand 
in the place of a substantive, and of this kind are all substan- 
tives of the first and second declension. The adjectives have 
either the adjective form proper, which indicate marks of 

Adjective Forms, IV. 5 

distinction taken from qualities, or participial forms, which 
indicate marks taken from conditions, modes of being. 
Tbose of the third declension have existence for their funda- 
mental notion. 

IV. S. 

1. 8 , designating simply the existence as quality, termin- 
ates the adjective of the third declension, either directly 
added to the original word, e. g. princeps^ reses (sedere)^ 
prcBpes {peter e)^ forward, in advance in the flight, or with 
is, as in lenis. In the others r chcmges with «, as in veter^ 
more commonly vetus; or the termination is abbreviated, 
as in vigil ^ prcBsul {pra-esse^ for prce-sulis^ X, 1,), he who is 
in advance, at the head, the superintendent, or director, and 
thus consul^ exsul ; oscen, tibicen (canere). The denomina- 
tiva are likewise subject to this rule, e. g. illunis (luna)^ 
extorris {terra) ^ rehellis {helium)^ exsomnis {somnus)^ and in 
hicolor^ affinis^ exspes, seminex^ pemox^ in which the adjec- 
tive signification is eflTected by mere composition. 

2. M5, a, wm, signifying properties, inasmuch as they are 
peculiar to objects, is the fundamental form of adjectives of 
the first and second declension ; thus v'erus^ vivus {vivere)^ 
veridicus {dicere)^ naufrdgus (frangere)^ honorus {honos), 
honorable ; superus {super), being above, in an upper situ- 
ation; nuperus {nuper) late, new; furthermore, coTrunodus, 
consonus, and, with changing form, inermis and inermus. 

With substantives designates 

a, us, objects of the male sex, according to their nature, 
and with prominent masculine qualities, e. g. gallus, nervus, 
ventw ; abbreviated is vir. 

b, a, objects of the female sex and distinguished by fem- 
inine qualities ; hence also dbstracta : Vacca, lana, pluma ; 
via, cura. 

c, urn, objects taken as things, and designations taken in 
general : Ovum, aurum, pomum, vadum {vadefe), a ford. 
Sibilus so. sonus, is the hissing sound ; sibilum, the hissing.' 

*] With some specific denominations the gender of the 
notion of the genus is imagined, e. g. nanies of trees 
and plants, as alnus, cerdsus, fem. scil. arbor; hyssopus, 
papyrus, sc. herba; or the action, as with the verbalia 
of the third conjugation : scriba {scribere), masc. the 
scribe, indigena (indu — gignere), masc. and fem. the 
native ; and also from other reasons. 


6 Adjective Farms. -TV. 

3. eus^ ius^ uus^ a, um : 

eus, a^um^ consisting of a substance, being similar to it: 
Aureus^ golden, like gold ; niveus (nix), of snow, snow-white. 
— eus^ with long penultima, terminates adjectives formed of 
nouns proper: Verrea^ Marcellea sc, sacra, feasts conse- 
crated to Verres, &c. 

iuSy a^um, originating from something taken as subject: 
Regius, royal, originating from the king, peculiar to him, fit, 
proper for him ; patrius, pluvius [pltiere), anxius {anger e). 
uus, a, um, mostly with verhalia, signifies temporary 
continuance of a condition of indefinite genus : Circumfluus 
(^wcre),that which flows around, and that which is surround- 
ed by the flowing substance, e. g. amnis, insula ; cceduus 
(ccedere), that which from time to time is cut down, e. g. 
silva; occiduus {occidere), that which approaches closer and 
closer to its end, downfall : Homo labitur occiduce per iter 
declive senectcB, Ovid, occidens, going down, being in the 
act of going down : Redihamus sole jam fere occiduo, when 
the sun was setting ; sole occidente, at sunset ; occidentalism 
situated toward sunset, west. 

Substantiva : a. Calceus (calx), laqueus (lacere in alii' 
cere) ; m^dius (modus), the bushel as measure of grain, 
genius (gignere) ; patruus, cardvus {car ere, carding), 
card, thistle. 
h, Caprea {caper, capra), the chamois, the deer ; cavus, 
hollow and a mouse-hole ; cavum, a cave ; cavea, 186, 
the hive, cage ; reliqua, 883, the rest of debts, reliquice, 
remains, relics. An adjective proper is laurea {laurus), 
sc, arbor, frons, corona, the laurel tree, twig, wreath. 
Furia {fur ere), the fury as passion, furor, as effect of 
this passion; ferocia {ferox), courageousness, also spite, 
temerity of itself, ferocitas, as quality. Noctua {nox), 
the night owl; stdtvxi {sistere, stdtum), the statue (stand- 
ing image). 
c. Biennium, triennium {annus), a period of two, three 
years. Linum, the flax ; linea, a line, both as cord and 
from it line in math. ; linteus, linen, adj. ; linteum, linen 
cloth, a linen cloth ; incendium {incendere), conflagra- 
tion ; incensio, the lighting, igniting; remigium {remex 
from remus), the oar apparatus, the oars and their move- 
ment ; also collectively for the oarsmen ; remigatio, the 
paddling with oars, as action. Pascuum (pascere), pas- 
ture, place where cattle may obtain food ; pastio, inas- 

Adjective Forms, V. 7 

much as the place gives the food ; pastas^ where the cat- 
tle are fed. 
4. V M5, i> a, t? wm, is the termination us after an r : Curvus^ 
bent; torvus^ protervus (pro-terere)^ trampling down before 
one, that is, contemning everything, bold, impudent. 

11? M 5, belonging to a distinct kind of enduring condition or 
state : Mstivus^ \<Bstas)^ that which continues in summer, 
e. g. mensis, avis^ castra^ a summer-month, summer-bird, 
summer-camp. Cadivns (cadere)^ e. g. poma cadiva sepa» 
rare; deciduus, that which from time to time falls of itself: 
elephanti denies deciduL Plin. Nocivus (nocere)^ that which 
has the quality of injuring, of the kind of those things which 
cause injury : Millepeda pecori nodva. Plin. nocuus^ inju- 
rious, active, that which always causes injury, always tends 
to do it ; more common noxius^ passive, by which we may be 
injured : Spina nocuns non Gobins (piscis) ulla, Ovid. 
Magistratus noxium civem coerceto, Cic. More frequent in 
the supinal form : Captivus^ being in the condition of captiv- 
ity, but capias^ he who has been caught, taken prisoner ; 5a- 
tivus (serere), in the condition of being sown, planted : planta 
sativa^ a plant for planting, tempora saliva^ sowing seasons ; 
stativus^ standing, of permanent standing : contra stativa ; 
statarius^ acting while standing': miles statarius^ who fights 
firmly standing. 

Suhstantiva : a, Acervus. — h. Oliva and olea^ sc. arbor ^ 
the olive tree ; sc. bacca^ the olive (fruit). — c. Olivum^ 
oleum^ oil ; arvum (arare)^ the field for husbandry ; 
lixivium (lix)^ the lie (used for making soap). 

V. J,— CUS, CA, CUM, belonging to that which is des- 
ignated by the original word according to its kind ; the 
German ig, isch ; the English ish, y ; the Greek uog. 

1. a?, Gen. tcis, is only verbal form, sometimes with ac- 
tive, sometimes with passive meaning : Fcenisex (Jwnum — 
secare), the hay-cutter, mower ; resex, that which has been 
cut or is cutting ; simplex, duplex {semsl, duo — plicare), one- 
fold, iwo'fold ; prcecox, cocis (coquere), 670, (too early 
done, ripe) ; trux, ucis, 122. 

cus, ca, cum: Civicus, civic {burgherish) ; corona, civic 
crown ; jura civica, citizens' rights, rights which refer to 
single citizens ; civilia, the rights, laws which are in force 
in a certain state. Galium, is the native Gaul ; Gallia, his 
native country; GaZZicMs, Gallic (GauZis^), originated from 

8 Adjective Forms, V. 

Graul, appertaining to it : Legiones Gallicce^ consisting of 
Gallic men ; Gallicance, stationed in Gaul, or, if they con- 
sisted of Gauls, as contradistinguished to legiones Romance. 
iMbricus (laM)^ slippery ; petulcus {petulare from petere)^ 
that which is apt to knock, or push ; hiulcus (hiuldre from 
hiare)^ that which gapes, stands asunder. As supinal 
form : Volaticus (roZare), fleeting (as if it had wings) ; vil- 
licus^ the manager of a villa ; villatiais, of the kind of those 
things which belong to a villa, e. g. canis. Attached to 
other forms : Famelicus {famelis from fames), of' the kind 
of those who suffer hunger. Grcecus, Greek ; Grcecanicus, 
Greek-like, e. g. nomen, a Latinized name derived originally 
from the Greek. 

Substantiva : a. Focus (fovere), the hearth ; r emulous 
{remulis from remus), the pull of the vessel by oars ; 
hubulcus (for huhulicus, from buhulus [hos], cattle-like, 
or rather cattlish), the herdsman, slave for the oxen ; 
suhulcus (suhulus, inus, from sus), swineherd. 
h, Fabrica, 420, sc, ars, the art of a faher, so. ratio, the 
manner of working, treating a thing, e. g. ceris et ferri ; 
fdbricatio, the artificial, art-like work ; manica {manv^), 
sc. vestis, a sleeve covering the hand ; rubrica (ruber), 
sc. terra, linea, red earth, red stone (for drawing, mark- 
ing), red cord (i. e. cord or line used to mark red). 
c. Canticum, 170 ; labrusca, the wild vine, labruscum, its 

blossom and its grape. 
2. — X, Gen. — cis, with long penultima, having an un- 
common inclination to something, and manifesting it : Rapax, 
Gen. acts {rapere), robber-like {robberish) ; bibax, who, with 
strong inclination to drink, drinks frequently ; bibosus, who, 
having the capacity of drinking much, does drink much, a 
drunkard ; ema^, one who likes to buy, emtor, the buyer. 
Felix, Gen. ids {feo), fecund, successful, hence lucky, hap- 
py ; ferox. Gen. bcis {ferre), 17. — To these belongs as sub- 
stantive, radix {radere, rooting out), the root. 

— COS, ca, cum, increases the meaning of V, 1. Meracus 
{m^rus), entirely unmixed ; opdais {ob), shadowy, 165 ; apri- 
cus (aperire), open to the rays of the sun, sunny ; posticus 
{post), behind, e. g. ostium ; anticus (ante), before ; with 
changed palatal, antiquus, ancient, old, 832 ; and, with in- 
serted nasal sound, propinquus {prope), 48 ; caducus {cade* 
re), frail, decayable, 455. 

Substantiva: a. Umbilicus {umb\lis, from umho, ambi. 

Adjective Forms, VI. 9 

the German wmJ, about, around), navel because centre^ 
and centre because round which the rest turns, or is 
thought to do so. [Navel in German is Nabel^ and 
the nave of a wheel Nabe^ both the EngHsh and Ger- 
man referring to the same association.] Lumbricus 
(lumharis from lumhus^ thigh), the entrails, hence the 
grub, because formed like a piece of entrails. 
b. Cloaca {lucre) ^ the sewer, and from — a;, audacia^ fe- 
rocia; lectica (lectus)^ a sedan-chair; lor'ica (lorum)^ 
sc, vestiSy 649 ; festuca^ a blade ; Jistuca^ a ram, ram- 
mer (for ramming a pile). [Both these words are con- 
nected with the Teutonic fast^ fcst (firm), the one, to 
which something is fastened, the other which makes 
3. Iceus^ tcius (not itius), of the kind, are attached to other 
forms, which designate a substance or kind : Cratidus (cra- 
tes)^ consisting of basket-work ; latericius (later) ^ of tiles, 
bricks ; pastorius^ peculiar to herdsmen : pellis ; pastoricius, 
belonging, according to its kind, to such things: Sodalitas 
pastoricia Lupercorum; pastor alls ^ so constituted as is 
usual with herdsmen : pastoralis habitus. As supinal form : 
Adventidus {advenire), of the kind of things which come 
from foreign countries or by accident to one, e. g. nomen, 
a Greek one, opp. vernaculum, a' native one ; copice con- 
ductcBy troops taken into pay ; conducticice^ belonging to such 
paid troops, standing in pay ; deditus^ devoted ; dediticius^ of 
the kind of those who have voluntarily surrendered them» 
selves ; insitivvs^ in the condition of the engrafted : pirum ;- 
insiticius^ of the kind of engrafted things, in contradistinction 
to those which grow naturally from the trunk. 

dceus, acius^ tcius, uceus, consisting of a specific 
substance, only with later writers, e. g. terra argillacea, are- 
nacea, Plin. clay, sandy earth ; herbeus and herbaceus, grass- 
green; roseus, rose-colored; rosaceus, consisting of roses, 
e. g. corona ; gallinaceus (not gallineus), of hens, barn-yard 
fowls ; Jumaceus (furnus), e. g. panis, baked in an oven ; no- 
vicius (novws), a novice (freshman) ; pannuceus {pannus)y 

VI. BS, PIS— BUS, BA, BUM, designates capacity, 
capability : CcBlebs, Gen. Ubis, 559 ; volupis (velle), 
delightful. — Acerbus {acer), astringent, acerb; super- 
bus {super), who feels above others, proud. — Substan- 
tive : Morbus {mart), sickness. 

10 Adjective Forms. VII. — VIII. 

VII. DIS—DUS, DA, BUM, designates a being there in 
a high degree, or in quantity : 

dis: Rudis, 524; virtdis (virere), green; grandis {gra- 
num from gro, growing, waxing), that in which appears a 
particular growth, large : grandia hgrdea. 

dus, da, dum: Herbtdus {herha), covered with grass; her- 
bosus, nch in grass; crudus {cruor), rude, crude, uncooked; 
puter, putris (putere), decayed, brittle, e. g. gleba; putridus, 
full of putrefaction, decay, very brittle : denies putridi ; fio^ 
reus (J?os), consisting of flowers, fioridus, flowery, rich in 

*] Substantiva : Capis, idis {capere), a small mug with a 
handle, to grasp it ; cuspis. — For da, {ferre), 150. 

Vni. R, (Neut. US) Gen.—ris, RIS—R and ^RUS, 
RA, RUM, provided with that which is expressed by the 
original word in a peculiar degree, provided : 

1. er, or, ur : Celer, eris {cellere), 195; acer, acris, 
acre {dcus), 17 ; mentor, oris (memini), cicur, iJtris (belongs 
to cicatrix from cicare, causing to overgrow), properly in- 
grown, tame ; also veins, eris, old veter, 832. 

er,ur and erus, a,um: Miser, miserable; satur {satis), 
satisfied ; infems, superas ; also hildris, older hildrus, 486. 
— ter, terns, are used for determining persons, places : Ali- 
us, another ; alter, the other, i. e. the one of two ; so uter, 
neuter, which, none of the two ; interns, exterus, the inner, 
the outer one. 

Substantiva : a, Jubar, aris, n. 654 ; vom^r, eris, m. 
(t?omere), ploughshare; cadaver, n, {cadivus, IV, 4^, the 
fallen, dead body, corpse ; cequor, oris, n. {cequv^), the 
plain, even surface ; vultur, tiris, m. the vulture ; fuU 
gur, uris, n. {fulgere), 478 ; robur, oris (robus, ruber), 
the stone oak, the strength. 

b, us. Gen. eris and oris, as neutral terminations : Genus, 
iris igignere), the sex, the kind ; later, eris, m. brick ; 
Idtus, eris, n. the side ; decus, oris [decere), different 
from decor, oris. III, 1. 316. 

c. of the first and second declension: Numerus {numus 
from emere), the number. — Patera {pater e), 285 ; lite- 
ra {linere, litum), 394; opus, eris, the work as product ; 
opera, the labor, trouble, to produce a work. — Jugerum 
Qugum), Jlagrum {ad — fiigere), a lash, whip. Also 
tugurium {tegere), a hut. 

Adjective Forms. Vni. 11 

2. or, Neut. tzs, Gen. ow, as termination of the compar- 
ative, signifies the higher degree of a quality in comparison 
with a lower one : Posterns {post)^ coming after ; posterior^ 
the following, the latter one of two. 

— rus^ra^rum^ -^ rus with increased strength of mean- 
ing: Gnarus {noscere)j knowing, expert; sincerus {belongs 
to semel^ singuli)^ 545 ; severus (set?, height), 137 ; sonbrus 
(sonus^ sonor)^ full of or rich in sound; maturus^ 670. 
Hence the supinal forms : lecturas^ amaturus^ indicating ex- 
pectation in the present time of a future completion of a con- 
dition or state. 

*] Substantiva : Statera {sistere, stdtum)^ the balance. 
The supinal form tira, indicates the realization, actually- 
brought about, of that which is indicated by the original 
word : Status is standing, as condition, or state ; sta- 
tural the height of a man when he stands, his growth, 
stature ; captus^ the grasping ; captura^ the procedure in 
doing so : interesse captures piscium^ and the capture, 
that which has been taken. Cultus, the fostering, the 
veneration, as condition, 297 ; cultio^ as action ; cultura^ 
the procedure in ijt : cultura agri^ agriculture ; fultura 
{fuldre, fultum)^ that which is placed under a thing as 
contrivcmce, fulcrum, the support as prop ; usus (uti)^ 
• the use, advantage derived from use ; usura^ the using, 
the enjoying a thing : Natura dedit vsaram vitce, tani' 
quam pecunia, Cic. 

3. dris^ — arius^ orius^ a, wm, according to its qual- 
ities of the kind of that which the original word indicates. 

a, dris. Familiaris, according to its qualities of the kind 
of things which belong to the familia ; e. g. fundus^ family 
lands ; re5, property belonging to the family jointly, the do- 
mestic economy ; molaris (mola^ molere)^ that which has the 
quality of grinding, crushing : dens^ lapis, 

Substantiva. Pugillaris (pugnus^ pugillus)^ sc. libelliy 

the tablet for the hand^ fist. 

Altare {altus)^ 91 ; torcular (torquere)^ wine-press. 

b. drius^ briusy a^um^ according to external marks of 
distinction belonging to that which is named by the original 
word. Asirvus molarius^ the mill ass, which turns the lapis 
molaris ; auxiliaris {auxilium from auger e)^ of the kind of 
those who render assistance : cohortes auxiliares ; auooiliu' 
rius, one of the auxiliary troops, and only inasmuch as he 
belongs to them ; talaris (toZi«), tunica^ reaching to the an- 

12 Adjective Forms, K. 

kles ; Indus talarius^ the game at dice ; gregarius (grex)^ 
according to its kind belonging to the herd : pastor ; gregd- 
lis^ according to its properties, e. g. habitus^ the dress of a 
common soldier {gregariiis) ; miles gregalis^ a comrade ; 
hinariiLS^ ternarius, containing by two, three, &c. — orins is 
supinal form : Adventitia ccena^ a meal for the arrival of 
some one ; adventoria^ tropical, a book which is to entertain 
the arriving person ; piscarins {piscis), belonging according 
to its kind to fishes; piscatorius {piscator), to the fishermen: 
Forum piscatorium ; navis piscatoria, 

Substantiva : a, Lapidarius (lapis) ^ the stone-cutter; 
longurius (longus)^ 1005. 
/J. Unguentaria (unguentum)^ the female vender of oint- 
ments, and sc, ars^ the art of making ointments ; Itum- 
ria (luxus)^ 656. 
y. Mrarium (<S5),43; promontorium (mons)^ a promon- 
tory; portorium (portus)^ 907; territorium (terra) ^ all 
^ the lands belonging to a city, the territory of a city, 
e. g. colonice. 

ORIS,— CER, CRA, CRUM ( TRUM), proper, fit for 
the realization of a state of things, condition, capable of 
effecting something or of something being effected in or 
on it. 

1. her, hris: Puher and puhes, Gen. heris (puer, in 
Germ. Buhe, Engl, hoy), having arrived at puberty ; celeher, 
Gen. hris, 194; funebris, 480; saluber {solvere, salvus), 
healthy, favorable to health : locus, victus ; salutaris (salus), 
salutary : Consilia salubria, rational ; salutaria, bringing 
salvation, delivery. 

her, bra: Glaher, smooth, glib; creher {creo, crescere), 


Substantiva : a, Mulciher, Gen. hris and bri (mulcere, 

mollire), Vulcan, the softener of iron ; faber (facere), 

h. Terebra (terere), the gimlet; of supine : doldbra (do- 

lare), 912. 
c. Candelabrum (candela), a candlestick; ludtbrium, (Zm- 

dus) , the sport ; of the supine : Cribrum ( cemere, cretum), 

sieve, as instrument for sifting ; ventilabrum (ventilare), 

the sieve for grain; pollubrum (pro, pol — lucre), the 


Adjective Forms. X. 13 

2. cer^ cris: Volucer, oris {volare), 133 ; dlacer {ad — 
levis)^ 195 ; mediocris (mediiis)^ 672. 

cer^ era: Ludicer or ludicrus (ludtis)^ 584. 
Substantiva of the supinum : a. Lucrum (luere)^ the pay- 
able, gain ; feretrum (ferre), the bier ; tomtrum^ toni- 
truum {tonare)^ thunder. 
h. with long penultima: Ambulacrum^ a place, made to 
walk about ; ambulation where one walks for pleasure ; 
involucrum (involvere)^ the cover, to put something into; 
aratrum {arare)^ plough. 

UM, signify the existence of a similarity with that which 
is named by the original word : 

1. ilisj similarly constituted: Similis {simul belongs to 
simplex) ; humilis {humus) ^ similar to the ground, assimilat- 
ing to it, low ; in verbalia^ the same in a passive meaning : 
facilis^ feasible {doable)^ easy ; fragilis {frangere)^ brittle, 
friable ; utilisy useful, and v^ensilis^ necessary for use. Ab- 
breviated, vigil {vigere)^ watchful; pugil (pugnare), a pu- 
gilist. — Of the supine, similar, according to property or 
condition, to a state of things already effected : Cocttlis {co» 
quere), fossilis (fodere)^ like baked things, things that are 
dug: Later cuius coctilis^ sl burned brick; sal fossilis^ min- 
eral salt, rock salt; sectilis {secare) lamina^ a veneer; Za- 
pw, which may be cut ; porrvm sectile^ leeky, according to 
its property, inasmuch as repeatedly fit to be cut; sectivum, 
according to its condition, inasmuch as it is continually cut. 
Formed after the first conjugation, versatilis^ that which may 
be easily turned, and, analogous to this, aqtuUilis^ that which 
"is capable of living in the water. 

Zm5, la^ lum^ attached to the radical syllable, cuius, a. 
Mm, attached to the form, signifies likewise similar; words end- 
ing in er form ellv^ : Nuhtlus (nubes), cloudy; frivolus (fri» 
are), brittle, hence without value, trifling; pendulums {pendere), 
pendingly: Palearia pendula, uva pensilis, the grape sus- 
pended for keeping it; buhulus (Jos), of cattle; suilhis {sus), 
of hogs, e. g. caro bubula, suilla; — vernaculus {verna), in- 
landish; anntculus (annuls), of one year; ma^culus (mas), 
male, masculine. — If the original word is of the same kind 
with the derivatum, it receives by this form diminutive mean- 
ing : Ruttlus {rufas), reddish (somewhat red) ; aureolus, 
{aureus), golden looking, like gold, and small gold; longulus 


14 Adjective Forms. X. 

(longus)^ a little long, lengthy; vetuhis (vetus)^ oldish, rather 
old ; — pauperculus (pauper)^ poor (poorish) ; dulciculus {duU 
cis), sweetish; feroculus (ferox)^ a little courageous; melius- 
culus^ a little better. By reduplication of this form, the 
diminutive signification is increased: Tenellus {tener, as 
miser, misellus), tender; tenellulus, extremely tender; tantU' 
lus {tanius), so very small; tantillus, so punily small: Hcb- 
cine sunt mece filia ? quantce e quantillis sunt factcB ! Plant. 
pauculus {pauciLs), very little; paiLxillus, pquxillulus. — Of 
the supine : Contortulus (contorquere), a little twisted to- 
gether, confused; barbatulus (barba), with a little beard; 
aurituliLS {auris), with long little ears. After this are 
formed : 

The substantiva : A. Denominativa, of which some take 
Zetts, others ending in o unculus, all diminutives with the 
character of smallness, trifling, fondling, insinuating : 

a, Tubulus (tubus), a small tube ; ocellus (oculus), puerU" 
lus, puellus (puer), lapillus {lapis); — Jloscvlus (Jios), 
pisciculus {piscis),buculus {bos),versicuhis {versus); — 
aculeus {acus), nucleus (nt^), equulus, equuleus {equus) ; 
— dracunculvs {draco), latrunculus (latro), and after 
\)dl\s, furuncuhis {fur), ranunculus {rana). 

b, Cistula, cistella, cistellula {cista), a little box; papula, 
pupilla (pwpus), the pupil in the eye, properly the little 
image, the little puppet appearing in it ; jasciola, glori- 
ola {fascia, gloria) ; patella, catella {patina, catena) ; 
apicula, plebecula, labecula {apis, plebes, labes), diecula, 
recula {dies, res) ; caruncula, ratiuncula {caro, ratio), 

c, Oppidulum {oppidum), negotiolum {negotium) ; sigillum, 
villum {signum, vinum); scalpellum (scalper), lucellum 
(lucrum), corculum (cor), conventiculum (conventus), 
corniculum (comu), 

B. Verbalia, designating something fit for what is desig- 
nated by the original word : 

a. Capuhis (capere), fit or made to be grasped, the coffin, 
the handle, 175; cingulus cmd — um (cingere), a girt, 

b. Specula (ad-spicere), an observatory; tabula, a board, 
table (a Teutonic word, tafen, cut into boards) ; of the 
supine: Regula (regere), the rule, level (instrument of 
mechanics, to ascertain the horizontal line, plumb-line) ; 
tendicula (tendere), a sneiTe extended to catch, and of 
the supine: Subucula {subuere, utum, as exusre), an 

Adjective Forms, X. 15 

c. of tlis : Concilium (of conctli8\ 233 ; of the supine : 
Auxilium {augere, auctum), 139, and afler this domicil- 
turn {domidlis, fit for a home), 372. — Of lus: SpecW' 
lum^ the mirror; specUlum, probe; jacvhim {jacere), 
javelin; of the supine: Ferculum {ferre, fertum), the 
bier; vehiculum {vehere^ vectum), 1006; cubiculum (cu- 
rare, cubitum)^ 248; poculum {potum)^285; habitacU" 
lum^ the dwelling as place arranged for dwelling ; liahi' 
• tatio^ in as far as one actually lives in it, 372, and afler 
this, senaculum {sencUus)^ a room or hall for councils ; 
hibernaculum, a room for the winter, winter-quarter, 
winter tent; hihema sc, loca, castra^ winter-quarters, 
2. btlis^ — bulusj a, wm, signifies passive capability; 
see VI., IX. 

bilis^ changing between subjective and objective meaning : 
Patibilis {pati)^ capable of receiving impressions from with- 
out: Animal patibilem naturam habet, Cic; Jlebilis {Jlere)^ 
at which we must weep, capable of making us weep : ccpe, 
species, and easily made to cry, or of a crying character : 
Jlebiles voces ; insatiabilis, insatiable : avaritia, and at which 
we cannot look enough : pulcritvdo ; credibilis (credere)^ 
credible, that which may be easily believed ; credulus, cred- 
ulous, he who believes where doubts and examination are 
requisite ; horribilis, capable of exciting horror, shocking : 
spectaculum; horridus, ^rugged, shocking: barba, prodium; 
horrendns, that at which one must, ought to feel horror ; i«- 
numerabilis, uncountable, countless ; innumerus, numberless, 
for which there is no number. Of the supine : Nobilis {nos- 
cere, notum), easy to be known, remarkable, famous ; Jleonlis, 
that which easily bends : Curvavit Jlexile comu ; coma flexi' 
lis, braided ; Jlexibilis, that which easily can be made a bent 
thing : Excogitatum est vitri temper amentum, ut fiexibile es- 
set, Plin. With several words, of which this form is not 
used, the participium prceteriti is used instead, e. g. invictum 
Romanorum imperium, Liv. ; infectus, not feasible ; imm^n- 
sum mare, immeasurable. 

Substantiva, only m butus, a,um, indicating that which 
is destined and used for that which is designated by the 
original word : a. Discipulus {discere), destined to learn, 
apprentice. — b. Fdbula (fari), a tale for oral delivery, 
421 ; tribula and tribulum (terere, tritum), a threshing 
wagon. — c, Latibulum (latere), the comer used for 

16 Adjective Forms. XI. 

hiding; latebra^ the comer, where one may lie con- 
cealed; exemplum (for exempulum^ from eximere)^ 405; 
pabulum {pasci^ pastum)^ fodder which the cattle receive 
from the pasture (pascuum) ; conciliahulum {conciliare)^ 
a meeting-place, 468. 
3. — Zi5, with long penultima, constituted conformably to 
that which is designated by the original word : Qualis — talis 
{quam — tam)^ how, thus constituted; regalis omatus^ regal 
ornament, according to property, magnificence ; animus^ a 
mind and disposition fit for a king ; regius^ which the king 
possesses ; quinquennis^ five-yearly, five years old ; quinquen- 
nalis^ arranged for five years, that which happens every five 
years; causa judicialis^ a cause belonging before a court; lex 
judiciaria^ relating to judges or courts ; sacrificium lustrale 
(lustrum)^ a sacrifice for purification ; dies lustricus^ the day 
of consecration ; crudelis^ of rude character ; crudus, VII, 
crude, rude ; hostUis {hostis)^ hostile, hostilely disposed : 
ager^ where hostilities are to be expected ; hosticus^ belong- 
ing to the enemy ; curulis (currus)^ according to property 
for wagons : equus^ sella; edulis (edere)^ edible, 199. 

Substantiva : a. Animal (for animale^ from anima)^ an 
animate being, according to natural property ; animanSy 
according to condition, inasmuch as it performs the func- 
tions of life ; mulctra^ mulctrum (mulgere)^ the larger 
milking vessel ; mulctrale^ the milking- pail, into which 
the farmer milks ; mantele {manus), 664 ; ovile {ovis)^ 
189 ; sed'tle (sedere)^ 904. 
b. Of the first and second declension: ce. el a: Candela 
(candere)^ taper, inasmuch as it gives a white, i. e. light, 
resplendent ray ; loqusla {loqui), the mode of speaking, 
inasmuch as words, tone, and expression have a peculiar 
character : Nutricis blanda et infracta loquela. Lucret. ; 
locutio^ the speaking, when the words are pronounced ; 
medela (mederi)^ the healing, the mode of healing, cure. 
Of the supine : Corruptela {corrumpere^ — ruptum), the 
procedure of the seducer, seduction as mode ; corruption 
seduction as action. — /?. elia: Contumelia (tumere)^ 
557. — /, —Hum: Pecidium {pecus)^ 506. 

XI. jBiV, Gen. tnis, NUS^ Gen. neris^ noris^ — iVC/lS, 
NEUS, A, UM; MIS, — MUS, A, UM, 

1. en. Gen. inis^ Neut. nus^ terminates substantive de- 
nominations of genera or kinds only, which have that mark 

Adjective Forms. XI. 17 

which is designated by the original word : Pecten {pectere)^ 
the comb ; unguen {unguere), the salve ; Hmen {Umus), the 
threshold; gluten {glus)^ glue; fentis {feo)^ 437; pignus 
{pangere)^ 107 ; f acinus (jacere)^ the deed, 1044. 

nus^ neus^ a, Mm, according to its inner property of the 
kind of that which is designated by the original word ; it ter- 
minates adjective generic nouns of woods, colors, precious 
stones, localities, certain periods, and some names of rela- 
tions : Columus {colurus), hazle ; cernstnus {cerasus)^ cherry- 
red ; crystalllnus (crystallus), of crystal (the mineral ) ; ole- 
um laureum, cedrium^ Iticus fagev^s^ distinguish the substance ; 
oleum laurinum^ trahs cedrtna^ scyphus fagtnus, the kind, 
genus from other genus of trees ; but of some words, the one 
form only existed, as acemus^ ulmeus^ aprugnus {aper) ; of 
others the one was older, the other more modem and rarer, 
as eburnus^ ehoreus. — Further : Inferos^ that which is below,- 
552 ; infemus, of the kind of that or those below, subterra- 
nean : Juno infema ; mare superum^ the upper sea ; vulnera 
superna^ wounds in the upper parts of the body. Vemus 
(ver), of the kind of things which belong to spring; hibemus 
(hiems)^ to winter : Jlores vemi, menses hiberni. Adverbia- 
lia are : Mtemus (for aviternus of avum)^ 47 ; diumus 
(dm), hestemus (heri)^ of yesterday (in German, gestem)^ 
hodiemus (hodie)^ crasttnus {cras)^ pristinus (pris), sero- 
tinus (sero), late, late maturing, happening; annuus^ that 
which lasts one year, 83 ; annottnus, one year old ; homus 
{hora), that which matured in the last late summer ; homo- 
tinus, of this year, opp. of last year and of several years. 
Patemus, paternal, according to its kind, distinguishes a pos- 
session from others {patemi^ o,gri^ equi^ servi)^ and contra- 
distinguishes pater, to other individuals ; patrius, paternal ac- 
cording to species, contradistinguishes pater, as appellative, to 
the general alienus : Bona patria, are family goods, opp. 
aliena, alio modo acquisita ; res paiemce, belonging to the 
father, or property possessed by him, opp. matemce, frater- 
ncB. — To these belong also benignus, 146, m^lignus, 661, 
with inserted g before n, as nasal sound. 

Substantiva : a. Dominus (domus), 371 ; vetemus {ve- 
tus), old dirt and the sleeping mania, 611 ; somnus, 941. 
b, Femina {feo, to produce), the progenitrix, 260; fascina 
{furca), the trident; cistema (cista), a reservoir; ma- 
china (the Teutonic root moAre, German machen), ma- 


18 Acyective Forms. XI. 

chine; patina { pater e), 773; lucema (hicere), 610; 
transenna {trans) ^ 436. 

c. Gluttnum (gluten)^ glue, as particular kind ; succinum 
(succus)^ amber; tignum (tegere) ^ 978 \ scamnum {scart' 
dere), 904. 

d, cinium^ of the form o, bnis^ II, 1. indicating a 
business, occupation : Patrocinium^ 774 ; lairocini%m^ 

2. anis, 6W15, ?wts, in a few words: Inanis, empty, 542; 
lenis {leo^ lino)^ mild (in Germ. Ztwd), 200. Subst. Panis 
{pasci)^ bread. 

— nus {neus)^ a. Mm, with long penultima, according to 
external property of the kind of that which is designated by 
the original word, or belonging to the genus of such things, 
which distinguish themselves by external common marks and 
designations from others : 

ctnus^ belonging to the same class, or to things which have 
in common the same external property of a certain rank and 
relation : Veteranus (vetiis)^ belonging to the class of the old, 
of those who have served their time ; miles decumanus, of the 
tenth legion; urhanus (urhs), one of the capital, in respect of 
rank and education ; germanus (germen), belonging to those 
tilings which are of the same stock, growth ; via JEmilia^ 
designates ^Emilius as founder ; JEmilianus^ is one adopted 
by him. — Subitaneus {svMtus)^ of the kind of things which 
come on a sudden ; supervacuus^ superfluous in kind, existing 
in too great a quantity, and in the way ; supervacaneiLS, be- 
longing to the kind of useless and superfluous things ; extents 
(ea;), existing on the outer side, outward, VIII, 1. ; exterior % 
pars castrorum^ munitiones exterior es^ nationes extera, with 
reference to their situation as to the capital : externus, external, 
belonging to outward things ; externus hostis^ pojmlus ; eX' 
' trarius {extra) ^ of the species, VIII, 3. b\ extranexis^ of the 
genus of external things, designates the relation to me and 
that which nearest surrounds me {intra) : Homo extrarius^ 
one with whom I have nothing to do ; canis extrariits, who 
belongs to another ; Res sunt aut corporis aut extranece, Cic. 
Exercitatio forensis et extranea (opp. domestica). Id. 

enus^ belonging to the genus of things of the same kind : 
TerreiLS {terra) ^ earthen, according to the component parts : 
vasy mums ; terrenus^ to the genus of the terrea belonging : 
Humores marini terrenique, Cic. Tumulus terrenus, Csbs., 
gradually elevating, rather flat, not terreus; hence septenii 

Adjective Forms, XI. 19 

noveni; serenus {severe), of the genus of such things, which 
favor the sowing, serene ; egerms (egere), 777. 

tnus, of the kind of such things, as make one genus: 
Cariinus (canis), peculiar to the genus of dogs, canine : pel- 
lis, eloquentia canina, biting; thus leporimis, lupinus^ferinus 
{fera), genuinus (gignere), natural, genuine ; denies genuini^ 
the last generated teeth, i. e. the wisdom teeth ; peregrirms 
(peregre), 32; supinus {super), 840; vicantis {vicus), a 
villager; vicinus, 270; femineus (femina), consisting of 
women, womanish : feminea caterva, manus, vox ; femininus^ 
feminine according to sex : nomen ; terni, by three, distribu- 
tively, trini, threefold : irina castra, — Amplified forms are 
cinus from cms, V, 1. Morticlnuis (mors), of the kind of the 
dead, dead of animals ; medicinus (medicus), of the kind of 
that which heals, of medical things; smd stinus from stiSy 
XIII, 1. MediastintLS (medius, medias, mediastis), of slaves 
who have no certain occupation, and are used to fill up vacan- 
cies; clandestinus {clam), of the kind of that which happens 

onus, of the form o, bnis, II,. 1. Colbnus {colere), be- 
longing to the class of colonists, 53. — Amplified bneus: 
Erroneus {erro), belonging to the class of vagrants ; idoneus, 
14; ultrbneus {ultro), who, of himself, does more tl\an his 
duty requires, or than he ought to do ; who does not wait 
until called upon. 

unus: Jejunus {junis, young, with redoubled radical syl- 
lable, see Jentaculum, 219), sober, taken from the young 
day, i. e. early day, as one is when he rises ; opportunus 
{portus), 239. 

Suhstantiva : a, Pulvinus, a pillow, couch ; patronus, 
fem. patrona {pater), 774. 
h. Membrana {membrum), the skin of any inner part, 309; 
laniena {lanius), the butcher's stall ; habena (habere), 
the halter; piscina {piscis), the fish-pond; fodina (fo' 
dere), the fosse; doctrina {docere, doctum), the doctrine, 
354; matrona {mater), 260; lacuna {locus), 606; for» 
tuna {fortu, ancient Ablat. o£ fors), the luck. 
c. Salinum {sal), a salt-cellar; but salina sc, qfficina, a 
salt- work; pistrina and pistrinum {pinsere, pistum), 
697 ; venenum {venire), that which of itself penetrates 
into the body, poison, 1008. 
3. mis, in incolumis (whole), without blemish, touch, 

20 Adjective Forms, XIL 

— mw5, of the class of that which is at the outermost end ; 
hence, as superlative termination, it expresses the highest de- 
gree : Citimus (cis)^ ultinvas (mZs), at the outermost end this 
side, the other side; alrmis (alere)^ most nourishing; mari' 
ttmus (mare), at the last end, i. e. upon, or close to, the sea : 
helium^ ora^ urbs ; marintis, of the kind of those things which 
belong to the sea: concha; Jinitimus {finis) ^ the frontier 
neighbour, 270 ; adituus {cedes) ^ the temple guard, according 
to his permanent condition ; (Bditinms, inasmuch as he lives 
at the outermost end of the temple. 

— WIM5, with long penultima, is the termination of con- 
tracted forms : Supremus^ extremtis^ primus {pris)^ the first 
among several, prior ^ of two; volemus {vola), that which 
fills the hollow of the hand ; pirum^ a species of pear ; patrh 
mus^ matrimtLS^ possessing father and mother in the most com- 
plete manner, used of children whose parents are still living, 
were married by confarreatio^ and ennobled by rank and 
birth, which child, therefore, could be used for the perform- 
ance of solemn, sacred rites and actions. 


*] Suhstantiva : Glomus (belongs to globus)^ Gen. eHs, 
the skein. — Fumus (belongs to funus^ spark, in Germ. 
Funke)^ smoke ; forma {forus^ obs. i. e. quod fertur ex- 
tra)^ the outer fashioning, form, 424 ; spuma {spuere), 
the foam ; ^ama (fari), the tradition, the reputation; 
palma {pala^ the flat surface, hence a spade, the little 
case of a ring, setting of a jewel), 665. 

XII. AS, ES, Gen. -tis, — TUS, TA, TUM, funda- 
mental forms of the second chief class of adjectives, 
which designate existence as prominent property. 

1. {as), es^'-^tus, ta, tum, with short penultima, border- 
ing next to the form 5, IV, 1 : 

es. Gen. ttis, designates an existence in or upon that 
which the original word indicates : Codes (cceZMm), existing in 
the sky, heavens ; Codites, the inhabitants of the heavens ; 
ales (ala), 133, ales equus, deus ; pedes {pes), on foot, and 
a pedestrian ; eques, one on horseback, a knight. 

*] Suhstantiva: Anas, dtis (nare), the duck; seges, etis 
{serere), the seed ; miles {mille), one of a troop of thou- 
sands, many, a soldier ; stipes {stipare), 759 ; cespes 
{capere, of the catching of the grass-roots, and the earth 
adhering to them,) turf. 
tus, sus,a,um, originated from es, Bsperpes^ more com- 

Adjective Forms. XII. 21 

monly perpetuus^ 47, shows; accordingly senectus {senex)^ 

grown old, see I, 2.; vegetus^ 997; libertus {liber)^ 633; 

hence the participle preter. of the '"strong conjugation," as 

scriptuSy condxtusy rasas (radere). 

Substantiva : a. Cubitus and cubitum {cubare, cubitum)^ 
293 ; orbtta {prbis)^ the track of the wheel ; vita (i?t- 
vere)y the life ; exta (ea?), 1027. 

b. tia, indicates a quality of itself, inasmuch as it may be 
assigned as a mark of distinction to a genus or class of 
subjects : Pueritia {puer), childhood, boyhood ; malitia 
(mahis), badness, wickedness, malice ; pudicitia {pudh 
cus)^ bashfulness; pudor^ shame (of the blushing); nup' 
ti<B (nubere, nuptum)^ wedding ; notitia {noscere, notum)^ 
knowledge, acquaintance. Some, belong at the same 
time to the fifth declension, as mollitia (mollis), softness, 
as quality ; mollities, effeminacy. 

c. tium: Calvitium {calv%is),ha\d spot on the head; cal- 
vities, baldness ; capillitium (capillus), the growth of 
hair; exercitium {exercere, citum), that which practises, 
practice as action, by which we exercise ourselves. 

d. of the fourth declension: Tumultus, 145; tactus (tan- 
gere), the touching, as a state, condition, the feeling; 
repulsa (pellere), the refusal, the unsuccessful request, 
repulsus, the being repelled in beating on a hard sub- 
stance ; hence also the echo, reverberation ; sensum 
{sentire), that which is felt, sensitively perceived : Ex» 
primere dicendo sensa. Cic. ; sensum, sensation, as con- 
dition, the sense of the faculty of feeling : sensus audi» 

2. as, es. Gen. — Hs— -tus, ta, tum, with long penul- 
tima, differs from 1. only according to the original word : 
Penas, atis, 487 ; primas (pris), one in the first place, oc- 
cupying the first rank; cujas (qui), from what country, 
people ? cujus, a, urn 7 whose ? belonging to whom ? An» 
tias, Arpinas, — Locuples (locus — plere), 362; mansues 
(manus — suescere), generally mansuetus, 200. 

— tus, ta, tum, the participial form of 'weak conjugations:' 
Conditv>s (condire), spiced; lauddtus, praised ; Jletus (fiere)^ 
wept. Hence the compounds with in, as immuiatus, un- 
changed ; immutabilis, unchangeable ; incogitatus, unimagin- 
ed; and the denominativa : Alatu^ (ala), winged', sor^idus 
(sordes), soiled ; sordidatus, dirtily dressed, as an accused 
person ; odorus (odor), scenting, that which emits a smell, 



22 Adjective Forms. XIII. 

and that which perceives by scent ; odoratus^ 142, Avlius 
(auMs), descending or coming down from grandparents ; ma' 
ritus (mas)^ married ; agrbtus (<Kger),40; versutus (vertere^ 
versum)^ 166; cinctiis (cingere)^ girdled; cinctutus^ provided 
with an apron; nasutus \jiasus)^ provided with a long, or 
with a fine nose, pert, malapert (which in Grerman likewise 
is "nose-wise"). 

Substantiva : a, eta: Moneta (Twonerc), the mother of 
the Muses, and money ; ruheta^ the toad, as inhabitant 
of the blackberry bush {rubus), 
h, etum^ that in which what is designated by the original 
word is frequently found : Rubetum^ a place where black- 
berry shrubs, arundinetum {aru?ido)^ where reed, is 
found in plenty ; fruticetum^ fnUectum {frutex), where 
shrubs, salictum {salix), where willows, are frequent; 
fimetum (Jimus)^ a dung-hole ; aspretum (asper)^ a place 
where there are many inequalities ; acetum {acer^ act' 
dus)^ vinegar. 

c. <M5,'Gen. M5, of permanent conditions : Avditus (audi' 
re), the hearing, and the sense of hearing, as faculty to 

d, turn: Verutum^910. 

c. tia : Minutia (minutus)^ the trifle; argutia {argutus)^ 
the subtileness, sharp-mindedness ; astviia (osiws), 166. 

3. ultus, ayum, with long penultima, with poets also dis- 
syllabic, designates a mode : Fortuitus (fortu^ ancient Ablat. 
of for s), casual, accidental, originated by accident: Concur^ 
sio rerum fortuitarum. Cic. ; gratuitus {gratiLs), gratis, from 
mere kindness. • 

*] Substantivum : Pituita, 703. 


1. stis^ Neut. e, in, upon, under that which is mentioned 
in the original, considered as quality : Coelestis, that which 
has the quality of a cceZes, XII, 1., is under, among the cceli» 
tes ; hence, also, worthy of heaven, excellent : arcus^ ignis^ 
imber^ augurium^ sapientia ; agrestis {ager), 893, miis, laU' 
rusy growing wild. Hence the termination — silnus^ XI, 2. 

s/ms, a. Mm, gifted, endowed with that which is designated 
by the original word, having this as quality : Honesius {ho» 
nos)^ he who possesses honor, honorable, respectable : /a- 
milia^ dignitas^ mors ; honoratus^ honored by others, one to 

Adjective Forms. XIV. 23 

whom honor has been shown ; scelestus {scelus)^ vicious of 
character, criminal, black, of the predominating inclination 
and practice in vice, and that which has proceeded from it : 
Homo malus atque scelestus; scelestum facirms; sceleratus^ 
who has committed several shameless crimes, loaded with 
crimes ; scelerosus^ full of vices and malice, a malefactor ; 
onustus (oniLs)^ laden, of him who carries the load ; oneratus^ 
heavily laden, over-laden, burdened. So mx>destus^ molestus^ 
venustus^ vetustus. 

*] Substantiva : Lanista (laniare)^ 120, Greek in dynasta 
and dynastes^ Gen. (b (dwaaTrjg), a prince ; danista 
{pavEiaxr^q)^ the money-broker. 

2. ster^ stris — ster^ stra^ strum^ signifying the same 
with 1., and designate only more the genus : Campester 
(campus) ; terrestris (terra) ^ on the earth, the continent, 
growing, happening, or being there : iter^ loca campestria ; 
terrestris exercitus; eqvsster (eques), pedester (pedes) ^ what 
consists of cavalry, infantry, belongs to them, is done by 
them: statua^ copice; Silvester (silva)^ paluster (palus\ 
wooded, marshy (boggy), and being in forests, morasses. — 
Sequester^ tris, and stra^ strum (sequi)^ the mediator, 574 ; 
minister, stra (munis), the servant, official assistant, 924. — 
Of this form are : Menstruus (mensis), monthly, destined for 
one month, lasting a month, and menstrualis, returning every 
month, calculated for a month : Menstrua cibaria ; menstru- 
um lunce spatium ; menstruales epulce. 

If this form is added to an adjective, it receives a diminutive 
signification : Surdaster (surdus), a little deaf. The same if 
attached to substantives : 

Substantiva : a. Parasitaster (parasitus), a little para- 
site ; oleaster (olea), pinaster (pinu^), the wild olive 
tree, the wild pine. 

b. Fenestra (connected with the Teutonic root in Funke, 
spark, light), an opening in the wall to light a room. 

c. Capistrum (capere), halter ; lustrum (made acute from 
Zwere, lav are), the place where hogs are washed; Zti- 
strum (long from lucere), the sacrifice of atonement ; mon- 
strum {monere), 745 ; claustrum (claudere, clausum), 
214 ; rostrum (rodere, rosum), 889 ; transtrum (trans), 


participial forms, which indicate a state or condition in 
its origin or growing. 

24i Adjective Forms. XIV. 

1. en 5, Gen. entis^ effecting a stale, the fornj of the par- 
ticiple present of the active voice : ScHbens^ writing, a writ- 
ing one ; quadrupeSj (quatuor — pes), quadruped ; qimdrupe- 
^danSf stepping down, stamping with four feet ; lactans {lac), 
making, containing milk: JJlera mammarum laetantia, Lu- 
cret. ; (lactans \lacio], alluring one, coaxingly, to deceive 
him) ; lactens, milky, and making milk : ficus, puer. 

entus^ in cruentiLs {cruor), bloody. 

Substantiva : a, entia, designating the execution, prac- 
tice of the action expressed by the original worcf, as 
quality, see XII, 1. b. Avdientia {audiens), attention to 
a speaking person, audience, hearing : Uli prcBco facie» 
bat avdientiam; auditio^ the hearing, as act and rumor, 
which is heard : Fabellarum auditione ducL Cic. His 
rumoribus atque auditionibus permoti. Cses. Observari' 
tia^ the attention to every opportunity for certain actions, 
especially to be kind and respectful, respect : Tarquini- 
us obsequio et observantia in regent cum omnibus certavit. 
Liv. ; observation observation, especially .connected with 
accuracy, conscientiousness: Observatio diuturna no* 
tandis rehas fecit artem, Cic. 

b. entium, of Si permanent activity in general : Silentium 
(silens), silence. 

c. entay en turn: Placenta {placere)^ 635. — Flventum 
ifluere), 455; unguentum, 1033; armentum (armus), 
1005; argentum (Gallic Argid^ belongs to argilla)^ 

2. endus, undus, only verbal form of the gerundivm^ 
appears in three separate forms and significations : 

a. endus, ancient undus, a, um, formed of the present 
tense, designates a state or condition as destined in the pres- 
ent time for completion, or as one that ought to be ; hence 
the participium futuri passivi : Faciundus, faciendus, he 
who is yet to be made ; mirus, wonderful, uncommon :. no- 
vitas J pulchritvdo ; mirabilis, worthy of wonder, capable of 
exciting admiration, wonderment: Opus mirabile mundi; 
miranduSy to be wondered at, to be admired : altitudo ; mi' 
randum in modum, wonderful, surprising ; mirabilem, in an 
admirable, extraordinary manner; mirum in modum, in a 
wonderful, inconceivable manner, as if by a miracle ; ortus 
(oriri), originated, directly descended, from the next progeni- 
tors ; oriundus (properly he who ought to originate), orig- 
inally descending, respecting the founders of the family : 

Adjective Forms. XIV. 25 

Servd Tulliits ortus, Ovid. Octavius Mamilius Tusculanus^ 
sifamcR credinms^ ah Ulixe deaqiLe Circe oriundiis. Liv. 

b, bundus^ of the form of the future in io, almost com- 
pleting a state, and on that account the more observable : 
Moribundus (mori)^ i3 the visibly dying off, hence like the 
really dying one (moriens) : Duabus hcerentes hastis mori' 
bundi ex equis lapsi sunt. Liv. Alexander moriens annidum 
suum dederat Perdiccce, Nep. ; who is in the state of dying, 
designates the state existing in the present time and perfect ; 
moriturus, who is on the point of dying, when the completion 
of the state depends upon resolution, will : Quo, moriture^ 
ruis 7 Virg. ; pudens, being ashamed ; pudibundus, manifest- 
ing the feeling of shame, like an ashamed one : Pavo cauda 
amissa, pudibitndus ac mosrens quarit latebras. Plin. NoctuU" 
bundus ad me venit cum epistola tua tabellariMS, Cic. ; like a 
night-bird (noctua). 

c. cundus, a supinal form, designates the continuation o£ 
a state already completed : Sequens (sequi, secutum), the fol- 
lowing one ; sequendits, one who is to be followed ; secundus, 
who has followed or still follows, 911. So facundus, fecun- 
dus, jucundus, verecundus; rubicundus (rubere), showing a 
strong, glowing red : luna, cornum ; rubxdus est rufus atrior 
et nigrore midto inustus, Gell., deep red, dark red ; panis 
rubidus, baked, and oven-red. 

3. lens. Gen. lentis, — lentus, a, urn, corresponding 
to the verbal form ulo, signifies the existence of that which 
is mentioned by the original word, multiplied ; hence in a con- 
siderable, or also in a high degree : Pesttlens {pestis), car- 
rying with it contagious and dangerous ingredients, unhealthy : 
locus, ventus; opulens and opulentvs (opes), considerably, 
very wealthy, rich. More common is the latter form in gra* 
cUens, gradlerUus (gracere, gracilis), very slender: equvis; 
violens, violentus (vis, violare), violent, forcible, impetuous : 
Violens Aufxdus, homo violentv^ ; it is only used in escvlen- 
tus (esse, esca), always full of food : Crocodili as esculentum; 
and edible, hence esculenta, edibles, as potulentus, not pocur 
lentus, from potus, who has pretty well drunk, and drinkable ; 
macilentus (m/icer), pretty lean ; pulvereus (pvlvis), consist- 
ing of dust ; pulverulenius, full of dust, dusty ; pulverea nu' 
bes, a cloud of dust ; palla, a cloak quite covered with dust ; 
pvlveruienta, a bedusted cloak. For somnoleniu^, very 
sleepy, somniculosus is more common. 


26 Adjective Forms. XIV. 

4. ensis — osus, a, urn: ensis^ local, being at or from 
a place: Pratensis {pratum)^ being on meadows: Jlos; 
Corinthii^ Hispanic Siculi^ are natives of the respective 
places; Corinthienses^ HispanienseSy Sicilienses, strangers 
who reside at them ; siniLS Corinthiacus^ the bay bordering 
on the territory of Corinth ; Uftis Corinthiense, the coast sit- 
uated within that territory. This form is the only one in use 
of some names of places, e. g. ager Ostiensis^ belonging to 
the town Ostia ; porta Ostiensis^ in Rome, situate toward 
Ostia : of other geographical nouns, this form does not exist, 
e. g. AntiaSy Anocuras^ Sinuessanus^ Pastanus ; dii montani^ 
not montenses. 

osus, existing in a subject in great quantity, or in a high 
degree : Montosus^ where there are many mountains : Regie 
aspera et montuosa. Cic. ; meticulosus (meticulare, from me- 
ttLs)^ full of fear ; vinolentus^ drunk, as a passing state ; wiedi- 
camentum, in which there is much wine ; vinosus^ as essential 
and permanent quality, vinous, -and of constant desire for 
wine, intemperate : sapor, odor, Homerus, 1022 ; pisculentus 
(piscis), full of fish : Jluvius; piscosus, according to its na- 
ture fit for abundance of fish : piscosi scopuli, Virg. ; tenC' 
hrosus (tenehrcB), full of darkness : Tenebrosa sede tyr annus 
exierat. Ovid. ; tenehricus, belonging to the dark, according 
to its kind : Tartari tenebrica plaga, Cic. ; tenehricosus, one 
who seeks a peculiar kind of darkness and maintains it ; lihi- 
dines tenebricosce, light-shunning ; popina tenehricosa, Cic. ; 
suspectus (suspicere), suspicious, one against whom there is 
suspicion, and one who harbours it ; suspicax, inclined to sus- 
picion ; suspiciosus, full of suspicion ; subjective, having sus- 
picion, distrustful ; civitas, and objective, causing suspicion, 
very suspicious: negotium; sumtuosus (sumtus), of much 
expense ; subjective, who makes many expenses : mulier, and 
objective, that which causes many: ludi sumtuosi ; sumtua" 
riv^, concerning expenses : lex ; prodigiosus ( prodigium), in 
a high degree unnatural and rare : solis defectus ; prodigia- 
lis, adventurous, prodigious : res, Jupiter, who averts the 
consequences of evil signs. The derivatives of the fourth 
declension end in uosus, bls fructuosus, saltuosus; but we 
also find, as ancient, montuosvs, monstruosus. 

*] Of osus, substantives can be formed only after I, 2., 
as vitiosus, vitiositas; of lens, lent us, according to 
XIV, 1, a., as violentus, violentia. 

Adjective Forms. XV. 27 

XV. MEN, Gen. minis — MNUS, A, UM, 

1. men, Neut. a form of itself, an adjective verbal form, 
XI, 1., but terminating substantives only, in representing an 
action as perceptible by the senses, in something belonging to 
the sensible world (in concreto), changing between active and 
passive meaning: Tegtmen, tegumen, tegm^n (tegere), the 
cover, i. e. every thing which covers another, or with which 
we may cover a thing : capitis, corporis ; Saliis Numa dedit 
super tunicam cmeum pectori tegumen, Liv. ; teges, etis, XII, 
1. as a mat which actually covers; tegula so, testa, the tile ; 
tegulum, the small cover, and a little roof; regimen (regere), 
government, as effect in something, e. g. at the ship's helm, 
in a state, as direction of public affairs ; specimen (specere)^ 
930, that in which we may see, discover the property of a 
thing, sample, e. g. of cloth: Temperantice prudenticBque 
specimen Q. Sccevola, Cic. ; the model. 

—men, with long penultima, in derivatives of derived con- 
jugations : Stamen (stare), suhtemen (suhtexere), 947 ; abdo- 
men (ahdere), 1010 ; legumen (legere), legume, pulse ; acu- 
men (acuere), 19; alumen (sal), alum; curvamen (curvare), 
the bend of itself, as existing appearance ; curvatura, as pre- 
pared, intentionally made, or as in relation to other parts ; 
ligamen (ligare), bandage, band of itself, inasmuch as some- 
thing is thereby kept together ; ligatura, the way and man- 
ner in which something is thereby kept together: Sanguis 
projluens inhibetur papyri ligamine. Colum. Ligatura in 
vitihus locum debet mutare, Pallad. Solamen (solari, making 
ground [solum] for some one, that is, placing him firmly, 
giving him ground to stand upon), comfort, solace, by which 
ihe comforting is effected, poetical ; solatium, solace, by 
which we feel comforted : Solamen malL Virg. Vacare cuh 
pa magnum est solatium, Cic. 

mnus, a,um, denominates a subject according to its con- 
dition or state, which is represented as realized in him : 
Alumnus (almus, XI, 3.), who is nourished, and who nour- » 
ishes, the foster-son, and his father, fem. alumna; autumnvs 
(augere, auctum), autumn ; columen (colere), columna, 229. 

2. mentis. Gen. is — mentum, formed from men, 1: 
Sementis (semen), 916. 

mentum, something that serves for the realization of a 
state, a means for something : Tegumentum, every thing that 
serves to cover,^a cover as means of covering, 969 ; augmen 

28 Adjective Farms, XV. 

{augere)^ the visible growth, in which the augmentation shows 
itself as effect : corporis ; augmentum^ means of augmenta- 
tion, addition : honoris^ commendalionis ; muriimen (jnunire)^ 
that which preserves : Effusos munimen ad imbres, Virg. ; 
munimentum^ that which serves to keep, to protect, 1 12 ; ieni' 
peratura^ proper proportion of mixed parts of a whole to one 
another ; minii^ the mode and procedure, if it ought to have 
the proper mixture ; temperamentum, the means by which this 
equal proportion is effected : Restincta seditio est ; inventum 
est temperamentum^ quo tenuiores cum principihus cequari se 
putarent, Cic, a middle way; ferramentum {ferrum), iron 
tools, or tools fitted out with iron ; ferramenta aratorum^ the 
iron implements of agriculturists ; pulmentum^ every thing 
which serves for the edibleness of the puis, meat dishes, &c. ; 
aalsamentum {salire, salsum), salt provision, e. g. pickled 

3. monia, monium from mnus, 1. after the form of 
onus, XI, 2. 

mbnia, designates a state or condition realizing itself 
after the manner in which it appears in the subject, in the 
abstract ; monium, this realization itself, thought as a thing : 
Alimonia (alumnus), the nourishment, sustenance, with which 
the foster-father provides his foster-son ; alimonium, the 
actual nourishment, the food, which the latter receives ; ali' 
mentum, the means of nourishment : Caiv>s collationes in ali* 
monium ac dotem filicB recepit. Suet. In alimoniis armen- 
ticium pecus sic contuendum, lactentes cum mMrihas ne cubent» 
Varr. ; acrimonia (acer), the sharp, biting taste : sinapis ; 
castimonia {castus), abstinence, mortification, if, with a re- 
ligious view, we abstain from every enjoyment which does 
not agree with the former ; castitas, chastity ; sanctimonia, 
the realization of the idea sanctus in a subject, hence virtuous 
disposition, innocence ; also sanctity, inasmuch as it manifests 
itself in certain venerable things : PrisccR sanctimonies virgo. 
Tac. Sanctimonia nuptiarum ; sanctitas, holiness, as quality 
or virtue : Tueri se sanctitate sua. Cic. ; testimonium (testis), 
the showing, explication of a thing, as witness or by wit- 
nesses, testimony and assertion or evidence pronounced by 
witnesses ; testimonium dicere, giving oral evidence in court ; 
dare, bearing witness, assure by one's declaration that some- 
thing has happened, with the idea of praise and approval ; 
pro testimonio dicere, asserting as witness. 

Forms of Verbs. 29 

C. Forms of Verbs, 

§ 6. The verb expresses the state in which a thing is, in 
two fundamental forms. These are : 

1. o , the subjective and active form, which refers a state 
or condition to the ground of its origin, or makes that state 
proceed from the subject, which may also be taken in quite a 
general manner, as in luciscit, grandinat^ it becomes light, it 
hails, and in the impersonal verbs pcenitet, oporteL 

2. or^ the objective or passive form, which refers a state 
or condition to the aim or object of its existence, or makes it 
directed toward a subject. 

a. in the passive, if the subject is passive, that is, object 
of some activity directed from without ; hence it is, that 
the verba transitiva^ whose active voice requires for the 
indication of the object of their activity the Accusative 
case, adopt regularly this form. The subject is here 
taken as general in the impersonal forms itur^ eurritur^ 
ventum est^ licitum est^ the French on vat^ est venu^ &c., 
the German man. 

b. in the deponens^ if the subject is presented only as sub- 
ject of the condition, that is, as that in which the action 
proceeds, without reference whether it be ground or ob- 
ject of action ; mostly those verbs in which the impres- 
sion of the action on the senses of the observer was 
considered. To these belong such passiva as have 
adopted an active or reciprocal signification, as Icetor^ I 
am rejoiced (by) that; or which are taken as passiva 
in a certain respect only, as cachinnor^ rideor^ I laugh, 
inasmuch as I am shaken by the violent effect ; the verba 
mutuce actionis^ as amplector^ I embrace one, who at the 
same time embraces me; osculor, I kiss; dltercor^ I 
quarrel ; those with regard to which the impression on 
the observer predominates, as imitor^ I am formed, i. e. 
I form myself after another; fistula ejaculatur aquus^ 
for the Roman sees how the tube is discharged, whil^, 
for us, the tube itself discharges ; and thus the inchoU' 
tiva^ nascor^ I am born, i. e. now in the state of being 
born ; proficiscor, I am carried on, get along ; lastly, 
the verbs whose actions have reference to the person 
of the subject, his wishes, advantage, use^ as nidulor^ 
a nest is making for me, I am making a nest to my- 


aO Forms of Verbs. XVI. 

self; sortior, the lot is assigned to me, while I draw it 
for myself. 


XVI. O — ERE^ indicating simply the condition, is the 
fundamental form of the third conjugation^ to which be- 
long the verbs which contain the fundamental notion of 
a state, as esse^ being ; existere^ originating ; Jleri, grow- 
ing, becoming ; and those which indicate a mere acting 
or suffering, as facere^ doing ; nasci^ becoming born. 
To this likewise are referred the derived forms : 

1. do— -d ere, designating a continued doing: Pender e 
(dis — pennere,, penna)^ 706; tender e {tennis^ ienere)^ ex- 
tending; trudere (trua^ trulla), 990; fodere (fovea)^ dig- 
ging, and hence fundere^ 479. 

2. go — gere, a making: Spargere^ 922 ; vgrgerc, 974 ; 
amhigere {ambi), 68. 

3. no — were, a doing with its consequence: Spemere^ 
838; Itnere {leo in delere, 330), 1033; stnere {siere^inus, 
hence situs), letting lie, 292 ; danere {dare), yielding over, 
granting, obsolete ; see f acinus, XI, 1. 

4. 50, xo — sere, xere, effecting, bringing something 
into reality: Visere (videre), really seeing, seeing afler, 
1017 ; texere (tegere), 976. 

5. to — tere, a, making connected with exertion, with its 
consequence, an intensive form : Nectere (nere), 637 ; t>cr- 
tere (verrere), 1012. 

6. uo — uere, effecting with lasting consequence : Minn- 
ere, minutum {minor), diminishing, making smaller, 690; 
acuere {acus, acies), pointing, sharpening a thing ; hence the 
obsolete subjunctives of the present tense, duam, creduam, 
duim, creduim, expected conditions as imagined, completed 
in the future. Of the supine : Stdtuere {stare, stdtum)^ 
making standing, placing. 

7. esso, isso — s sere, a. passionate action, Verba tn- 
tensiva: Capessere {caper e), violently grasping at a thing: 
Animalia ^cibum oris hiatu et dentibus ipsis capessunt. Cic. ; 
fugam capere, taking to flight; capessere, hastily doing so; 
magistratum capere, taking an office, as capable for it ; ca- 
pessere, with zeal and seriousness taking care, as capessere 
rem publicam; lacessere, 604; petessere petissere {petere), 
with several starts marching toward a thing, striving pas- 
sionately for something. 

8. esco, rarer isco, asco, osco — scere, designates 

Forms of Verbs. XVH — XVm. 31 

the beginning of a state which advances toward its comple- 
tion, a beginning growing, becoming such, verba inchoativa: 
Madescere (madcre^ being wet), becommg wet, of the mere 
beginning of tbis state, without reference to the cause ; made- 
fieri^ getting wet from without : Postera lux Hyadas evocat^ 
et multa terra madescit aqua, Ovid. Poly^enia madefient ccede 
sepulcra. Catull. ; adhcerescere {adhcerere, adhering : Stellm 
adhcsrent ccelo. Plin.), attaching itself to a thing, beginning 
of adhering : Herba barbis caprarum adhcerescens. Id. Mi- 
nima bestiola in sordibus aurium tamquam in visco inhcereS' 
cit, Cic, remains hanging, attaches itself; contremiscere 
( CO w^rewere, trembling : Ccelum tonitru contremit. Cic), be- 
ginning to tremble, being caused to tremble : Exalbesco atque 
omnibus artubus contremisco, Cic. ; gelare, causing to freeze, 
and making ice ; gelascere, beginning to freeze ; noscere 
{nooj noere, not used), 905. 

XVn. 10 — IRE^ fourth conjugation, designates a state 
of lasting activity and manifestation of power, while with 
the third, the state was imagined as passing ; hence did 
later writers use linire for linere^ XVI, 3 : Va^ codpe- 
ries ac linibis, Pallad. Derivations are : 

1. urio — Mr ire, of the supine, designating lasting en- 
deavour or intention to effect a state ; Verba desiderativa^ 
more correctly meditativa : Esurio {edere^ esum^ eating), I 
feel hungry ; emturio {emere, emtum)^ intending to buy a 
thing : Te emturientem ad mercatum crebro adducunt pedes. 
Varr. ; parturire (parere^ partum)^ being about to give birth, 
being in labor: Mons parturibat, gemitus immanes ciens; — 
at iUe murem peperit. Phaedr. 

2. Urio — urire^ with long penultima, designates the 
greater and enduring effect corresponding to lasting endeav- 
our: Idgurire (linger e)^ 609; scaler e^ containing something 
in quantity, being full of it : Scatet beluis pontus. Hor. ; sea- 
turire^ producing in number and violently, gushing forth: 
Aqua scaturiens ; also solum fontibus scaturit, Colum., is full 
of wells, that is, it opens many and continually new ones. 

3. atio — Utire^ doing something after the fashion of 
another: Balbutire (balbus^ who stammers, also who pro- 
nounces the r like Z, prattling) ; ccecutire {ccbcus), 157. 

XVUI. EO — ERE^ form of the second conjugation, 
signifies a continued being : Sidere, sittmg down ; sede- 

38 Forms of Verbs, XIX. 

re, sitting ; adsidere, sitting down upon a place ; adsi' 
dire, sitting by a thing : Assidamus, inquam, si videtur. 
Cic. FuriuSy quum lacrimans in carcere mater assideret^ 
defensionem causcB sua scripsiL Id.; succendere, light- 
ing from below ; succensere, 950. Most verbs of this 
conjugation are intransitiva ; with the transitive ones 
the participle is added in imagination, e. g. miscere, mix- 
ing, i. e. being a mixing one ; docere, being a teaching 
one (properly, being a thinking one, the Latin and 
Teutonic root in thinking, denken, being related). 

XIX. O — ARE, form of the first conjugation, designates 
a making that something be perceived by the senses, a 
manifesting or presenting : Fugere, fleeing ; fugare, 
causing to flee, 780; consternere, strewing on the 
ground ; consternare, consternate, making shy : eqiLos ; 
magni facere, esteeming highly ; magnificare, magnify- 
ing, celebrating ; sidcre, XVIII ; sedare, causing to sit, 
quieting ; parere, giving birth ; parere, appearing, being 
visible, 735 ; parare, making ready, preparing, procur- 
ing, 764. This form attaches itself easily to nominal 
forms, e. g. judicare {judex), making the judge; hu- 
mare (humus), 519; limare {lima, the file), 810; autU' 
mare, asserting, telling one's opinion : Autumo significat 
et dico, et opinor, et censeo. Gell. Several of these 
verbs have at the same time transitive and intransitive 
meaning. The derived forms correspond most to ad- 
jective forms : 

1. a, igo — tgare, see XVI, 2., making lasting, effect- 
ing by enduring endeavour, verla effectiva: Purgare (pU' 
ms), making clean, cleansing ; navigare {navis), navigating; 
famare {fumus), smoking, making smoke ; fumijicare, smok- 
ing a thing; fumigare, producing smoke, fumigating, and 
showing smoke : ArcR fumant sacrificiis, Liv. Inde ignem 
in aram, ut Diana Arabico fumijicem odore. Plant. Mella' 
riusfumigat leviter apes. Varr. Fumigantes globi, Gell. 

h. With long penultima: Tndagare (indu for in), 546; 
fastlgare, making a point upward, above, elevate ; cast'gare 
{castus), 181 ; vestJgare (with Vesta, vestibulum, vestis, from 
the Sanscrit vas, dwelling), seeking one's dwelling, resting- 
place, 546. 

2. tco — I care, see V; making something of that which 
is designated by the original word, something similar, verba 

Forms of Verbs. XIX- 33 

assimilaiiva : Fistucare {Jistuca)^ making fast ; fodere^ XVT, 
1 ; humum^ puteum^ equum stimulis^ digging deep ; fodicare^ 
doing something like digging, as if one would dig; latus^ 
pushing some one in the side ; dolores fodicanty acute shoot* 
ing pains; albere (aZto), being white; alhescere^ becoming 
white, pale ; albicare^ making or being whitish ; nigrare (nt- 
ger)^ making black, and being so; nigricare^ being blackish. 
With inserted n before c: Verruncare (for verricare, from 
verrere)^ making a sort of turn: Hcbc tihi bene verruncenti 
may this turn out well for you. See 130. 

3. ero—'erare^ see VIII, showing something as quality 
in a high degree, in a subject: Toller e (ancient high German 
thulan)^ lifting, 628; tolerare^ bearing, tolerating, 441 ; ^u- 
gerare (frigus)^ cooling, refreshing; pignerare {pignus), 
making something a pledge, pawning it; pignerari, taking 
something as pledge. 

4. bro^ tro — are^ see IX, showing a capacity, the ap- 
plication, use of that which is named by the original word: 
Celebrare {celeber), 194; lucubrare (lux)^ 602; calcitrare 
{cal^)^ kicking with the heel, being obstinate and restive. 

5. a. ilo, olo^ ulo — are^ see X, 1., presenting a ^te 
similarly, generally diminutively: Verba diminutiva (the 
German syllable eln): Ventilare (ventus, ventulus)^ fanning; 
violare (i?i5),743; pullvlare (^ZZiw), sprouting forth; stran" 
gulare {stringer e). Of the supine : Postulare {poscere^ pos» 
citum^ postum)^ 794; ustulare {urere^ustum)^ burning a little, 
singeing; opUulari (ops, opes) ^ 139. 

b, culo — are, X, 1., of the supine, diminutive, rather in 
a comical sense: Missiculare (mittere, missum), sending re- 
peatedly : Emta ancilla est, qiwd tute ad me literal missicu' 
labas. Plant.; gesticulari (gesiits), making pantomimic ges- 
ticulations : Gesticulandi saltandique studio teneri. Suet. 

6. illo — are, X, 1., another diminutive form in a playful 
meaning: Cantillare {cantare), singing shakes; focillare 
(/ouere), restoring by frequent and repeated warming; va* 
cillare (yagari); cavillari (cavere), cavilling, Liv. 9, 34, 
see 627. 

7. no, tno — ware, see XI, 1., making something of the 
kind of that which is named by the original word : jPerrM- 
minare {ferrumen, putty, solder), soldering, closing or uniting 
with putty; inquinare (co-inquere and coinquire, lopping, 
e. g. holy trees in sacred woods, committing acts of temerity), 
267 ; coinquinare, making unclean ; destinare (stanare from 

34 Forms of Verbs. XIX. 


stare), making a firmly standing thing, settling: Bates anco' 
ris destinabat. Cobs. Papirium parent destinant animis 
Magno Alexandro ducem. Liv. ; suffarcinare {farcire)^ 
packing full. 

With long penultima, see XI, 2. Op'nari, opining, ex- 
pecting (oTievHv), 94; concionari {concio), being heard by 
an assembly, addressing it. 

8. cinor — ari, XI, 1, d., carrying on something as 
(daily) occupation : Vaticinari (vales), being a prophet, 
prophesying; latrocinari {latro), being a professional high- 
way robber; ratiocinari (ratio), calculating; sermocinari 
{sermo), discussing; alucinari (not allucinari or hallucinari, 
from uXvxT)), being thoughtless, inattentive, talking nonsense: 
Ista Epicurus oscitans alucinatus est. Cic. 

9. mo, ttmo, tumo — are, see XI, 3., determining the 
highest degree of something : Con-summare (summus), bring- 
ing into a sum, consummating, making perfect; (Bstimare 
{cBs), 45. 

10. a. to, ito — are, see XII, 1., repeating an action 
often and with zeal, also being wont to do, verba frequsnta- 
tiva sen iterativa: Mussitare {mussare),'707; ructare (rw- 
gire) ; crocitare (crocire) ; Jluitare {Jluere) ; agitare {agere^ 
ancient high German agan), driving to and fro; sectari (se- 
qui), running after: Eum pueri sectantur, omnes irrident, 
Cic. 7s prcBtorem circum omnia fora sectabatur. Id. 

b. to, so, xo — are, of the supine, verba intensiva: 
Captare (caper e, captum), striving to catch; occasionem, ri» 
sum, striving to cause laughter; optare (see opinari, XIX, 
7.), 301 ; prendere, prehendere (premere, XVI, 1.), touching: 
aliqusm manu, alicujus dextram; prensare, prehensare, lay- 
ing hold of something with a higher degree of zeal or desire ; 
luxare (luere, inus, luxum ; Avcty), dislocating. 

c. tito — titare,o^ the supine, an increased frequenta- 
tive form: Cantitare (canere, caviare), singing often, re- 
peatedly ; ^ac^are (yacere), throwing here and there, about: 
probra, minas, hence also bo£isting ; jactitare, frequently re- 
peating, praising up; venire (via, old vea, way, XVII), com- 
ing ; ad—ventare being a coming, ventitare, frequently coming 
somewhere; actitare (agere, actum), frequently carrying on: 
Poniidiu^ multas privatas causae actitavit. Cic; he had 
many private suits. 

11. stro — strare, see XIII, 2., showing something as 
existing in a thing: Monstrare (monere), presenting a thing 

Adverbial Forms. XX. 35 

as something remarkable, showing as something instructive ; 
lustrare (ZMcere), shedding ligllt upon: Sol cuncta sua luce 
lustrat et complet. Cici ; hence, viewing, wandering through. 
12. isso^ from the times of Augustus also izo — are^ 
the Greek form of the verba imitaiiva, which indicate an im- 
itation connected with frequent repetition: GrcBcissare, pa- 
trissare^ playing the Greek, imitating the father : Filiv^ pa- 
trissat. Plant., he is like his father. It was preferred to say 
grcBcari^ patrem imitari; trullissare (trulla)^ throwing lime 
against the wall, plastering it 

D. Adverbial Forms. 

§ 7. The adverbs, parts of speech which cannot be in- 
flected, and by which conditions are expressed, take partly 
forms of their own, partly forms of the cases, partly they re- 
tain the mere original sounds, as in procul, simul^ cur. 

XX. a. Adverbial forms are : 

1. e, with adjectives of the second declension (short in 
bene, male), designates a property according to its kind y ter, 
with adjectives of the second and third, designates the mode: 
Callide argute que dicere; alte cadere. Cic. Quid' 
quid acciderit, fortiter et s api enter feramus. Id. D w- 
re dicere is the hardness of expression when against good 
taste; duriter dicere, the tasteless manner in which the 
speaker proceeds in his way of expressing himself; viiam 
duriter agere. Ter., severe. Fir me, fast, firm, refers to 
the kind of condition; firmiter, to the manner in which it 
originates or is brought to perfection: Rem fir me compre- 
hendere, Cic. Milites neque ordines servare neque firmi^ 
ter insistere poterant. Cses. Hilare, gay, as character of 
the action; hilariter, as character of the acting person: 
Hi I are vivere ; Hi I ar iter in omnes partes commutabimus 
ut verba, ita pronuntiationem. Ad Herenn. Large bibere, 
largely, much at once with respect to the mass of the liquid ; 
largiter, respecting the drinker, if it is much for him. 
Prope, propter, 598. Pra, before, in advance, before 
something along; prceter, past before, past by a thing. 

2. ies, a multiplying form: Quoties {quot), how often, 
toties (tot), so often ; and the numeral adverbs from quin- 
quies, five times : sexies, decies, centies, millies. 

86 Adverbial Forms. XX. 

h. Forms of cases : 

3. us, cus, sus, tus^ ol^ Genitive fonns, which assign 
its place to a state, or its origin locally, similar to the English 
side, ward, in uspiam (for cujus-piam), usquam, some- 
where; WMS ^tt am, nowhere ; secus, 37 ; mordtcus {mor- 
dere), bitingly: Auriculam mordicus ahstulit, Cic. ; ver- 
sus (vertere, versum),S6; intus (tn), 570; suhtus, below, 
underneath: Cancer Jlstulosus subtus suppurat sub came, 
Cato. -4n^i^i*6, in the old way : dicere, Hor.; antiquitus, 
in olden times, of old, from olden times: Mduorum antv- 
quitus erat in fide civitas. Cses. Divine, divinely con- 
stituted: Multa divine prcesensa et pradicta reperiuntur, 
Cic, prophetically; divinitus, of divine origin, by divin6 
inspiration, direction : Divinitus ea potius, quam casu facta 
esse dicamus, Cic. Humane, humanely, is the action if it 
h£is the character of a man of fine sentiment and education : 
GrcRci morbos toleranter atqvs humane ferunt. Cic., with 
submission; humaniter, if the mode of action of men in 
general, or, also, of well educated, is observed : Docebo te, 
quid sit humaniter vivere. Cic, i. e. making one's self 
comfortable; sin aliter acciderit, humaniter feremus. Id., 
i. e. we shall not trouble ourselves too much; humanitus, 
with regard to the origin: Si quid mihi humanitus acci- 
disset. Id., something human; ursi humanitus strati. 
Plin., as we see it with men. Funditus {fundus), eoer- 
tere, down on the bottom, from the bottom ; radidtus (radix), 
evellere, tearing out with the root. 

4. IS, Genitive termination: iSai, «a^ts, enough, sufficient: 
Tantum, quantum sat est. Cic. Satis svperqus vixisse. Id. 
Ntmis, too much: Nimis multa, nimis scepe, nimis in- 
sidiarum; nimium, too much considered of itself, the super- 
abundance : Magis offendit nimium, quam parvm. Cic. 
Tempus nimium longum videtur. Id . Mdgis, 659, of which 
the adject, neut. exists still. But foris, 464, the Ablat. of 
the plural. 

5. i, another obsolete Genitive form for designating lo- 
cality and time: Domi, at home, in one's country: do mi 
mecB, su(B, C(Esaris ; domi bellique; hwX pud'ica in dome. 
Cic, of the building; so vesperi, at eve; heri, yesterday; 
meridie, at noon ; postridie, on the following day, for meri, 
posieri diei. But it is Ablative termination in qui, how ; hid 
{lux), in the day time ; tempori, temperi, by time. 

Adverbial Forms, XX. 37 

6. «5, the old Genitive form of the first declension: Cras, 
to-morrow ; alias^ 57. 

7. tm, an old Accusative form : Oliniy 59 ; kinc (for 
himce), from here; clam, obsolete calim {celare), 207; inte- 
rim, meanwhile; and in utrimque, extrinsecus^ intrinsecus, 
altrinsecus, for exterim, dec. ; partim {pars), partly. 

—tim,sim^ with Ibng penultima, as supinal form, signifies 
a mode, distributively, that with reference to a number each 
taken singly : Particulatim^ by >parts ; viritim, by men, i. e. 
by heads, man for man; sum mum, at the highest; summa- 
tim^ina sum, generally: Bis terve sum mum liter as acce- 
pi, Cic. Cognosces a me pauca et ea summatim. Id. 
Gravate, with displeasure, in an unkindly manner: Comi' 
ter monstrat viam^ non gravate, Cic; gravatim, with 
difficulty, going reluctantly at something: Mezentius haud 
gravatim soda arma Rutulis junxiti Liv. 

8. i , the neutral adjective termination of the third declen- 
sion, in propi, feri^ 942 ; sublime, high, upward and above ; 
facile^, easy ; difficile, more commonly difficiliter, difficulter, 
difficult ; of other adjectives indicating quality, it is rarer, as 
immane quantum, suave, &c. Of substantives this is Ablative 
form, as forte {fors), 467. 

9. um, the neutral adjective form of the second declen- 
sion, almost only used for determination of measure : Quan' 
turn, how much; mirum quantum, exceedingly much; mini» 
me, the least, not at all : Mini me gratum spectaculum, Liv. ; 
minimum, at the least, very little: Partes minimum octO' 
ginta, Varr. — For time, if order and sequence is expressed : 
Primum, tertium, the first, the third time ; iterum {ita), again; 
postremum, the last time; ultimum, the last time counted 
from the beginnings Vestigium illud, in quo Crassus poS' 
tremum institit, Cic. Domos suas, ultimum illud visuri, 
pervagabantur, Liv.; further in umquam, unqu/im (quum—^ 
quam), ever; nunquam, never. 

10. am. Accusative form of the first declension: Coram 
(Etrurian cora, presence, of bs, or a), 85; pdlam {pala an- 
nuli, the box of the ring, in which is the stone ; hence palari 
and palma), publicly, 756 ; bifariam, trifariam, omnifariam, 
8c. partem {fdcere)^ in two, three parts; on two, three, all 
sides; perperam {perperus, nsQnfQog), 427. 

IL w, an old Dative form in hue, istuc, illuc (for huce), 
hither, thither; and Ablative form in diu (dies, time), long, 


38 Reduplication. 

12. hi J likewise an old Dative and Ablative form; as Da- 
tive still in sihi; as Ablative, in ihi (is), even, there; vM 
(qui)^ where. 

13. o , the Dative and Ablative form of the second declen- 
sion; as Dative form, in eo (is), thereto, thither; quo {qui)^ 
whither; intro<, uUro^ citro^ retro; as an Ablative form, in 
primo^ secundoy tertio^ postremo^ ultimo, at the first, second, 
last place, see XX, 9. ; ultimo templis dona detraxit. Suet., 
finally, at the end. Aut ambigue scriptum, aut contrarie. 
Cic, in an opposite manner; Hamilcar numquam hosti cessit, 
scepequs e contrario lacessivit. Nep., on the contrary. 
Multum, much, many times: Res multum et scspe qua- 
sita. Cic; multo, by a great deal: Iter multo facilius 
atque eocpeditius, Cses. — As participial termination, it refers 
the action to the actor: Cogitate verba facere, scribere, 
thinkingly, considerately, considering the action ; consulto et 
CO git at Jit injuria. Cic, with intention, and forecast. 
Caute atque consul te rem gerere. Liv., cautiously and con- 
siderately; Consulto et de industria factum est malefici- 
um. Cic, with forethought, 549. Composite et apte dicere. 
Cic, well composed and in good order; Composite ac sine 
pavore ambulare. Colum., in proper keeping, calmly; Ali- 
quid composito facere. Nep. Tum ex composito orta 
vis. Liv., conformably to agreement. Dupliciter, doubly, 
twofold: Maledicta in eum dupliciter reddunt. Cic. 
Bifariam quattior perturbationes cequaliter distributcB sunt. 
Cic, in two parts; Romani signa bipartito intulerunt. 
CsBs., twofold divided, in two divisions; Id fit bipartito. 
Nam tum causa, tum res ipsa removetur. Cic, in a twofold 

14. a, the Ablative form of the first declension, is always 
used with a substantive understood, supposed : Ed, sc. via, 
parte, re, ratione, since, on that account, therefore ; qud, as, 
inasmuch ; f rostra {frustera re), in vain, 475 ; una, 298 ; 
intra, citra {inter a, citera parte), 570, 205. 

a, short, is the form of the Accusative plur. neut. ia itd 
(is), therefore. 

E. Reduplication. 

^ 8. A reduplication of the radical syllable, or, also, of 
the whole word, signifies generally also reduplication of the 

Pronominal Forms. 39 

XXI. 1. The radical syllable prefixed to the word, gives, 
in some verbs, the meaning to the preterite : Tendo, tetendi; 
tundo^ tutudi; parco^ peperci; posco, pdposci; in other 
verbs, it indicates a continuance of the state, with changing 
degree of intensity: Tinnire (tonus) <, sounding; titinnire^ 
tintinnire^ tintinnare, sounding continually with changing 
oscillations ; tttuhare (Teutonic root in tappen),, reeling, stag- 
gering ; tltillare^ tickling. 

2. The radical syllable as chief part, joined with the form 
of the word : Pupus (puer)^ the little one, the little boy ; 
palpare (pala^ see palma^ XI, 3, *]), 967. 

3. Keduplication of the whole body of the word, redoubles 
likewise the whole force and meaning of the word, as many 
languages redouble whole words, e. g. in Italian, grande 
grande^ very large ; in Spanish, mucko mucho^ very indeed ; 
or as we say, quite quite little, for very little indeed : Si me 
amas, suscipe meme totum, Cic. Justitia propter sese co» 
lenda est. Id. Hence pronomina indefinita receive by redu- 
plication an entirely general meaning, as quisquis^ whoever 
it may be, whosoever, when the who does not refer to one in 
the multitude, but to one whoever that may be ; quanti qitanti^ 
however dear, however high in price, value: Sed quanti 
quanti^ bene emitur^ quod necesse est. Cic; uMubi, where- 
ever ; quoquo^ whithersoever ; quaqua^ wherever, on whatever 
side ; undeunde, whencesoever, if we discard the idea of 
nearer determination of magnitude, number, place. 

F. Pronominal Forms. 

§ 9. The pronoun of the third person, which distinguishes 
it from the person of the utterer and the addressed individual, 
is, in its fundamental form, /s, he, only indicating a subject ; 
as demonstrativum<, that; as relativum, when it refers the 
subject which it designates to an assertion made in the next 
preceding or next following part of the sentence, or entire 
sentence, it is Qui, who, and these two in reference to one 
another are called correlativa ; the interrogative form Quis 7 
who ? asks for one as a mere subject anjong several ; the in- 
definite form Quis, one, some one, in the middle of a sen- 
tence, only mentions such a subject as one among many ; the 
general form Quisquis, whosoever, takes the " some one " in 
the most general sense, see § 8. The generic form, how- 
ever, which indicates one as belonging to a certain kind, 

40 Pronominal Forms. XXII — XXlil. 

genus, class, with distinct qualities, gives the interrogcUivum 
Qui? which? what sort of a one? the indefinitum Qiit, 
one, and the generate Quicunque^ whosoever one may be. 
Quis deus 7 asks for a god among the rest of the gods : Is it 
Jupiter, Mercury, or Apollo ? Qui deus 7 asks for his char- 
acter: Is this the mighty, merciful, heavenly god? the god 
of the sun or the sea ? Hence originate, for the jn'onomina- 
lia, which indicate magnitude, degree, number, property, 
time, and place, the following series of forms : 


Abaoluta. ReUtira. Demontt. InUrrogat. ludefioiu. UoiTerMlta. Geoeralia. 

1. is, he. qui is quis ? quis qtdsquis quicunque 

qui ? qui 

2. quarUus tantus quarUusf aliquantus quaniusqtumtut quantuscunque 

3. quot tot quot ? aliquot quotquot quotcunque ' 

4. qualis talis qualis ? qucUiscunque 
6. Jam quam tarn quam? quant quamquam 

6. ita utf uU ita ut? utut utcunque 

7. quoties toties quoiiesf aliquoties quotiescunque 

8. quum turn num? 

quando? quando quandocunque 

9. ibi ubi ibi ubi? alicubi ubiubi ubicunqut 

10. eo quo eo quo ? aliquo quoquo quocunque 

11. ea qua ea qiui? aliqua quaqua quacunque 

12. inde unde inde unde? alicunde undeunde utidtcunque 

§ 10. References to the person of the utterer are indicated 
by additions at the beginning of pronominal words ; references 
from him to something without, by terminations. 

XXin. Additions at the beginnings and prefixed sylla" 

1. H, N, D, r, C. By H, the utterer points at that 
which locally is nearer to him, in Aic, this one, A?c, here, 
Amc, hither, hinc^ hence, in contradistinction to that which 
locally is farther removed, i7Ze, that one, &c. By iV, in nuncj 
nam^ nempe, he points at that before him, in as far as it touches 
upon the preceding subject ; by D, in dum^ he points at the 
subject before him as continuous series ; by T, in tum^ at the 
sequel, inasmuch as it has the subject before him behind it ; 
by C, in cum, quum^ at things belonging to one another. 

2. £, short, lays more stress upon the word with reference 
to the utterer in ego^ as in enim; equidem; ecastor^ equirine^ 
edepol (e-epul)s with inserted d, by Castor, by Quirinus, by 
Apollo, affirming. 

Pronominal Forms, XXIV. 41 

3. EC sharpens the question, demanding attention to the 
interrogative word, and giving greater force to it, in ecquis^ 
ecqui 7 who ? (when we pronounce it with a prolonged sound 
of 00, as if written whpo-ool); ecquando, when? ecquo, 
whither? (all with a prolonged pronunciation in English), 
also in ecc6, behold ! Ecquis homx) ad Hannibalem tranS' 
fugit 7 that is. Has but one deserted to Hannibal ? (one sin- 
gle one?); Ecquis his in cedibus est 7 in the affirmative 
sense : some-one must be there ; but if we ask with num quis, 
we have negation in our mind: Num quis vestrum ad ca- 
dem accommodatus est 7 Nemo. Cic. 

4. AL, any, some. Aliquis, is not the one, Quis, in a 
multitude, imagined with certain marks of distinction, but one 
of them who has more or less of the imagined marks of dis- 
tinction of the multitude. Aliquantum, a magnitude, indefi- 
nite, whether it have the imagined measure or not ; hence, a 
considerable, and a little. Orator, si quando opus erit, 
ah inferis testes excitabit, Cic, if perhaps, if some time, of a 
point of time, indefinite whether in the present time, the past, 
or the future ; Ampla domus dedecori domino scspe fit, si est 
in ea solitudo ; et maxime, si ali quando alio domino solita 
est frequentati. Id., if some time or other, indicates that the 
" some time " may also happen at a period nearer or more 
remote than the imagined one. Alibi, aliunde, somewhere 
else, from somewhere else ; alicubi, alicunde, somewhere 
else, anywhere, from some place or other, from any place. 

XXIV. Affixes, Syllables attached to the End of Pro» 
nominal Words. 

1. MET, self, lays additional stress on the personality 
expressed by the word, and is used only with the words ego, 
iu, nos, vos, sui, and suus : Proximus sum egomet mihi. 
Ter. Memet mei pcenitet, Cic. Tutemet mirabere. Ter., 
not tumet, Curius suamet ipse sceleranon occultabat. Sail., 
his own (his very own crimes). 

2. PSE (ips), self, referring back a subject of one of the 
three persons to its own ego, and is inflected in ipse {is -pse) : 
Sibimet ipsi viam ad honor es aperiunt Liv., they them- 
selves (and no others), as active subject; Majorem tibi fidem 
hahui, quampene ipsi mihi. Cic, even to me, myself (and 
to no other person), as suffering object. 

PTE limits, in the Ablatives of m^us, tuus, suus, noster^ 
vester, the possession to the indicated person ; in utpote, as, 


42 Pronominal Forms. XXIV. 

namely, explanatory, it limits the cause to an effect under 
consideration : No strapie culpa, by our own guilt ; Atomi 
feruntur in locum inferiorem suopte ponder e, Cic. Incom» 
moda valetvdine jam emerseram, utpote qvum sine fehri lor 
borassem. Id. 

3. TE points at the second person only, partly in strength- 
ening the ft/, partly with is designating the object which the 
addressed person is desired to remember ; hence it is inflected 
in this case: Ut tute mihi prcBcepisti. Cic. You there. 
Nisi quid tibi in tete auxilii est, absumtus es. Plant. Venio 
nunc ad istius quemadmodum ipse appellat, studium; tit 
amid ejus, morbum et insaniam. Cic, i. e. of Verres, of 
whom I am talking to you. Armorum ista et victories sunt 
facta, non CcRsaris, Id., that there, which you mean. 

4. CE (belongs to cis)^ with demonstratives, points at an 
object, the situation of which the utterer refers to where he 
stands : Pater te amat plus, quam ho see oculos, Ter. Thus in 
ecce ! and abbreviated in htc, here, near to the speaker ; istic^ 
there, near the addressed person; illic, there, at a distance 
from the speaker; in nunCy^ donee, for hice, namce^ tumce^ 
dumce ; interrogating in hiccine 7 this one there ? 

5. QZ7E lends distributive meaning to tn^e^m^a: Quisque^ 
856. TJsqv^ (for cvjv>s-que), 1039. Uttque, in every way 
and manner, at all events: Faba Pythagorei utique ahsti- 
nuere. Cic. Si utique novum aliquem consulem creari veil' 
lent, Liv., at all events, if they needs want to elect. Commota 
plebs est, utique postquam sordidatum reum viderunt. Id. 
Ubique, anywhere, 1004. 

6. CUMQUE OT CUNQUE,genem\ize3relativa: Quot- 
quot, how many soever, so many as, XXI, 3., takes a number 
of things in its whole extent, without farther determining it; 
Quotcunque, as many as there may be, however many : Si 
leges ducB, aut, quot quot erunt, conservari non possint, 
Cic. Magistratus, quotcunque senatus creverit populusve 
jusserit, tot sunto. Id. 

7. PE (Oscan for que), even, well, gives affirmative or 
confirmative power to a word : Quippe, Nempe, 860, 1016. 

8. EM directs attention to something really existing : Hem 
ihf ay, as interjection: Hem, quid istuc est? ut tu incedisi 
Plant. En, 384. — NEM points at something inasmuch as 
it is connected with something antecedent, hence at a cause 
or reason, as in nempe, 1016; in enim, 710. Casar Jhimno» 
rigem retrahi imperai : si vim facial neque pareat, interfici. 

Pratwminal Forms. XXIV. 43 

jubet. llle enim revocatus resistere ac se manu defenders 
c(Bpit. CsBs., i. e. Csesar had good reason for it, for he, dec. 
— DEM designates an object as the same, in idem {is—dem)^ 
even he, the very same, 397 ; idemtidem (with inserted ^), 
964; eodem^ even thereto; eddem, even there, in precisely 
the same manner; indidem {inde), from the same place; 
tantundem^ just as much, according to quantity ; totidem, ac- 
cording to number; quidem {quid-dem)^ indeed, at least, 
signifies identity in a certain respect. — TEM points at 
equality of the sequel with reference to something preceding, 
in Item (id -tern), 589 ; autem («v, or), 913. 

9. AM designates degree, in quam^ how much, i. e. in 
what degree, 28 ; tarn,, so much, in such a degree, 23. Quam 
therefore, gives a higher degree of uncertainty to indefinita ; 
hence they stand, on account of their negative sense, always 
in connexion with negations, or with questions of a negative 
character: TJnquam^ ever; nunqtuim^ never; nequaquam^ by 
no means, in no respect; neutiquam (ne—tUi-qtiam),'!!! no 
manner, not in the least: CcRsaris copia nequaquam erant 
tanicBy ut eis confidereL Cses. Indissolubiles vos quidem 
esse non potestis, neutiquam tamen dissolvemini, Cic. — 
FIAM (pe, 7), on the other hand, expresses a positive 
sense : ^isquam is one, if he exist anywhere, conditional, 
and in a negative meaning; Quispiam, one^ who is some- 
where, unconditional, 856. « Fieri nullo modo potest, ut quis» 
quam aUerum phis diligat, quam se. Cic. Hereditas est 
pecunia, qv^ m^rrte alicujus ad que mp iam pervenit jure. Id. 
So usquam, uspiam, somewhere: Iste, cui nullus esset us» 
quam consistendi locus, Romam se retulit. Cic. Sive est 
ilia lex scripta us pi am, sive nusquam. Id.; nuspiam does 
not appear in the Latin writers. — An? as interrogative, 76. 
Jam, 522, now, already, compares the moment of time, or 
degree of completion of a state arrived at, with the preceding ; 
Etiam, 397, a still higher degree. — iV^ikf, 710, for, 
namely, adds to a preceding assertion a reason, an expla- 
nation, by which it becomes clearer, easier to be understood. 
An explanation of this kind is requisite also for the interroga- 
tives quisnam? quinam? who then? ecquisnam? uhinam? 
Crotoniatas opinio non fefellit. Nam Zeuxis quasivit ah 
eis, quasnam virgines formosas hdberent\ Cic. DAM, in 
qwidam, a certain, points at one of the number of the qui^ 
leaving uncertain which ; quoddam, is a certain thing ; quid^ 
damy taken in general, something certain: Mercator qui* 

44 Pronominal Forms, XXIV. 

dam fait Syracusis senex, Plaut. Fuit quod dam tempus^ 
quum in agris homines passim vagabantur. Cic. In ista po' 
testate (tribunicia) inest quid dam mali. Id. Quid feceras 7 
— Paulum quid dam, Ter. With adjectives, quidam indi- 
cates a degree arbitrarily to be supposed: Te natura ex eel- 
sum quendam, et altum^ et humana despicientem genuit. 
Cic, somewhat, that is, considerably, very. 

10. UM designates a period of uncertain duration, in um- 
quam or unquam, ever, in the past or future : Isocrates pT<z* 
Stat omnibus; qui un quam orationes attigerunt, Cic. Cave 
posthac unquam istuc verbum ex te audiam. Ter.— -iVUM, 
now, the period from the point of the present, with reference 
to the past next preceding: Urtlca quoqu^ num medetur vul' 
neribus, Plin., (rare); generally as interrogative, 76; and 
of time, nunc is more in use, 522. — DUM^ during, 378, 
points at a present duration of time, in nondum^ not yet ; nul' 
lusdum, no one yet, and in imperatives: Manedum. Plaut, 
only wait. Iteradum eadem ista mihi, Cic, only repeat. — 
TUMj then, 522, refers to a period in the past or future ; 
etiamtum, also then, also there : Initio reges diversi pars tn- 
genium^ alii corpus exercebant: etiamtum vita hominum 
sine cupiditate agitabatur, sua cuique satis placebant. SaU. 
Corresponding to this is the correlativum, — CUM or Quum^ 
when, as, by which a state or condition is referred as cotem- 
porary with that which is indicated by tum^ tunc^ or also as 
cause to an effect. As preposition, the cum signifies with, 
together, jointly, 298, a connexion, e. g. mecum^ nobiscum^ 
and thus in compounds : Cow/erre, carrying together; con' 
scius^ knowing with another or others about a thing; com' 
primere^ compressing, pressing together. 

11. O, signifies an aim, see XX, 13. — DO, in quando 
{quom for quum- do) ^ when, of an indefinite point of time in 
the past, present, or future, interrogative^ relative^ and tn- 
definite^ 853. 

12. DE, from, in inde, from thence ; unde^ from whence ; 
and PER, through, in tantisper, as long as, of uninterrupted 
duration; they are prepositions. 



1. A, Ab, E, Ex, De, of, from. A^Ah,a. motion from 
some point, coming from, designates a horizontal direction ; 
De, away from a certain point, away downward, designates 
an oblique or perpendicular direction ; -B , JSo?, from out the in- 
terior, toward without. Moreover, if used before consonants, 
Ab designates part close by; Ex, from out the very inmost; 
A and E are used with reference to the wherefrom, observed 
from a distance : Diu abfuisti a. nobis; Rosa recens a loU" 
gin quo olet; Ex longinquo boves arcessere; Aconitum 
proctd et e longinquo mures necaL 

a. A , being derived from something, coming from ; Dc, 
away from a surface downward, used also of taking away 
from ; hence it is used for treating of something, on account 
of, with respect to : Discessit a puero, from his side ; d e fo' 
ro, from the market; A media node, from the beginning ; de 
noctCy in the course of the night, after its beginning or before 
its end ; Rex a me cohortes d e exercitu meo postulabat ; Hoc 
audio de inimico ab accusatore; Liber non de puero scrip- 
tuSy sed a puero; Abstergere vulnus, wipe off, wipe to the 
side; detergere, wipe down, away^ e. g. falcis pollutes 

h. A signifies the starting point of a movement; De, the 
aim or final point : Ad Verrem d e dv>xit Tertiam, vi ab- 

c. E, in compounds, means out of it ; in some, throughout, 
increasing the strength of the meaning: Egelidus, from 
which the cold has fled, tepid ; and also, throughout cold, 
ice-cold; exarare, to bring out by ploughing, and to obtain 
by ploughing. Abnormis, deviating from the rule ; enormis, 
in which all norma, rule, is wanting, irregular, over-large. 

46 2. Abdere. 5. Ahominari, 

2. Abdere, Condere, Abscondere, Abstrudere, Retrxt- 
DERE, Occulere, Occultare. To hide, a. by change of place 
is Abdere, to do away, to hide, e. g. se in sylvas ; Con' 
dere, to put together, to keep and preserve: Testudo 
abdidit cornea corpus domo, nee Icedi potest condita, 
Abscondere, to keep, preserve in a hidden place, Rc' 
condere^'m a remote, distant place: Res abscondita; 
something kept hidden, of which we do not allow others to 
know; litera reconditcB, those which we keep for our- 
selves and allow rarely to be seen. Abstrudere^ to push, 
drive away and into a depth; Retrudere, into a remote 
deep comer: Me %n silvam abs trust densam, — b, by 
covering: O cctiZ ere, to envelope, veil ; Occultare^XIX^ 
10, 5, to hide carefully : Alcibiades penitus in Thradam 
se abdidit, sperans ibi suam fortunam occuli posse, Nep. 
Natura partes corporis turpes contexit atque abdidit; qua 
autem occultavit, eadem omnes removent ab ocidis. Cic 

3. Abesse, Distare ; Deesse, Deficere. a, Abesse^ 
to be away, at a distance, used of the length of the distances ; 
Distare, to stand asunder, to be remote, used of the 
interval: Astutia abest a prudentia, dist atque longis» 
si7ne,Cic. — b. Abesse, to be absent, not therfe ; Deesse^ 
to be wanting, of the sensible want of something necessary : 
Argentum deer at. Deficere, to begin to be wanting, 
gradually to diminish and become exhausted : Vires et tela 
militibus d efi ciunt, Caes. Dies me d efi cit. Cic. , is not 

4. Abire, Abscedere, Decedere, Discedere, Digredi, 
Facessere. Abire, to go off, away from a place : lidem, 
abeunt, qui venerant. Abscedere, to recede from some- 
thing, to depart: Nee armis aut loco suo miles absce^ 
debat. Liv. Decedere, to go away; de via, making 
room ; provincia, de provincia, parting ; ex provincia, leav- 
ing it: Discedere, to go from one another, to separate: 
Uxor a Doldbella discessit, Cic. e provincia, to remove 
from it; decedere, de vita decedere, to die, to leave 
our sphere of action; discedere a, ex vita, to depart from 
the living. Digredi, to go away, and to some other 
place. Facessere, XVI, 7., to leave quickly by order: 
Faces se, hinc Corinthum f Liv., begone! 

5. Abominari, Detestari, Exsecrari, Aversari, Ab- 
HORRERE. Abominari, to abhor something as portend- 
ing something bad (omen) e. g. mentionem foedi fadnoris. 

6. Ahsolvere,- 9. Abstinens. 47 

Detestari^ to wish some evil away from us or upon 
some one, to imprecate, curse: Dii, averiite et del est a* 
mini hoc omen. In caput alicujus detestari minas peri» 
culaque. Te tamquam auspicium malum detestantur. Ex' 
seer ari, to wish for divine revenge upon the head {in caput 
alicujus) of some one, to curse : Milites tihi pestem exoptant^ 
te exsecrantur. Aversari, XIX, 10, 5., to abominate 
something disgusting with violent excitement: Milites sua 
yiacinora aver sari deos lamentantur, Tac. Abhorrere, 
lUum omnes abhorrebant^ut aliquam immanem ac pemi- 
to shudder back, to have violent abhorrence of something : 
dosam bestiam pestemque fugiebanU Cic. 

6. Absolvere, Perficeke, Conficere, Efficere, Ex- 
SEQUi, Peragere, Patrare, Perpetrare. To complete 
something, is Absolvere^ii \\s parts are complete; Per- 
ficere^ if they are perfect: Phidias potest aprimo institU' 
ere signum idque perficere: potest ab alio inchoaium acd* 
pere et absolvere, Cic. — To bring to an end : Confice- 
re^ to put a stop to, e. g. bellum^ if various acts belong to the 
whole; Efficere^ to bring about, to effect, if the final ob- 
ject has been obtained: Libri ad Varronem sunt effect i. 
Cic. £ a? s eg' Mi, to execute according to prescription, order, 
e. g. offidum, alicujus mxmdata, Peragere^ to carry 
through, if the business required constant activity to the end, 
8. g. jabulam^ consulatum. Patrare {pater ^ XIX), to pre- 
sent something as actually effected, completed, when the 
author and effect are clearly seen ; e. g. cadem, bellum^ in- 
cQBpta, Teucris promissa patravit, Cic. Perpetrare^ 
to bring about completely, with reference to publicity : Non 
creditur, nisi perpetratum^ f acinus, Liv. 

7. Absonus, Absurdus. Absonus, sounding badly; 
Absurdus {abs-auris^ VII), sounding painfully ; hence 
clumsy, stupid: Vox admodum absona et absurd a, Cic, 
as cause and effect. 

8. Absque, Sine, Citra. Without, in absque^ exclu- 
sion; in Sine, want, opp. cum; in Citra, XX, 13., a com- 
plete measure not yet obtained: Absque te esset, hodie non 
viverem. Plant., i. e. if thou hadst not been. Narrationum 
modus et finis esse citra divisionem nullus potest, Quinct. 
Only to be found with later writers. 

9. Abstinens, Continens, Temperans, Modestus. Abs» 
tin en s^ abstemious, to keep aloof of external charms; 
Continens, to keep one's appetites subdued, bridled, to 

48 - 10. Ahundare. 12. Accendete, 

govern one^s self: Ahstinentes manus, oculL ConferU 
hujus libidines cum illius continentia, Cic. Temperans 
{tempiis^ XIX, 3.), moderating one^s self, mitigating the 
violent passions according to reason. Modeatus {7nodt»<f 
XIII, 1.), modest, decorous, he who observes the proper limitd 
of that which is decorous, decent, and respectable : Hominetn 
petulantem modestum reddo, Cic. Homo in omnibus vita 
partilms moderatus ac temperans. Id. Temperaius 
and modestus is the person who is versed in these virtues. 

10. Abundare, Kedundare, Affluere ; Abunde, Af- 
FATiM. Abundare (unda, XIX), to have in abundance, 
plenty; Redundare^ to have more than requisite, not able 
to contain the abundance, overflowing; Affluere^ to have 
abundance pouring in from without: JEsUva Nilus abundat 
aqua ; Lacus Albanus redundavit, isque in mare flusfU. 
Cic, to overflow. Hence Abundare is used of use^l or 
not unnecessary things, e. g. divitiis; Re dun dare^ of un- 
necessary ones: Digito uno redundat. Vita affluit 
voluptatibus, Cic. — Abunde^ more than necessary, of that 
which is: Abundaniiir^ of the application of plenty; AJ^* 
fdtim {ad, as in admodum^ — fatis^ XX. 7^), in superabuni" 
dance, i. e. in a degree in which the superabundance is use- 
less or creates distaste: Armorum affatim erat captorum 
Carthagine, Liv. 

11. AccEDERE, Adire, Appropinquare. Accederc, to 
step to it, to come in addition to it, from near and as accre- 
tion: Ad te supplex accedo; Adire, to walk to it, from a 
distance and from interest; Appropinquare, to approach, 
used only of local approach. Ad rem publicam accedere^ 
to enter upon a public employment; adire, C. Manil. 24, to 
interest one's self for the public weal, ^dui Jinibus Bello" 
vacorum appropinquabant. Cses. 

12. AccENDERE, Incendere, Inflammare, Cremare, U- 
RERE, CoMBURERE, Amburere. -4 cc end «re, to light from 
without, e. g. lucernam; Incendere, to light something by 
fire brought in, e. g. urbem. Inflammare, to make blaze: 
Classem inflammari incendiquejussit, Cic. Cupidita' 
tern incendere, to excite; inflammar^e, to medce violent, 
and bring to an eruption. Cremare, to bum to ashes: 
Sulla primus igni voluit cremarL Cic. Urere, to singe 
or burn the surface of a body by glowing heat, or burning : 
Terrce qucedam uruntur colore. In corpore aliquid uf^i 
secarique patimur, Cic; also uritfrigus, ccdceus, C^m^ 

13. Acddit. 16. Accusare. 49 

hurere^Xo bum together ; Amhurere^Xo burn all around, 
only half: Comhuramus annales. Calanus Indus vivus 
comhustus est. Cic. Ambustus Jlatu vaporis. Liv. 


Usu VENiT. Accidit (cadere^ from the falling of dice: 
Omnia cadunt secunda)^ it happens by accident, having in- 
fluence upon something else; Contingit^ it comes to pass, 
succeeds, happening to coincide with something else; Eve- 
nit^ it follows, used of the result of an event : Timeham, ne 
evenirent ea^ qua acciderunL Cic. Non cuivis homini 
contingit adire Corinthum. Hor. O 5 Hng ere, to fall to 
the lot of some one by accident ; OJwentre, as consequence 
of good luck, of the lot, election ; Usu venire^ to follow 
according to experience, and regularly : Provincia alicui o J- 
tigit and ohveniL Cic. Mihi fundus hereditate obve- 
nit Yarr. Cicero ea, qtuB nunc usuveniunty cednit ut 

14. AccoMMODARE, ApTARE ; Apttjs, Idonetjs, Commo- 
Dus, Habilis. Accommodare^ to fit something to some- 
thing, so that it has the proper measure (modus); Apt are 
{apere^ XIX, 10, 5.), to attach something, to put something to 
a thing so that it attaches itself, e. g. annulum digito. CorO' 
nam sibi ad caput accommodare. Cic. Aptatis armis 
milites in or dines eunt. Liv. — Aptus^ attached, fitted to it, 
fitting, befitting, proper : Apt a compositio membrorum cor^ 
poris ; Calcei apti ad pedem. Cic. Idoneus (rtdere, XI, 
2.), select, fit for a certain purpose : Prcesidia locis idoneis 
disposuiL Liv. Duces idonei ad bellum. Id. In Aptus 
fitness exists; in Idoneus^ it rests upon our opinion of it. 
CommoduSf according to measure (modus)^ i. e. just fit, 
convenient, comfortable, fit for use without inconvenience: 
Ad cur sum commoda vestis, Ovid. Habilis {habere^X, 
1.), that which is easy to be held, comfortable because it fits 
well, suits : Gladiv^ ad propiorem pugnam habilis, Liv. 

15. Accumbere, Discumbere, Accubare. Accumbere, 
to lie down on a settee at table for a meal; Discumbere, 
of several guests, to distribute themselves around the table ; 
Accubare, to lie at the table, to beat dinner: Discubu- 
ere toris Theseus comitesque laborum. Ovid. 

16. Accusare, Reum agere, facere, Incusare, Argtj- 
ere, Insimulare ; Accusator, Actor, Petitor. Accu- 
sare, to accuse, especially legally; Reum agere, facere, 
to represent some one as guilty in a legal action ; Incusare, 


50 17. Acer. 19. Ades. 

to inculpate, charge some one, accuse not in a legal way, or 
in court: Gabinium de ambitu reum fe^it Sulla, Cic. 
Arguere^ to prove that one be guilty. Insimulare^ to 
charge with fictitious guilt: Insontem insimulas. Ter. — 
Accusator^ the accuser; in causcB publica, the person who 
had been chosen to carry on the action against the accused 
person (ret«). Actor ; but in causcB privaUB^ Petitory the 
plaintiff, who by way of law makes demands against the de- 
fendant (is unde petitur) : Accusatorem pro omni ado- 
re et petit ore appello. Cic. 

17. Acer, Asper, Acerbus, Austerus, Amarus ; Vehb- 
MENs, Ferox. Acer^ biting, sharp, e.g. acetum; Asper, 
rough, thorny, prickly, e. g. sentes ; and unfriendly, rough in 
manners: Homines natura asperi atqtie omniims imquL 
Cic. Acerbus, tart, acerb, e. g. pirum, L e. unripe ; hence 
harsh, hurting our feelings, our heart, e. g. mors, Homa 
immani acerbaque natura. Cic. Austerus, that which 
makes the tongue dry, rough, e. g. vinum, i. e. old wine which 
has grown tart. Amarus, bitter, opp. dulds ; angry, he 
who makes others feel his disappointment: Amariorem 
me senectus fadty stomachor omnia, Cic. — Acer, sharp, of 
vivid, exciting power, keen, e. g. hiems, sensus videndi, beU 
lum, canis, leo, biting, grim; equus, quick, fleet; memaria: 
Acer ac diligens animadversor vitiorum, severe, he who is 
accurate in his demands. Vehemens, old Vemens, prop- 
erly he who, from passion, does not properly use his reason 
(ve-mens), violent, passionate, impetuous: Tecum vehe* 
m enter me agere fateor, iracunde nego, Cic. Homo ve- 
hemens et violentus inimicitias mihi denuntiavit. Id. Fe- 
rox, he who relies and prides himself on his strength like a' 
savage, unrestrained, wanton, insolent, proudly bold, e. g. 
equus f elephantus: Cacus ferox viribus, Liv. Jugurtha 
sceleribus suis ferox. Sail. Victoria ferociores impo- 
tentioresqus reddit, Cic. 

18. Acervus, Cumulus. -4 cer t?M5, a heap which tapers 
above into a point (acies, IV, 4, a,), e. g. granorum ; Ctimw- 
lus {cum, X, 1, A, a.), a heap, which, as superabundance, is 
over and above the regular measure : Accedere in cumu- 
lum. Cic. 

19. Acies, Acumen, Cuspis, Mucro; Exercitus, Ag- 
MEN. Acies, edge, that which is sharp, sharpness, e. g. «e- 
curium; ingenii : Acies, qua cemimus, pupilla vocatvr, Cic. 
Acumen, the point, the pointed part, e. g. coni: Propter 

20. Actor. 21. AaOus. 51 

acumen occultissima perspids. Cic, sharpness in applying 
a thing. Cuspis {cvdere^ cusumy VI, *]), the forged point: 
Hasta acvicR cuspidis, Ovid. Mucro (macer, II, 1.), the 
point which runs out very thin, e. g. of a dagger: Cuspis, 
latior vomeris, et acuiior in mucronem fastigata, acie 
IcUerum radices herharum secans. Plin. 

20. Actor, Histrio, Mimus, Pantomimus, Ludio or 
Lttdius, Comcedus, Tragcedus. The drama of the ancients 
was sung by the Comcedus, in the comedy (scenes of com- 
mon life), and by the Tragcedus in the tragedy (represen- 
tations of the serious course of fate in the events of the gods 
and heroes), and this song was expressed by gestures and 
mimic performance by the Actor. Hi strio (compare 7n- 
star), is a theatrical dancer, with mask and proper dress, for 
a certain part to be performed, accompanied by a Tihicen with 
the flute ; at a later period he also declaimed in the dialogue 
(recitative). Comp. Liv. 7, 2. Mimus, a dancer also at 
festival dinners, who imitated, in a ludicrous manner, various 
characters, e. g. misers, drunkards, by gesture and voice. 
The Pantomimi expressed the song of the chorusses by 
gesticulation ; from the times of Augustus they were ballet- 
dancers. Ludio or Ludius, an actor who is likewise a 
dancer, as Histrio : Si ludius constitit, out tihicen repente 
conticuit, ludi sunt non ritefacti, Cic. 


Sagax, Argutus. The sagacious and discriminating per- 
son, who discovers and discriminates that which is not easily 
remarked by common people, is -4 c w^m 5, if his penetrating 
intellect enters into the essentials of things, their relations, 
and discovers marks until then unknown, and is able to per- 
ceive clearly diflTerences and effects, e. g. philosophus ; Col- 
lidus et ad fraudem a cut us, Nep., opp. hehes, ohtusus. 
Suhtilis, fine, subtile, discriminating in taste, one who in 
works of art remarks, with praise or blame, delicate touches : 
Sub til is veterum judex et callidus; Sincerum ac subtile 
judicium. So Hers, versed in the art : Adolescens in Uteris, 
in palcBstra, in musicis s oilers. Ter. Ingeniosus, gifted 
with talent (talented), ingenious, of inventive mind. Per- 
s pic ax, sharpsighted, of penetrating sharpsightedness : Pa- 
lamedis perspicax prudentia. This, with an indistinct 
idea, is Sagax, he who easily scents, has no precise yet cor- 
rect impression, e. g. canis; cunning in discovering future 
and threatening danger, e. g. ad suspicandum, ad pericula 

52 22. Ad. 24. Ade/ps. 

perspicienda, Cic. ArgutuSy full of expression, e. g. 
oculus ; full of spirit, French spirituel, he who perceives 
easily fine similarities, and applies them with wit ; also hit- 
ting, in as far as the other feels hit: Quis illo {Catone), in 
sententiis argutior? in docendo suhtiliorl Cic. Sen' 
tenticB a cut (By those that are conceived with acuteness, and 
well-defined; argufcBy those which are full of meaning. 

22. Ad, Apud, Penes. In. Ad, to, signifies approach- 
ment to an object; Apud^ by, signifies the sphere ; Penes^ 
with, in the innermost, in possession and power of some one ; 
In reniy into, toward, direction toward the interior; In re, 
in, under, upon, repose of that which in a thing surrounds the 
subject. Ad me est, in my neighbourhood, near me, at 
hand ; apud me, in my house, penes me, at my disposi- 
tion. Dicere ad populuniy when the speech is directed to 
the people; apud populum, in a populax meeting. Plato 
apud Xenophontem dicit, means Plato in the works of Xen- 
ophon, as author; in Timceo, means the title of the book; 
in Socrate, in mentioning Socrates. Ad rem utilis, ad fa^ 
cinus audax, signifies final object ; pecunia i n remiges, desti- 
nation. In some compounds ad increases the signification, 
as in adm^dum, affatim, adprime, adprobe ; different are : 
Aggravescere, to become heavier; Ingravescere, more 
oppressive, to increase, extend an evil, e. g. morbus. Ad' 
mittere facinus, Jiagitium, to admit; Committere, to 
allow a thing to be done, to commit : Si quid a me prater' 
missum fuerit, commissum facinus et admissum dedecus 
conjitebor. Cic. Adnuere,, to nod with applause to some 
one; Innuere, to give to understand with a nod. Ad- 
scendere, to ascend, approaching to the summit; Es' 
c end ere, from below up, to ascend with greater difficulty; 
Conscendere, to walk about above, when the highest point 
is reached; Inscendere, to enter, or to seat one's self 
firmly on the ascended object. 

23. Adeo, Tam. a deo, so much, even, used of the de- 
gree which something has reached ; Tam places this degree 
with that of something else, or with a consequence into equal 
relations : Nemo adeo ferus est, ut non mitescere possit. 
Hor. Tam sum amicus rei publiccB, quam qui maxime. Cic. 

24. Adeps, Sebum, Arvina, Pingue, Laridum. Adeps 
{ad — daps), the softer fat of animals which do not ruminate : 
Sebum, Scvum, the firmer fat of ruminating animals, tal- 
low : Adeps Cassii, suilla, anserina; Sebum vitvUnum. 

25. Adesse, 28. Admodum» 53 

Arvtna, tallow, in as far as used to grease something : CZi- 
peos tergent arvina. Virg. P in gue^ the oily fat: Pin- 
gue inter carnem ciUemque, Plin. Laridum^ Lardum^ 
lard, salt and smoked fat pork. 

25. Adesse, Interesse, Prjssto esse, Prjesentem esse. 
Adesse^Xo be there, to be a bystander, to be present, as 
necessary: ad judicium^ amicis. Interesse^ to be pres- 
ent taking part, e. g. negotiis. Press to esse (prce-stus^ 
XIII, 1., XX, 12.), to be at the disposal, at hand. Prce- 
sen tern esse^ to be present, to lie before us: Bellua 
ad id solum^ quod adest^ quodque prcBsens est, se ac- 
cammodat. Cic. Hostia ad sacrificium prcBSto non Jue» 
runt. Id. 

26. Adhibere, Uti. Adhihere, to take for some pur- 
pose, to apply for use : vestem ad omatum corporis. Utij 
to use, to make use of a thing for profit or enjoyment : Pau- 
sanias apparatu regio utehatur, veste Medica, Nep. Tes- 
tes adhibere, to bring forward witnesses ; testibus uti, to 
make use of their testimony in order to prove our assertion. 

27. Adhuc, HxrcusQiTE, Hactenus ; Etiam. A series of 
circumstances to the present time, is expressed by Adhuc, 
so far, of time, still, since, down to our time; Hucusque, 
so far, of locality, if without interruption it has obtained 
this point; Hactenus, so far, to here, if according to its 
extension it be taken to that point: Adhuc Ligarmsomni 
culpa vacai, Cic. Hucusque Sesostris exercitum duxit. 
Plin. Hactenus reprehendat, si quis volet; nihil amplius, 
Cic. — In later times, Adhuc va used with the comparative, 
for still, to increase the strength; in earlier times, Etiam 
was used : Adhuc difficilior ohservatio est, Quinctil. Tanrs 
turn et plus etiam mihi debet, Cic. Unum etiam de Ccb- 
lie. Id. 

28. Admodum, Valde, Impense, Magnopere, Vehemen- 
ter, Qttam, Perqxtam, Oppido. Admodum, is very, very 
much, near to the full measure: Turres admodum CXX. 
excitantur. Cses. Pauci atqvs admodum pauci corrumpere 
mores civitatis possunt. Cic. Valde, very strongly, signi- 
fies a high degree of power : Valid e tonuit. Plant. Brutus 
quidquid vult, valde vult, Cic. Impense with pains and 
exertion, zeal: Impensius legatos mittere, pacem or are. 
Sail. Aliquem. commendare, Cic. Magnopere, Magn& 
op ere, very much, of interest in a subject, e. g. formas pU' 
erorum mirari ; Ramam proper are, Cic. Vehementer, se* 


54 29. Adolescens, 31. Adoriri. 

17, violent, of passion, pugnare^ cum aliquo agere, Quam^ 
very much, and perquam, exceedingly; the highest pos- 
sible degree of a quality: Obitum JiluB tiUB sane quam 
graviter tuli. Cic, as certain as any thing can be. Hoc 
per quam puerile videtur. Id. Oppido^ over-sufficient, 
completely, a high degree of perfection respecting requisite 
qualities: Oppido ridiadu^ ; Servirent, prcBterquam op' 
pido pauci, Cic, extremely few. 

29. Adolescens, Pube^, Ephebus, Juvenis, Puer, In- 
FANS. Ad^olescens^ properly a person that is growing up, 
a person from fifteen to thirty years of age, generally of the 
male sex: Adult a virgo, Cic. Pubes^ matured to puber- 
ty, with growing beard, from the fourteenth year: PueTy 
priusquam pubes esset. Nep. Ephebus^ a youth of six- 
teen years. Juvenis (ancient ^'mww, young), a young man 
up to forty-five and fifty years ; opp. senior and senex, from 
the sixtieth year. Puer^ a boy, to the fifteenth year, /n- 
Jirmitas puerorum est, ferocitas juvenum, gravilas jam 
constantis cetatis, senectutis maturita^, Cic. Pueri regit. 
Li v., princes. In fans, a child which cannot yet speak 
well, up to the seventh year: Infantium puerorum incu- 
nabula. Cic. 

30. Adorare, Venerari, Colere, Observare, Reve- 
reri. Adorare, to Sidore: precibus Superos, Venerari 
(bonus, ancient benus, XIX, 3.), to revere something as a 
higher being, also by genuflexion and other demonstrations 
of reverence , e. g. deos : Habet venerationem justam^ 
quidquid excellit. Cic. Colere (connected with an old 
German word, kollem, to turn aboijt, as the Romans did in 
solemn prayers), is to hold in honor, to manifest reverence 
by services and religious rites : Hunc patris loco colere rfe- 
bebas, Cic. Observare, to observe with attention, to man- 
ifest to some one an endeavour, on all occasions, of honoring ; 
it is never used of divine honor : Militia Africanum ut deum 
colebat Lcelivs ; domi vicissim Lcelium, quod cetaie antece- 
debat, observabat in parentis loco Scipio. Cic. Reve- 
reri, to fear, to manifest reverence by the endeavour of 
avoiding every thing which might be unpleasant to another : 
Magna fuit quondam capitis reverentia cani. Ovid. 

31. Adoriri, Aggredi, Invadere, Opprimere. Ado- 
riri, to attack, assault some one, suddenly and unperceiv- 
edly rising from a neighbouring spot, hence the idea of cun- 
ning is connected with it: hostes a tergo. Aggredi, to 

32. Advena, 34. Adversaria, 55 

attack openly. Invader e^ to fall upon, breaking in upon 
some one with violence. Opp rim ere, assault suddenly and 
overwhelm, overpower. 

32. Advena, Hospes, Peregrinus, Alienigena. Ad' 
vena \s foreigner, as the new-comer from a foreign land ; 
Hospes, the foreigner, who, as guest, has met with recep- 
tion ; Peregrinus, if a person is considered as a foreigner 
coming from a journey, or as an alien (opp. civis) ; Alieni' 
gen a, 3. foreigner, inasmuch as he is born in a foreign coun- 
try (the German Ausldnder, literally outlander ; opp. indi» 
gena, native) : Nos Capuce, hine Roma qui veneramus, jam 
non hospites, sed peregrini atque advence nominaha- 
mur, Cic. 

33. Adversari, Ob — Reniti, — Reluctari, — Resis- 
tere, Repugnare, Refragari. Adversari, to be against 
one in opinion, disposition : petenti, alicujus commodis, con' 
siliis, Ob, stepping in the way and hindering; Re, recoil- 
ing effect ; in Ob — Reniti, to work against with zeal and 
perseverance : Consilio, mmiu hostibus obniti, Ob — Re' 
luctari, to struggle against something, to resist: Animus 
obluctans difficultatibus, Reluctari precibus. Curt. 
Obs4stere,io place one's self before another, in the way : 
Catilince consiliis occurri atque obstitL Cic. Resistere, 
to resist as having been attacked, with fortitude, valor : HoS' 
tes acerrims resi'stebant, nee dabant suspicionem fugce, 
CaBs. Fortiter dolori atque fortunce — . Cic. Repug' 
nare, resisting while fighting, to oppose in struggling : Nihil 
decet invita Minerva, id est, adversante et repugnante 
natura, Cic. Refragari, to strive with the pastern or 
ham {suffrago) against something, to resist, denying some- 
thing which is dematided: Lex petitioni ttuB refragata 
est. Cic. 

34. Adversaria, TABULiE, Commentaria — rii. Ad' 
versaria, properly speaking, that which turns the front 
towards us; hence that which is always open, a book, a 
ledger, to note down expenses and receipts, from which they 
are carefully transferred into the Tabula or Codex ac- 
cepti et expensi, because these were also used as legal 
evidence: Negligenter scribimus adversaria; diligenter 
confidmus tabulas, Commentaria and Commentarii 
sc. libri, another note-book, in which memoranda, thoughts, 
and the chief outlines of connected pieces were written. C. 
Brut. 44, 164. 

56 35. Adversariug, 37. Adulari. 

35. ADYERSiiRius, Inimicus, Hostis, Pbrdttellis. Ad' 
versarius^ the opponent in disputations, auctions, lawsuits, 
in war; /wimicMs, hostile, enemy, according to his dii^x^ 
sition, he who hates the other and endeavours to hurt him ; 
Hostis, properly a foreigner, the enemy who commits hos- 
tilities, especially with arms ; Perduellis^ properly he who, 
with arms, attacks his country, one who endangers public lib- 
erty, a traitor: Pompeius scspius cum hoste conjlvnt^ quam 
quisquam cum inimico concertavit, Cic. Qui propria nO' 
mine perduellis esset, is hostis vocdbatur. Hostis 
enim apud majores is dicebatur, quern nunc peregrinum did' 
mus. Id nomen in eo, qui arma contra ferrety rimansit. Id. 

36. Adversus — UM, Versus, E regione. Contra, Er- 
GA, In, a. Versus (the English wtapd^ in homeward, to- 
ward, &c.), toward a direction: Brundisium vers^us 
ire ; Catilina modo ad urhem^ modmrin Galliam versus 
castra mover e. Sail. Adversus^ Adversum, turned to- 
ward a thing; Sedens adversus te spectat^CaXuW. Porta 
adversus castra Romana erat. Liv. Pietas est jus- 
titia adversum deos. Cic. E regione, right opposite, 
without being turned toward one another : iLuna quum est e 
regione solis, deficit. Cic. Contra {cum-terd, VIII, 1. 
XX, 13.), opposite, over against, if two objects are turned 
toward one another, against : Insula contra Brundisi- 
num portum est. Caes. Contra ojjicium est. Cic. 
Erg a {vergere, XVI, 2., XX, 13.), inclining toward some- 
thing, with regard to a thing : Tua vohmt^ erg a me, meaqtte 
erg a te mutua. Cic. Rarely, however, with Cicero, in a 
hostile sense, as Odium erg a regem sugcep^ant. Nep. In, 
toward, toward the centre, interior, see 22. Perindulgens 
in patrem acerbe severus in filiu%. Cic. A^ Ah, re- 
specting to (see 1.), toward something from Which an attack 
or danger comes: Defender e urhem ah hostihus, ItaUam 
a vastatione. Cic, but in the sense of opposing, placing 
against: Capsenses muniti adversuni hastes mcmihus. 
Sail. Meam salutem contra tllius impetum in me de- 
fendi. Cic. 

37. Adulari, Assent ari, Blandiri, Lenocinari. Adn- 
lari (ad-Huld, German for favor, XIX), to flatter, meanly 
and cringingly ; Assentari, to assent in every thing; 
Blandiri, to caress, endeavour to gain by caresses; Le^ 
nocinari, to flatter seducingly, with allurements and de- 

38. JEdes. 39. Mdificare, 57 

38. ^DES, -^DiFiciTTM, DoMus ; Templum, Fanum, De- 
LFBRUM. Mdes^ a building which, by walls, includes a cer- 
tain space, a room, a barn ; in the plural, a house with its 
rooms and outhouses; Mdificium^ a building as a work 
of architecture, fabric, e. g. a roof to protect soldiers at sieges 
{musculiLs^ CsBS. c. 2, 10). Domus^ a house as property, 
hence likewise as home : Absolutum offendi in adihus tuii 
tectum, Cic. Britannorum (sdificia fere GalUcis consi- 
milia. Cses., speaking of them according to their architecture. 
Domino domus hohesianda est. Scaurtis do mum demolitus 
accessionem adjunxit adibus. Id. Mdes^ also Mdis^ in 
the singular, the temple, in as far as it surrounds a deity, 
without reference to outhouses, yet only if sacra^ Jovis, &c. 
be added, if the meaning does not plainly appear from the 
connexion: Complures cedes sacra, Cic. Mdes Idbentes 
deorum, Hor. Templum (tempus^ X, 1, A, c), properly the 
district appropriated by the augurs for the auspices, partly the 
sky open to it before the augur, partly the square district des- 
ignated by him with his lituus, and marked by a line drawn 
through die zenith and in a right angle with the meridian ; 
hence a temple laid out according to these lines, with a front 
toward the south, generally an ornamented or magnificent 
building: Ut area esset Jovis templique ejus ^ quod inadi' 
ficaretur, Fanum {farij XI, 2, c), a place consecrated by 
an augur for a temple, further a temple consecrated by the 
pontifex as a holy place : Jovis Statoris cedes vota^ sed fa- 
num tantum, id est, locus tempi o effatus, sacrattLS fuerat. 
Liv. Fanum ApoHinis. Cic. Delubrum {de- lucre, IXj 
1, c), a temple as a place of purification and atonement : 
Ilia, propter quce datur kondni adscensus in caelum, delubra 
sunt. XII. Tabb. ap. Cic. 

39. iEniFicARE, Struere, Con — Exstruere, Condere, 
FuNDARE. Mdificare, to make a building, to build, do- 
mum, urbem, porticum, navem. Struere (belongs to sternere, 
to strew, XVI, 6.), to lay by layers, regularly upon and by one 
another, of parts of a building, parts of a regularly constructed 
whole, e. g. agger em, aciem, verba : Domus e latere s true tee. 
Vitruv. Construere, to build up, to unite the various parts 
of a building in proper order : Mundi est corpus ea con- 
structum proportions, quam videtis, Cic. Exstruere, to 
build up, raise from below : Pharos est turris mirificis ope- 
rihis exstructa. Csbs. Condere, 2. to build, to found, to. 
cause the being built : Romulus lituo regiones direxit turn. 

58 40. Mg&r. 41. JEqmts. 

qtmm urhem condidit Cic. Fun dare, lay the founda- 
tion: Facile est nav em facer e, ubi fun data et constituta 
est, Plaut. 

40. -^Eger, -^k^ROTUs; iEGRiTUDO, ^Egrimonia, ^Egro* 
TATio, Morbus, Vitium. Mger, sick, respecting the state 
of health, according to condition, one that feels suffering, 
used of every sort of physical or mental sufffering, ceger ani- 
mi, pedihus; Mgrotus, befallen (stricken) by a certain 
disease ; he who is sick, a sick man : Corpus, etiamsi medi- 
ocriter csgrum est, sanum non est JEgroto dum anima 
est, spes esse dicitur, Cic. — Mgritudo, suffering of the 
soul, the suffering state of the inner man in general ; with 
later writers, also of the body ; j^grimonia, a, specific sort 
of grief, showing its effect, anger ; Mgrotatio, the state of 
physically being unwell: TJt CBgrotatio in corpore, sic 
(Bgritudo in animo, Cic. Ferrem graviter, si novce cBgri- 
monicB locus esset. Id. Morbus, the temporary disease, 
as cause of the agritudo and cegrotatio, Vitium, the re- 
maining disorder, defect, infirmity, e. g. blindness : Mo r bum 
appellant totius corporis corruptionem ; agrotationem, 
morbum cum imbecillitate ; vitium quum partes corporis 
inter se dissident, ex quo pravitas membrorum, distortio, de- 
formitas, Cic. 

41. -/Equus, Planus, ^Equalis, jEquabilis, Par, Simi- 
Lis; Justus; -^Jquare, Ad^quare, ^Equiparare. Mquus^ 
even, level, horizontal; Planus, plain, flat, without eleva- 
tion or protuberances : Dejectus in inferiorem locum de supe- 
riore, non de aquo et piano loco. Cic. Mqualis, equal 
with another subject, according to internal quality, e. g. pars 
altera parti ; Mquales, cotemporaries ; Mquabilis, that 
which may be made equal, or has been made so, uniform, 
that which remains equal, as ' uniform ' is likewise used, e. g. 
of conduct of the same person : JSquabilis prcedcB partitio ; 
Motus certus et cBquabilis. Cic. Par, equal, according to 
the external property, that which amounts to the same : 7n- 
tervalla mqualia, essentially equal among one another: 
paria, those that are proportionally equal : Nujnerosum metiri 
possumus intervallis cequalibus. Cic. Par est jus, quod 
in omnes aquabile est. Id., that which proportionally is the 
same, which is uniformly administered to all. Similis, 
similar: Aqua aquce similis. Plaut. JEquus, equally 
weighed out, and he who weighs out equally: JEqua con^ 
ditio, (Bquum certamen proponitur, Cic. Quintio non jus 

42. Aer, 46. Mtas, 59 

par^ non magistratus aquus repiriri potuiL Id., impartial. 
Ex cequo et bono jus constat^ quod ad veritatem et ad utili' 
totem communem videtur pertinere. Ad Herenn., fair, miti- 
gating the strict law by the duties of humanity. Justus^ 
just, according to strict right or law : Jus to jure aliquid re- 
petere, Liv. Jus turn helium, Liv., formal, no irregular 
expedition; Justus exercitus. Id., complete. — Mquare^t 
making even; Ad(Bquare^ making almost even, e. g. tecta 
solo, Liv. Mquiparare<t come up to: iVemo eum labors^ 
corporisque viribus potuit (zquiparare, Nep. 

42. Aer, ^Ether, Ccelum. Aer^ the air near the earth; 
JEther^ the higher, purer, and fiery air, as supposed by the 
ancients: Aer^ quern spiritu ducimus. Cic. Aer em am- 
plectitur immensus at her, qui constat ex altissimis ignibus» 
Id. Ccelum {xolXov, the hollow), the heavenly arch, the 
extreme hollow globe of the universe: Ccelum rotundum^ 
terraque media est Cic. 

43. -/Erarium, Fiscus. JErarium, every treasury, es- 
pecially of the state, the place where the public treasure is 
kept; Fiscus, properly a basket; the treasury of a magis- 
trate, and, since Augustus, the imperial private purse : Meam 
domum senatus ex mrario (sdijicandam putavit. Cic. CcBsar 
omnia hahet ; fiscus ejus privata tantum ac sua. Senec. 

44. iERUGO, Ferrugo, Rubigo. Mrugo, verdigris; 
Ferrugo, rust of iron ; Rubigo {robus, rufus), every sort 
of rust, and a certain disease of the grain : Ferrum rubigo 
corripit, Plin. Nee seges sterilem sentiet rubiginem. 

45. ^STiMARE, ExisTiMARE. Mstimarc (cBS, XIX, 9.), 
to estimate, determine the price or value of something, e. g. 
litem, the amount of expense for a lawsuit. Existimare, 
properly to estimate accurately by weighing; to judge ac- 
cording to external or intrinsic value of a thing, after a proper 
valuation: Ex orationibus existimari de ingeniis orato- 
rum potest. Cic. Hence ^s^tmaiio, valuation ; Existi' 
matio, opinion respecting something, and the opinion which 
others have of us, esteem; bona, turpis, see 93, reputa- 

46. -^TAs, JEvvM, Tempus, Spatium, Dies. JEtas 
(for cevitas), time as a quality of things in general, and as 
limited lime, the times as period, the age we live in, the age 
of youth: Volat at as; Numa, consultissimvs vir in ilia 
at ate, JEvum, that which is above time, eternal, also a 

60 47. JEtemus. 49. Affirmare. 

very long and unlimited period : IB^st in cado locus, uhi heati 
avo sempiterno fruantur. Cic. Temp us, the time of the 
day, night, or year, as marked by the sun or stars. See 
Polyb. 9, 15. In general, the limited time for which Spa- 
t turn is used, if the distance of both the limits of a period or 
its duration is meant. Temp us est pars quadam cdpmitatis 
cum alicujvLS annui, m^nstrui, diumi noctumive spatii certa 
signijicatione. Cic. Hence the measured, the right time: 
Veni in tempore, Ter. Dies, daytime, with the prevail- 
ing idea of light, opp. nox ; further, time, inasmuch as in it 
the series of events advances, and the end to which a given 
period or time extends, term: Nos, quod est dies allaiuray 
id consilio anteferre debemus, Cic. Ex ea die ad hanc 
diem qucB fecisti, in judicium voco. Id. 

47. ^Eternus, Sempiternus, Perpetuus, Perennis, Ju- 
Gis. ^ternus (cBvum, VIII, 1., XI, 1, /?.), eternal, of end- 
less duration, e. g. deus ; urhs in aternum condita. Liv. 
Sempiternus (to similis, semper), everlasting, of a state 
of things which continually remains the same : Si mihi dteV' 
nam esse cerumnam propositam arhitrarer, morte me ipse 
potius, quam sempiterno dolore multassem, Cic. Per- 
jse^wws, properly, touching to one another throughout (pe- 
tere), continual, uninterrupted, perpetual : Ignis Vesta per- 
petuus ac sempiternus, Cic. Perennis, through the 
whole year, the whole year round, e. g. aqtui: Stdlarum 
inerrantium perennes cursus atque perpetui, Cic. Ju- 
giSf properly joined together (jugere, IV, 1.), always flow- 
ing, never drying up, never ceasing: Capsenses una mode 
jugi aqua, cetera, pluvia utebantur. Sail. 

48. Affinis, Propinquus, Consanguineus, Necessa- 
Rius. AffiniSy contiguous, bordering on a thing, related 
by marriage: Et gener et adfines placent Ter. Pro- 
pinquus, near, local, and in every sort of connexion and 
relationship : Gives potior es quam peregrini, et propinqui 
quam alieni, Cic. Consanguineus, related by blood, 
generally of sisters and brothers : Consideratur in cognatione, 
quihis majoribus, quibus consanguineis. Cic. Neces- 
sarius, who stands with some one else in some binding, 
obliging relation, a relation which entails duties, which may 
be the case with the familiaris, affiniSy and consanguin- 
eus : JugurthcB Jilia Bocchi nupserat, Verum ea neces si- 
tu do apud Numidas levis ducitur. Sail. 

49. Affirmare, Confirmare, Asseverare. Affirma- 

60. Ager. 53. AgriccHa, 61 

re, to add solidity, to assure, affirm : ' Societatem jurejurando. 
Confirm are, to make firm together, to confirm with evi- 
dence or assurances: Hoc nervos confirmari putant. 
Cses., to strengthen. Jubent nostra confirmare argu^ 
mentis et rationibus, Cic. Asseverare, to insist with ear- 
nestness, to assure, maintain, assert, asseverate: Asseve- 
rant, ea} corpuscidis concurrenHIms temere mundum esse 
perfectum. Cic. 

50. Ager, Arvum, Campus, Bus. Ager, the field as a 
piece of ground for tillage, pasture, &c. ; also, the fields to- 
gether : Ager Campanus, Ager novalis, is one just cleared 
and tilled, and a fallow ; restihilis, a field annually sown. 
Arvum (arare, IV, 4.), a field kept under the plough : Non 
arvus hie, sed pascuus est ager. Plant. Campus, the field 
as an open, even, and horizontal plain : Segetes modice siccis 
camp is melius, quam prcecipitihus locis proveniunt. Colum. 
Rus {ruere, to stir; in Grerman ruhren, originally to dig), 
the field, country, inasmuch as rural labors are performed 
there, as agriculture, the chase, in contradistinction to town ; 
also a farm: Rus ex urhe- evolare. Cic. Hahet rus am^- 
num et suburhanum. Id. 

51. Agger, Moles, Vallum. Agger {ad-gerere, IV, 
1.), the dam, in as far as it is an elevation of material carried 
together, e. g. an artificial public road ; Moles, as a large 
mass, and a fabric which has taken much labor : Qua fauces 
erant angustissima portus, moles atque aggerem ah utra- 
que parte Utoris jaciebat. Cses. Dams on the bottom of the 
sea; agger, thai part of them which is above the level of 
the sea. Agger is also the dam used in sieges, made of 
wood and filled with stone and earth, by which a fortress was 
enclosed, and from whence the assault was made : Exstruitur 
agger in altitudinem pedum IX, Cses. Vallum, also 
V alius, the palisades, consisting of posts and branches, 
driven into the dam, agger ; also used for the palisades and 
the dam together: Erat fossa pedum XV, et v alius contra 
hostem in altitudinem pedum X, tantundemqu>e ejus valli 
agger in latitudinem patebat. Caes. 

52. Agnatus, Cognatus, Gentilis. Agnatus, a kins- 
man by the faUier's side; Cognatus, from the mother's 
side ; both are Gentiles, relations of the same gens, if they 
have the same nom^n. 

53.^ Agricola, Arator, Colonus. -A^ricoZa, an agri- 
culturist, a farmer: Dejotarus rex diligentissimus agricola 


62 54. Ala. 57. Alias. 

et pecuarius hahehatur. Cic. il ra^ or ploughman; in Sicily, 
one who farmed Roman public farms {arationes), and who 
paid the tithe for it: Nympho arator araiiones magnas cou' 
ductas habebat. Cic. Colonus, the farmer who maintains 
well a whole farm, whether his own or not: Coloni ratio 
est^ ut ea^ qua in agricultura na^cantur e terra^ fructum fa- 
ciant. Varr. ; further, a freeborn man, who on his account 
cultivated a piece of public land for a fixed tax in kind or 
money ; by his birth he was attached to this farm, and pos- 
sessed the civitas^ but he only paid poll tax : Antiquissimi 
socii fidelissimique^ Siculi^ coloni populi Romani atque 
aratores^in agros atque in cedes suas revertantur. Cic. 

54. Ala, CoRNTT. -4Za, iving; the Roman cavalry, which 
covered both wings of the line of battle of the legions : Te 
Pompeius alcB alteri prcBfecerai. Cic. At a later period, 
contingents of Roman allies placed likewise there, infantry 
and cavalry : Sinistra sodorum al a. Liv. Cohortes^ equites 
alariij in contradistinction to legionarii. Cornua^ are 
both ends of a Roman order of battle, the cavalry included, 
contradistinguished from the centrum {media ades) : Thraces 
in dextrum cornu^ Italicos equites^ incurrerunt. Liv. 

55. Albus, Candldus, Canus; Candere, Canere. Al- 
bus^ white, as a natural color, equus, corvus ; hence aibum^ 
the dye, or the body of the color: Columnas albo polire, 
Liv. Album ovi. C an d i d u s (ac-cendere, 12, VII.), shin- 
ing, brilliant white, e. g. lilium; in -4Z5m5, the degree of 
light, in Candidus^ of purity, spotlessness, is considered: 
Alba nautis stella. Hor., portending good luck, success; 
AnimcB Candida. Id., spotless ds to faith and probity. Ca- 
nus^ of the shining silveir- white which passes over into gray, 
e. g. pruina, arista : Nan cani^ nan ruga repente auctorita- 
tem arripere possunt. Cic, gray hair. Hence Candere^ to 
glow, to be white hot, to be brilliantly white ; Canere, to 
be grayish white: Can dens carbo, cycnus. Dum gramina 
canent. Virg., sc. rore. 

56. Alere, Nutrire, Pascere. Alere, to nourish, 
bring up, support, and maintain, e. g. exercitum ; Quum ageh 
lus eum non satis aleret, ludimagister fuit. Cic. Nu trire 
(utiy 26, XVII.), to give nourishment : Balcena mammis fetus 
nutriunt. Plin. Pasqere, to feed, to lead to pasture, to ' 
feed upon for pleasure or want ; bestias : Olusculis nos soles 
pascere. Cic. ; oculos animumque re, and in re. Id. 

57. Alias, Alioqui — in, Ceteeoqui — in, ^ Aliheb, 

58. Aliquamdiu. 59. Aliqtumdo. 63 

Secus. Alias^ XX, 6., another time; Alioqui^ XX, 5., 
ELiid Alio quin^'m another respect; Ceteroqui^ Cetero- 
quin^ for the rest, other circumstances and relations being 
considered; -4 Zi^er, otherwise; it compares the other kind 
and mode^of a state of a subject, as differing from the subject 
before us: Id quum sape alias^ turn Pyrrhi hello a senatu 
nosiro judicatum est, Cic. Alias ita loquor^ut concessum 
est^ alias ut necesse est. Id., the one — the other time. 
Minima olim istiiis rei fuit cupiditas : alio qui n multa eX' 
starent exempla majorum. Id. Falemum idoneum est dever- 
sorio : si modo tecti satis est ad comitatum nostrum recipi- 
endum, ceteroqui mihi locus non displicet. Id. A liter 
scribo ac sentio. Jus semper est qucBsitum cequabile ; neque 
enim a liter essetjus. Id., if we should proceed in any other 
way; alio qui non esset jus would be under other circum- 
stances. Alias aliter hcec in utramque partem causes s6' 
lent convenire. Id. The one time so,ihe other time other- 
wise. Secus (sequi^ XX, 3.), in a manner inferior to the 
one before us, different, worse : Hora fere undecima^ aut non 
multo secus, Cic, later. Secus existimare de aliqvx). 
Nobis aliter videtur ; recte secus ne^ postea. Id. 

58, Aliquamdiu, Aliquantisper. Aliquam diu (i. e. 
minus quam diu), pretty long, it limits the length ; Aliquan* 
t is per, for some time, a while, the shortness of a duration : 
Aristum audivit aliquamdiu. Cic. Hinc concedas ah 
ore eorum aliquantisper, Ter. 

59. Aliquando, Quondam, Unquam, Olim. Aliquan- 
do, sometime or other, designates a case happening by 
chance among others; Quondam {quom — dam), at a cer- 
tain time, once, a single period, the more accurate determina- 
tion of which is unimportant; Unquam, ever, a certain 
point of time, without giving its distinct place in time ; Olim 
(olere, to grow, XX, 7.), always, continual recurrence of the 
same circumstances ; whether these words belong to the past, 
the present, or the future, is indicated by the surrounding 
words: Pelasgi fines aliquando habuere Latinos. Virg. 
Tandem aliquando Romce esse ccepimus, lllucescet ali' 
quando ille dies, Utilitas aliquando cum honestate pug' 
nat, Cic, now and then. Fuit ista , quondam in hac re 

'puhlica virtue. Id. Quondam tua dicere facta tempus erit, 
Virg, Quondam etiam victis redit in prcBcordia virtus. Id., 
sometimes, at certain times. Patroni raro unquam possunt 
ante judicium scire, quid testis dicturus sit. Quinctil. Sic 

64 60. Aliqui. 62. AUercatio. 

olim loquehantur, Cic, formerly always. Pueris olim 
dant crustula^ blandi dodores. Hor., always. Non^ si nude 
nunc, et olim sic erit. Id. 

60. Aliq0i, Aliquot, Quidam, Nonnulli. Aliqui^ 
any, indifferent which, of a certain species ; Aliquot, some, 
of a number; Qui (2 am, some, certain ones, without further 
determining them, which? Nonnulli^ some few, the ne- 
gation of none : Omne nomen ex aliquibus, non ex omnibus 
Uteris scribitur, Cic, from some letters, whichever they 
maybe. Accepi a te aliquot epistolas uno tempore. Id., 
undetermined number. Certis quibusdam verbis Jit di- 
vortium. Id. Certain formulas, which I need not mention 
here. Partem navium deprimunt ; nonnullas cum homini" 
bus capiunt, reliquas in portum compellunt. Cses. 

61. Alius, Alter, Secundus ; Alii, Ceteri, Reliqui. 
Alius^ another one, that is different from one or more of the 
same kind; Alter^ the other, the one of the two who stand 
in mutual relation, also counting; Secundus (sequi^XlY^ 
l,b,y,), the second according to order or rank : Epistolas 
multa^ accepi uno tempore., ali am alia jucundiorem. Cic, 
one more pleasant than the other. Te has phaleras a Phi- 
larcho abstulisse dicebas, alias item nobiles ah Aristo^ ter- 
tias a Cratippo. Id. Duo consules ejus anni^ alter morboy 
alter ferro periit, Liv., the one — the other. Nulla al- 
tera Roma, neqv^ alia sedes imperii erit. Id. Joves tres 
numerant ; ex quibus primum et secundum natos in Arca- 
dia^ alter um patre Mthere^ alterum patre CcbIo ferunt, 
tertium Cretensem, Satumi filium. Id. Alii^ others, differ- 
ent from the mentioned ones ; Ceteri {ques^ Plur. VIII, 1.), 
the others of the same species ; Reliqui^ the rest, remain- 
ing ones: Homines student prcestare ceteris animalibus. 
Sail. Extra ducem paucosque prater ea reliqui in bello 
rapaces. Cic. 

62. Altercatio, Contentio, Concertatio, Certamen, 


JuRGiuM, LiTiGiuM, Lis, EixA. Altercatio (aZ^er, XIX, 
2. ; II, 3.), the more quiet or more violent exchange of words ; 
Contention exertion, a contest carried on with exertion; 
Concertatio^ the mutual dispute of two or more, who by 
words or arguments strive to conquer one another; Certni" 
men^ struggle with or without arms, emulating or contending 
to overcome the other ; Controversial contest of two par- 
ties, each of which believes itself to be right and defends its 

63.^ -4Z«erwM5. 64. Alius. 65 

ground, controversy ; Disceptatioy the contest of two parties, in 
which all legal grounds are brought forward for one and the 
other, which are examined so that it may be decided ; Dis- 
putation coWoquy on a disputed subject, with reasons and 
counterreasons and arguments, generally between several per- 
sons of different opinion, is of a polemic character, and pro- 
ceeds methodically; Dissertation a calmer, systematic, 
and extensive colloquy or essay ; it speaks in a didactic tone, 
without being bound by certain laws : Magna ibi non dis» 
ceptatio modoy sed etiam altercatio fait, Liv. Est 
inter eos non de terminisn sed de tota possessione contentio, 
Contentiones concertationesque in disputando perti» 
nacesn indignce philosophia videntur. Cic. Cum Zenone Ar^ 
cesilas certamen instituit^ non studio vincendi^ sed rei oh- 
scuritate. Id . Judicia distrahendarum contr over si arum 
causa inventa sunt. Id. Lator legis^ quum esset controver- 
sia nulla factin juris tamen disceptationem esse voluit ; 
et electi judices isque prcepositus qucBstioni^ qui hcBC juste sa- 
pienterque disceptet. Id. JEa, qu^ disputavi^ disse- 
rere malui^ quam judicare. Id. In omni disputations, 
quid esset simillimum veri^ qucerehamus. Id. Jurgium (jus, 
jurgare^ to judge, XIX, 1. ; IV, 3., c), the quarrel from de- 
sire to have the last word, also connected with reproaches and 
evil words : Benevolorum concertatio^ non lis inimico' 
rum^ jurgium dicitur. Maledicta jurgii petulantis. Cic. 
Litigium {lis^ litigare)^ dispute, quarrel which originates 
from real disagreement: Litigium est tihi cum uxore. 
Plaut. Lis (ladere, by defending), the dispute, as action in 
court about a private matter: Adhuc suhjudice lis est. Hor. 
Rixa^ a passionate quarrel which goes to fisticuffs : Crebrce^ 
ut inter vinolentoSj rixcB raro conviciis, scBpius ccede et vul- 
nerihus transiguntur. Tac. 

63. Alternus, Mutuus, Reciprocus. -4 Z^erwws, alter- 
nately one and the other ; Mutuus (mutaren IV, 3.), mutual, 
when the same is returned with the same; Reciprocus 
{re-cis-procus)n on the same path returning: Vites alter^ 
nis putantur annis. Plin. Mutuum in amicitia est^ quum 
par voluntas accipitur et redditur. Cic. Mstu^ maris affiu' 
unt et remeant re Cipro ci. Plin. 

64. Altus, Editus, Arduus, Celsus, Procerus, Sub- 
LiMis; Profundus. Altus {alerCf 56), perpendicularly 
high, from the surface of the globe to the highest point, hence 
used to determine measures : Statuere columellam trihus 


66 65. Amandare. 66. Amare. 

cubitis ne alt io rem, Cic. Editus^ elevated , of hills, &c. : 
Collis paululum ex planitie edit us, Cses. Arduus (or de- 
re^ IV, 3.), steep, e. g. via ; Oppidum difficili adscensu atque 
arduo. Opus arduum conamur, Cic. Celsus^ high 
with regard to growth, and in relation to that which is low, 
reaching above : Status erectus et eels us. Cic. C el sum ca^ 
put super agmina tolliL Sil. Diana posita excelsain bast. 
Cic, distinguished, most high. Procerus {pro^ forward, 
VIII, with C as digamma), forward, stretched long, hori- 
zontally and upward, e. g. rostrum, Galatea^ longa proce' 
rior alno, Ovid. Sublimis^ from below directed upward, 
pending high in the air, e. g. ccelum: Apparet sublimis in 
aere Nisv^, Virg. — Altus^ deep, from the surface of the 
globe downward : Quum ex alto puteo sursum ad summum 
escenderis^ periculum est^ a summo ne rursum codas. Plant. 
Profundus^ entering deep, with distant bottom, e. g. mare: 
ProfundcB altitudinis convalles, Liv. Somnus altissi» 
mus ; Profunda avaritia, 

65. Amandare, Ab — Relegabe, Aqua et igni inteh- 
DiCERE. Am an darCy to order one away, send away : jPo- 
miliarem dimittere ab se et amandare in ultim^ts terras, 
Cic. Ablegare^ to send one away for the purpose of get- 
ting rid of him : Pueros venatum ablegavit, Liv. Rele» 
garCy to order one from the place where we are back, to bid 
him away, to exile : Manlius filium ab hominibus Telegavit 
et ruri habitare jussit, Liv. Aqua et igni interdicere^ 
to prohibit fire and water, the punishment of perpetual exile, 
the only sort of exile in ancient Rome when free : Leges 
CcBsaris jubent^ et, qui de ut, itemque qui majestatis damwk' 
tus sit^ aqua et igni interdici, Cic. 

66. Amare, Diligere ; Amicus, Familiaris, Necessa- 
Rius; Amor, Caritas, Pietas. -4 mare, to love, from in- 
clination, and because the subject pleases our heart; Dili- 
gere^ from esteem, as a subject dear to us : Scias, Egnatium 
a me non diligi solum^ verum etiam amari, Cic. Amicus^ 
friend in general, and the sincere, true friend ; Familiaris^ 
a friend of the house, with whom we have become familiar 
by daily intercourse ; Necessarius^ a friend allied to us by 
duty, as by relations of public office, the duties and relations 
of hospitality, mutual acts of kindness : Cum Dejotaro mihi 
amicitiam res publica conciliavit^ familiaritatem con' 
suetudo attulit^ summam vero necessitudinem magna efu$ 
ojficia in me et in exercitum meum effecerunU Cic. — Amor^ 

67. Amb. 68. AmMguus. 67 

love, as affection and sensual, also with animals; Cdritas^ 
the intense love to a highly valued object, result of reflection, 
and only of a pure kind ; Pietas^ dutiful love, from natural 
as well as religious impulse, toward those to whom we owe 
our life and the happiness of it: Aut car it ate moventur 
homines, ut deorun^, patria, parentum; aut amore^vt fra' 
trum, liherorum, familiarium. Cic. Pi etas erga patriam 
aut parentes aut alios sanguine conjunctos officium conservare 
monet. Id. 

67. Amb, CiRCUM, Circa, CiRCUMciRCA, CiRciTER. Amh^ 
about, according to the roundness of something, used only in 
compounds, as am hire, amplecti, am bur ere, ambages; Cir^ 
cum, about, around, according to the circumference of some- 
thing, if there is a movement in a circular line ; Circa, if 
there is rest in the same, also of time and number ; Circi- 
ter (literally, circlish), about, not quite definite, of time, 
number, if an approaching to the definite part, and no more, 
is meant: Terra circum a/cem se convertit. Templa, qua 
circum forum sunt, Pueros circum amicos dimittit. Cic. 
lAgna contulerunt circa casam eam, Nep. Custodes circa 
omnes portas missi, ne .quis urbe egrederetur. Liv. Plena 
sunt templa circa forum. Cic. Circa tertiam hor am. Cels. 
Hora diei circiter quarta Britanniam attigit, Cses. Ccspi 
regiones circumcirca prospicere Cic, all around, round 

68. Ambigutts, Anceps, Dubius, Incertus: Ambigere, 
Animi pendere, Dubitare. Ambiguus, that which may 
be taken in two different ways, ambiguous, e. g. oracula. 
Anceps {amb -caput), that which exists double, the same 
form, quality, tendency, or threatening the same danger from 
two opposite sides, e. g. Janv^, securis, valetudo, fortuna ; 
Jus anceps. Hot., that which may be interpreted to the ad- 
vantage of either of the opposed parties. Ambigua reperien* 
tur facile, si animadverterimus verborum ancipites aut mul» 
tiplices potestates. Ad Herenn. Dubius (instead of dujus, 
from duo), wavering between two things, dubious, doubtful, 
as to him who has doubt, and the matter that is doubted : 
JSquites visi ab dubiis, quinam essent. Liv. Perspicuis 
dubia aperiuntur. Cic. Dubius, the person who, in se- 
lecting between two things, is irresolute, doubtful, if he has 
equally strong reasons for either; Incertus, uncertain, if 
he is wanting in reasons or motives to decide upon : Milites 
inctrti ignarique, quid potissimum facerent. Sail. — Am* 

68 69. Amhitio. 72. Amens, 

higere^ to be ^undetermined, not to make up one's mind, 
hesitate : Philippus^ cui rei primum occurreret^ ambigebat. 
Justin. Ant mi a^d Animis pendere^ to hesitate from 
want of resolution, fear, &c. : Ego animi p end ere soleo^ 
quum semel quid orsus traducor alio. Cic. Dubitare^ XI, 
10., a., to doubt, to hesitate from the fact that there are equal- 
ly good reasons for one or the other choice: Ccma dubia 
apponitur^ ubi tu dubites^ quid sumas potissimum. Ter. 

69. Ambitio, Ambitus. Ambitio^ the lawful and proper 
canvass for a place, the favor of him who has to bestow it, 
and in general the endeavour to obtain the favor and good- 
will of some one; Ambitus, the same unlawful, e. g. by 
bribe: Hie magistratus a populo summa ambitione con- 
tenditur. Ambitus alterum accusare. Cic. 

70. Ambo, Uterque, Duo, Bini, Par. -4 m 5 o, both the 
two, both together, a state of perfect equality as to certain 
circumstances of two ; Uterque^ either of the two, one as 
well as the other, two taken as two different units, with sep- 
arate share or participation of both in a state which neverthe- 
less is common to both : Duo, two, as number; Bini, two- 
fold, by two, distributive, things of the same species yet 
belonging to one another, two by two; Par, 41, a pair, if 
two things are designated which belong to each other on 
account of the equality of their qualities : CcBsar atque Pom- 
peius diversa sibi ambo consilia capiunt ; eodemque die 
uterque eorum ex castris exercitum educunt. Cses. Binos 
tabellarios in duas naves imposuL Cic. Censores bini 
sunto. Id., each time two. Binos habebam scyphos: jvheo 
promi utrosque. Id., two pairs, — utrosque, as belonging 
together. Scyphorum pari a complura. Gladiatorum par 
nobilissimum. Id. 

71. Ambulare, Spatiari. Ambulare {amb,XiX,6.,a,), 
originally of the changing position of the feet in walking, to 
walk about; Spatiari, to walk slowly and with measured 
steps: Ambulant cornices; currant per dices, Plin. JSn- 
nius in hortis cum vicino suo ambulavit. Cic. Nee mea 
turn longa spatietur imagine pompa, Propert. 

72. Amens, Demens, Ex — ^Vecor^, In — Vesanus, 
Mente captus, Delirus. AmenSf he who does not know 
what he is doing, senseless, of total want of consciousness ; 
Demens, he who has little understanding, inconsiderate, 
who does not show sense and mind where he ought to show 
it: CcBcus atque amens tribunus plebis. Cic. Amens 

73. Amittere, 74. Ampliare. 69 

TMllia per patris corpus carpentum egit. Liv. In tranquillo 
tempestatem adversasn optare^ dementis est, Cic. Incon' 
suite ac veluti per dementiam cuncta simul agere. Sail., 
like people who have lost their heads. Excors^ without 
common sense, stupid ; Hoc qui non videt^ ex cor s est, Cic. 
Insanus^ he who from violent passion does not act like a 
rational being, senseless, also of highly inspired persons, e. g. 
vcUes, cupiditas : Moles ins an cb substructignum. Cic. Vi' 
cors^ insane, he who carries his desire for satisfaction to all 
absence of reason; Vesanus^ mad, he who is carried by 
wild passion to madness : Mulieris amore vecors, Armi' 
nium rapta uxor vecordem agehat, Tac. Vesanus nova 
in vite Lycurgus, Propert. Ulyssis simulatavesania. Plin. 
Impetus vecors turbavit hostes, is the assault of the furious, 
who throw themselves blindly into danger ; Omnia ira mili» 
taris vesano impetu egit. Liv., the passion of the person 
maddened with revenge, which knows no boundary any more. 
Mente c apt us, idiotic; Delirus, weak in mind, light- 
headed, frantic: Decipi tarn dedecet, quam deli rare et 
mente esse captum, Cic. Deliri senes. Id. 

73. Amittere, Peedere, Deperdere. Amittere, to 
lose something which one misses; Perdere, if it perishes, 
is entirely gone; Deperdere, to lose something of that 
which one possesses, sustaining loss. Decitis ami sit vitam^ 
at non perdidiU Cic, lost, but not entirely, vainly lost. 
Nostri paucos ex suis deperdiderunt, Csbs. 

74. Ampliare, Amplificare, Augere, Comperendinare, 
Prorogare, Propagare, Producere. Ampliare, to mag- 
nify, poetically; Amplificare, to make of wider extent, 
to amplify, e. g. urbem; Augere, to increase,, by addition 
and toward the upper part, e. g. num^rum, copiam ; heneficium 
cumulo augere, Cic. — Ampliare, to adjourn sentence to 
a convenient day, which frequently could be done ; Compe^ 
rendinare, adjourn to the third day {in perendinum) as 
second term: Bis ampliatus, tertio ahsolutus est reus, 
Acilius Glaucia primus tulit, ut comper en dinar etur 
reus: antea vel judicari primo poterat, vel amplius prO' 
nuntiari. Cic. Prorogare, to extend, from a disposition 
of kindness, the duration of an office, the term of payment, 
&c., in the sense of extending, e. g. vita spatium damnatis. 
Propagare, to lengthen, to make to continue, in the sense 
of procreation : Propagatio miserrimi temporis vitcB, Cic. 
Producere, to prolong, to procrastinate, to amuse one with 
vain hopes, e. g. convivium, aliquem falsa spe. 

70 75. Amputare. 76. An. 

75. Amputare, Circumcidere, Tondere, Prjecidere, 
Resecare, Mutilare, Truncare. Amputare^ to lop off 
unnecessary or dangerous parts of a body ; Circumcidere^ 
to cut all round, in circumference or of the volume, so that 
the whole remains still a whole, though diminished in size, 
e. g. ungues digitorum. Inutilesque jalce ramos amputans 
feliciores inserit. Hor. Radices vitium luxuriantium cir^ 
cumcidere, Plin. Tondere^ to shear, to shave, to cut off 
clear down, of hair, wool, grass, &c., e. g. barbamy prata^ 
stipulas : Boni pastoris est tondere pecus^ non degluhere. 
Suet. PrcBcidere^ to cut, lop off at the forepart, manum ; 
hence also depriving, spent,' reditum, Resecare, to cut 
what is too long, capillos, palpebral, to reduce what is too 
long: Nimia resecari oportet, naturalia relinqui, Cic. 
Mutilare, XIX, 5., a., to mutilate, to disfigure by the re- 
moval of parts : nasum auresque, Li v. Truncare, to mu- 
tilate entirely, to truncate by violent removal of all essential 
external parts: Truncat olus foliis, Ovid. ^ 

76. An, Num, Ne, Utrum, Anne, Numne, Nonne, 
Necne, An non. A n, or whether ? perhaps ? designates a 
doubting question, opposed to a previous one, expecting de- 
cision, or opposed to one imagined as contradictory, consent, 
with a degree of confidence : Respondeat Verres, qui sit iste 
Verrutiusl mercator, an arator, an pecuariusl Cic. Qui 
scis, an, quce jubeam, sine vi faciat ? Ter. Est igitur ali' 
quid, quod perturbata mens melius possit facer e, quam coU' 
stans : an quisquam potest sine perturbatione mentis irasci? 
Cic. Num inquires whether something is or not: Num 
quis hie est 7 nemo est Ter. Ne is added to the interrogat- 
ing word, expressing a supposition of probability, not without 
fear, however, of disappointed expectation: Nunquamne tibi 
judicii venit in mentem? Cic. Ubi est tua mens J potesne 
dicere? Id. Utrum, which of the two? whether? with 
following an or ne, leaves the answer free between two 
questions opposed to each other: Utrum defenditis, an im- 
pugnatis plebem? Liv. Iphicrates quum interrogaretur, 
utrum pluris patrem matremne faceret? matrem, inquit, 
Nep. Ne in Anne strengthens the meaning oi an; so in 
Nu mne: Quando dicor spopondisse, et pro patre, anne pro 
filio 7 Cic. In dominos quceri de servis iniquum est. An- 
ne qucBritur? Id. Is there really anybody who asks? 
Quid? Deum ipsum numne vidisti? Id. The same in 
Nonne^ in the convincing question, intended to bring the in- * 

77. Anguis. 79. Anima. 71 

terrogated person to a confession of truth : Quid ? cants 
nonne similis lupo? Cic. Necne^ and whether not? or 
not ? unites with the positive question the doubting, negative 
one, respecting which the ''^terrogator desires an answer : 
Dii utrum sint^ necne suit^ quceritur, Cic. Sunt hcec 
tua verba^ necne? Id. Or are they not.? An non, or 
whether not ? stand opposed either to a question affirmatively- 
expressed, or to an imagined preceding one, if the interro- 
gator, sure of his opinion, expects confirmation of the other : 
QucBritury Corinthiis bellum indicamus^ an non? Cic. Me 
hodie conjecisti in nuptias. — An non dixi esse hoc futu- 
rum ? — DixiL Ter, Did I not tell it perhaps ? instead of 
dixi^ an non dixi 7 

77. Anguis, Serpens, Coluber, Draco, Vipera, Aspis. 
Anguis, the winding and strangling {anger e, making nar- 
row, strangle, throttle), especially poisonous, snake : Latet 
anguis in herba, Virg. Serpens, the creeping snake, 
reptile; Coluber {colere, DC, L, a.), a smaller cylindrical 
snake: Ciconia, longis invisa colubris. Virg. Draco, a, 
large innocuous snake : Quidque privs faerint, placidi me- 
minere dracones. Ovid. Vipera (from vapor, the snuff- 
ing, wheezing), the adder, which alone brings forth living 
young ones: Parva necat morsu, spatiosum vipera taurum. 
Ovid. Aspis, asp, small, slowly moving, the bite of which 
kills quickly: Cleopatra perisse morsu aspidis putaba- 
tur. Suet. 

78. Angustus, Artus; Angustije, Fauces, Os. An- 
gus t us, narrow, strait, that which straitens; Artus, light, 
closely fitting: In parvum et angustum locum concludere. 
Cic. Tigna artius illigata, Caes. — Angustia, the nar- 
rows in hollow roads, mountain passes, streets or lanes, where 
it is difficult to pass : Contra angustiis viarum contrahit, 
Cses. Fauces {faux, belly), the narrow entrance into a 
wider space, the pass through which we get into a more open 
country: Fauces portus' angustissimcB. Csbs. Os, mouth, 
and every similar opening, estuary: In ipso aditu ore que 
portus. Cic. 

79. Anima,^ Spiritus, Animus, Mens. Anima, the 
breath, inasmuch as it is air ; the soul, as the vivifying sub- 
stance, according to the ancients, of every living being : Clo- 
dium an imam effiantem reliquit. Cic. Spiritus, the 
breathing, breath, which inhales and exhales the air in 
draughts: Aspera arteria excipit animam eam, qua ducta 

72 80. Animadvertere. 82. Annona. 

est spiritu, Cic. Extremum spiritum are excipere. Id. 
Animusy the human soul as the principium of feeling, de- 
sire, and thinking: Immortalitas animi. Constamus ex ait' 
imo et corpora, Cic. Meg^.^ understanding, as faculty of 
reflection; disposition: Menti regnum totitts animi a na- 
tura tributum est. Cic. 

80. Animadvertere, Animum advertere, Attendere, 
Observare. Animadvertere, to remark, to find some- 
thing that has been perceived worth observing : Experrecta 
nutrix animadvertit, puerum dormientem circumplicatum 
serpentis amplexu, Cic. Animum advertere, to direct 
one's thoughts to something, especially something surprising : 
Adverterent animos, ne quid novi tumultus oriretur. 
Liv. Attendere, to pay attention, with exertion: Quum 
plura sint ambigui genera, attendere et aucupari verba 
oportebit, Cic, also : Animam compressi : aurem admovi : 
ita animum ccepi attendere, hoc modo sermonem captans, 
Ter. Observare, to observe, to direct one's attention to a 
subject in order to observe its changes: Observata Jubc 
sunt et in signijicationem eventus animadversa et notaia, 
Cic. The Observatio,SiS sensual perception, precedes the 
Animadversio, i. e. the operation of the mind which 
draws conclusions from that which has been observed. 

81. Animosus, Fortis, Strenuus. Animosus, cour- 
ageous, he who, confiding in his strength and good luck, 
faces danger fearlessly and cheerfully; Fortis {ferre)^ 
brave, who suffers evil without losing courage, and stands 
dangers with circumspection and fortitude, that is, enduring 
moral strength: Fortis et constantis est non perturbari in 
rebus asperis, sed prasenti animo uti et consilio, nee a ra^ 
tione discedere. Cic. Strenuus, properly, tightly drawn, 
active, industrious, thrifty ; hence also, resolute, he who goes 
quickly to work, and does not flag: Mercator strenuus 
studiosusque rei gerendcB. Cato. Strenuis militibu^ vel 
ignavis spem m^tumque addere. Tac. 

82. Annona, Commeatus, Penus. Annona, the pro- 
duce of this year of the fruits of the field, and the market 
price depen4ing upon it: Annona pretium, nisi in calami- 
tate fructuum, non habet, Cic. Commeatus, properly that 
which comes and goes, the provision which comes from other 
places: Commeatum ab Roma consul subvehit, Liv. Pc- 
nus, store of provision kept in the interior of a house, stores 

83. Annuus. 85. Ante. 73 

for the family: Cellam appellarunt penariam, uhi penus. 

83. Annuus, Annivj^rsarius, Sollemnis. Annuus, 
annual, of duration and regular annual recurrence, e. g. ma- 
gistratus ; frigorum et calorum varietates, Anniversari- 
us, that which returns with the annual change of the year: 
Mer curias sacris anniversariis colitur. Cic. Soil em" 
nis, that which happens annually and with certain solemni- 
ties: IdiLS turn MaicB sollemnes ineundis magistratihus 
erant, Liv. 

84. Anquirere, Inquirere. Anquirere, to search 
ahout, e. g. necessaria ad vivendum ; and to accuse one, of a 
crime whose punishment is determined beforehand, which 
was done by the tribunes: Quum trihunus his pecunia an- 
quisisset, tertio capitis se anquirere dixit. Liv. In- 
quirere, to try, in rem, and to make inquiries, &c,, for an 
accusation: Scis ilium accusationem cogiiare, inquirere 
in competitores, testes qucerere. Cic. 

85. Ante, Ob, PRiE, Pro, (Por), Coram. Ante, be- 
fore, in front, of place, rank, and time, i. e. being in front of 
a thing, opp. post, in the back of a thing : Post me erat 
JEgina, ante Megara. Cic. Oh, before, from above, and 
in respect of the surface of a thing : O h oculos mihi caligo 
ohstitit. Plaut. ; ohvius, that which lies in the way before 
one; ohtegere, to cover from above, to cover over; hence 
o h, on account of, because the subject to which it refers lies 
before us, is in our mind brought before us : Oh cives serva- 
tos corona data. Coram, in presence of, before, and per- 
sonally, in his own person: Coram Cuspio tecum locutus 
sum. Cic. Mihi promiserunt consules coram, et ahsenti 
mihi scripserunt. Id. PrcB, in advance of something, of the 
foremost place in the sense of rank, in comparison with that 
which is behind ; hence it is used of the start which a thing 
has of another, preference and excelling: I prcB, sequar. 
Ter. PrcB se ferre, to carry before one's self, to exhibit. 
Loqui prcB mcerore non potuit. Lictores prcBtorihus ante- 
eunt cum fascihus. Cic, to precede. Ad honesti cognitio- 
nem natura, ipsa praeunte deducimur. Id., preceding as a 
leader. Pro, in some compounds Por, forward, signifies 
the direction from the front of a thing, which remains behind 
or stationary, e. g. prospicere, to look forward into a dis- 
tance ; prcRgredi, to precede; progredi, to go forward, 
farther and farther on, and to go forth, with reference to that 


74 86. Antequami 90. Apparere, 

which remains behind, e. g. longius ah castris^ ex domo pro» 
gredi. The orator speaks pro rosfris when he has the 
rostra of the tribune at his back, but also^ro condone^ inas- 
much as he is in front of the meeting; hence pro, for, in- 
stead of, in the sense of protection (protegere) and repre- 
senting, and in proportion : Sicilia Romanis non pro penaria 
cella^ sed pro arario fait. Pro dignitaie cuique tribuatur. 
Cic. Thus in porrigere, portendere, polluere. — AntC' 
cellere:, to precede, be above, according to rank ; Pracellere^ 
according to the degree of quality; Ex cellere, according to 
the elevation above flie multitude. 

86. Antequam, Priusquam. Antequam, previous to, 
before, according to position and time ; Priusquam, sooner, 
before, earlier, comparatively : Ante videmus fulgurationem, 
quam sonum audiamus. Senec. Memhris utimur prius^ 
quam didicimus, cujus ea utilitatis causa haheamus. Gic. 

87. Anus, Podex, Nates, Clunes. Anusyihe poste*. 
rior as" the issue of the rectum; Podex (pedere), as the 
opening of it: Anum appellas alieno nomine: cur non suo 
potiusl Cic, scil, podicem. Nates, the seat; Clunes, 
the hams, used of men and animals. 

88. Anus, Vetula. Anus^a woman advanced in years; 
Ve tula. Sin old woman, in the sense of disrespect. 

89. Apex, Cacumen, (Columen), Fastigium, Vertex; 
Apex, the prominent, conical, or other point, e. g. Jlamma: 
Mons, apicem collectus in, unum, Ovid. Cacumen, the 
pointed summit, e. g. abietis, mantis, {Columen {colere,^ 
XV, 1.), the gable of a building, villcB, contracted;) CuJ- 
men, the highest part of a tiling which ends round: Cul- 
mina Alpium, also villarum, Fastigium, the pointed 
edge of surfaces inclining to one another, the high, elevated 
gable end: Summi fastigia tecti adscensu super o. Virg., 
especially the triangular frontispiece of a temple : Tempestas 
fastigia templorum, a culminihus ahrupta, dissipavU, 
Liv. Vertex, the top, vertex, the highest point of a moun- 
tain, tree ; from which the outlines descend : Vertice celso 
aericB quercus, Virg. Ignes ex. MtncR vertice erumpunt. 

90. Apparere, Comparere. -4 ;?j9 are re, to appear, be- 
come visible : Navicula prcedonum apparuit, Compa- 
rere, to be there, present : Rex iis, quorum agros urbesque 
populatas esset, redder et res, quce comparerent, Liv., that 
which still might be extant, be found. 


91. Ara. 93. Arbiter. 75 

91. Ara, Alt ABE. Ara, an altar of turf, earth, stones 
put together; Altare^ the metal part, which was placed 
upon the ara for burning offerings; high altar: Aram 
tenens jurat. Cic. En quatuor aras : ecce dims tibi, Dapk- 
ni^ duos, altaria^ Phmho. Virg. 

92. Arare, Colere agrum. Arare^ to plough: Quum 
terra araretur et sulcus altius esset impressus. Cic. Co- 
lere agrum (see 30), to cultivate, till a field, also hortos, 
vitem: Majores nostri suos agros siudiose colehant^ non 
alienos appetebant. Cic. 

93. Arbiter, Judex, Recuperator, Qujesitor; Arbi- 
TRiuM, Judicium, Existimatio. Arbiter {ar - b^tere, the 
approaching listener: Remotis arbitris. Cic), an arbi- 
trator, who decides a dispute according to fairness, equity 
(ea? cequo et bono) : Vidni nostri ambigunt de Jinibus : m« 
cepere arbitrum, Ter. Judex^ judge, who decides ac- 
cording to law and strict right. Recuperator^ one who is 
charged to assist another to obtain his right and due, gener- 
ally by the judge after sentence ; a judge respecting disputed 
property, whether in land or money : Posiquam prcetor re- 
cuperatores dedit^ damnatus demum^ vi coactus reddidit 
MCC, Philippiim, Plant. In cases called judicia privata^ 
the arbitri and judices were chosen by the praetor from 
among private citizens ; the recuperatores\ from the 
collegium centumvirale. They then acted according to a 
formula prescribed by him ; but he himself decided what was 
law. QucBsitores^ inquisitors, i. e. judges who investigate, 
inquire, were those four praetors, who in judicia publica^ ex- 
isted besides the prcetor urbanv^ and peregrinus^ and who, in 
penal cases (qucestiones perpetuce^ since 604 A. U.), pre- 
sided. — Arbitrium^ the result of arbitration, according to 
principles of fairness, equity, generally also free choice; 
Judicium, the court, the sentence according to strict justice 
and law, and generally every unbiassed judgment, praise or 
blame; Existimatio, 45, a judgment which is founded 
upon the moral character, the estimation, a result of obser- 
vation and opinion; Judicium, the distinct opinion ex- 
pressed upon something: dementia liberum arbitrium 
habet : non sub formula, sed ex cequo et bono judicat, Senec. 
Legio C(Bsari gratias egit, quod de se optimum judicium 
fecisset. Caes. Mece vitce ratio dimanavit ad existima- 
tionem hominumcommendatione ac judicio meorum, Cic, 
passive: Hoc dignitati et existimationi tuce conducit. 
Id., calling. 

76 94. ArUtrari, 95. Area. 

94. Arbitrari, Existimare, Videri, Opinari, Reri, 
Credere, Put are, Censere, Sentire. Arbitrary to 
believe, to opine, in consequence of sensual perception, or 
of conviction, which is not perfectly sure; Existimare^ 
45, in consequence of mature reflection and weighing the 
reasons : Arbitror : certum non scimus. Ter. Atticus maX' 
imum existimavit (jucRstum^ memorem gratumque videri. 
Nep. Videri, having the appearance, to appear, if the 
opinion is founded upon external appearance, and inquiry into 
the essential state is waived : PancBtius induxit earn, qtuz 
videretur esse ^ non qucB esset, repugnantiam, Cic. Opi' 
nariy to opine, suppose, if we suppose something as possi- 
ble, without farther reference to the correctness of the rea- 
sons : Aiuntj sapientem scepe aliquid opinari^ quod nesdat, 
Cic. Reriy to believe, have the opinion founded upon rea- 
sonable grounds, calculations, conclusions [in a similar way, 
though for another degree of belief, are vulgarly used the 
words calculate and reckon, in America and some parts of 
England] : Non equidem insector delendaque carmina Livi 
esse re or. Hor. Credere, to believe, to hold something 
to be true : Fere libenter homines id, quod volunt, ere dun t. 
CaBs. Put are (see Amputare, 75), to believe, to express 
one's opinion as result of reasoning (rationem putare), weigh- 
ing reasons and counter-reasons. Aliquis forsan me putet 
non put are hoc veriim. Ter. Censere ( properly, to esti- 
mate the faculty, capacity by hundreds, centum), to give 
one's opinion on a subject, and, generally, to be of opinion in 
a formal way, legally : Senatus Ccdium ab re ptiblica remo- 
vendum c en suit. Cses. Sentire, to he disposed, to think, 
to judge, thus or otherwise from moral reasons : De ceteris 
rebus quid senserim, quidque censuerim, audisse te ar- 
bitror. Cic. 

95. Arca, Cista, Capsa, Scrinium, Armarium. Arca^ 
a box, chest, which can be locked, is low and placed on the 
ground ; vthe Cista is a smaller box, to keep something, and 
the still smaller is Capsa, to keep something with care 
against injury, e. g. books, fruits; they are portable; Scri- 
nium, (a shrine,) box with divisions, pigeon-holes, in which 
letters, medicines, or things of value are kept; Armarium^ 
a box for instruments, which are constantly used, and which 
one wishes to have handy, also for books, clothes ; it is higher 
than the Area, has divisions, and sometimes was fastened 
against the wall. Argentum in arca positum. Cic. Arca 

96. Arcere. 100. Argentarius. 77 

vestiaria. Van*. Sestertios in cist am transferam ex Jlsco. 
Cic. Multis custodihus opus erit^ si te semel ad meas cap' 
sas admisero. Id. Tune aurum ex armario tuo promere 
ansa es 7 Cic. 

96. Arcere, Prohibere, Propulsare. Arcere^ to limit, 
to repel from further proceeding : Platanus solem cestate 
arcet^ hieme admitlit. Plin. Prohibere, to keep off, at 
a distance, somebody from something, or something from 
somebody: PrcBdones ah insula Sicilia prohibuit, Cic. 
Ab hoc periculo prohibete rem publicam. Id. Propul- 
sare, to repel violently something hostile, to drive away: 
Hostem a castris propulsare. Cses. 

97. Ardere, Flagrare, Deflagrare. Ardere, to 
bnm, to be in flames, used of the burning body and the rising 
flames: Ardentia, procul vidit castra. Liv. Imagine 
cerea largior arserit ignis, Hor. Flagrare, to be in 
bright flames, in German fiackern, used of the bright, high 
fire moved by the air: Flagrantes oner arias, quas incen- 
derant milites, videbatis. Cic. Deflagrare, to bum down, 
off, to be in the state of being consumed by flames : Qua 
node natus est Alexander, Diana Ephesia templum defla- 
gravit. Cic. 

98. Area, Planities, Campus. Area, a space which 
has been made plain, a threshing-floor in the open field; 
with temples, e. g. Capitolii, and palaces, it means the yard : 
Frumentum de area tollere. Cic. Ponendceque domo qucB- 
renda est area primum, Hor. Planities, a plain, a hor- 
izontal surface without considerable elevations : Collis pau- 
lum ex planitie editus, Caes. Campus, 50, an open 
plain, extending far, e. g. Campus Martius. Babylonii in 
camporum patentium cBquoribus habitantes, Cic. Collis 
eraty collemque super planissima campi area, Ovid. 

99. Arena, Sabulum, Glarea, Saburra. Arena, the 
finer sand consisting of gravel: Ventis arence moventur. 
Plin. Sabulum and Sabulo, sand which is mixed with 
earth, sand-earth: Ad vitem rutilum sabulonem, qui sit 
vividcB terrcB permistus, probant. Colum. Glarea, gravel: 
Vi(B pulvis, non glarea injecta est, Cic. Saburra, Sa- 
bur a, coarse sand , ballast : Oner aria multa saburra gra» 
vatcB, Liv. 

100. Argentarius, Mensarius, Nummularius. Ar- 
gentarius, an exchange-broker on his own account, a 
banker. They had in Rome their stalls near the market, 


78 101. Argumentatio, 105. ArmerUum. 

lent money on interest, made payments, and did broker busi» 
ness at auctions; Mensarius^ a banker of the republic, 
who, with a qucestor^ kept and managed public money; 
Nummular ius^ an exchange- broker on a small scale : Id, 
quod argentario iuleris expensum, ab socio ejus recte rC' 
petere possis. Ad Herenn. Quinque viri creati, quos Men- 
sarios ab dispensatione pecunicB appellarunt. Liv. 

101. Argumentatio, Ratiocinatio. Argumentatio, 
the proving a thing or position from facts; Ratiocinatio, 
the conclusion which reason makes, and the proof founded 
upon the same : Etiamne in tarn perspicuis rebus argu- 
mentatio qucBrenda? Cic. Ratiocinatio est oratio ex 
ipsa re probabile aliquid eliciens, quod expositum et per se 
cognitum sua se vi et ratione corifirmet. Id. Cicero omnem 
ar gumentation,em dividit in duas partes, inductionem 
et ratio cinationem, Quinctil. 

102. Aridus, Siccus, Sobrius. Aridus, dry, dneduip, 
well dried, German durre : Suscepit ignem foliis atque art- 
da circum nutrimenta dedit. Virg. Siccus, dry on the 
surface, externally : Summa petit scopuli, siccaque in rape 
resedit, Virg. ; hence also, he who has not yet drunk, opp. 
to madidus. The English dry is used similarly, though it 
signifies rather the effect, namely, feeling dry, i. e. being 
thirsty. Sobrius (se-ebrius), sober, not intoxicated: Qua* 
si inter sobrios bacchari vinolentus videtur, Cic. 

103. Arista, Spica. Arista, the pointed and prickly 
fibres on the ear of culmiferous fruits, and the ear which has 
them; Spica, Sp i cum, Bind Spicus, i, the ear, inasmuch 
as it is a pointed body : Seges fundit frugem spici, ordine 
structam, et contra avium minorum morsus munitur vallo 
aristarum. Cic. Maturis albescit messis aristis, Ovid. 

104. Arma, Tela. Arm a, properly the shield on the 
arm (see 106), in general defensive arms, which however 
may at the same time be offensive or capable of wounding ; 
TeZ a, offensive arms: Arma sunt alia ad tegendum, alia 
ad nocendum : qtice qui non habent, inermes sunt, Cic. Tela 
in hostem, hasta et gladius. Liv. [ Tela may be connected 
with the Teutonic Ziel, the object we strive to reach, target, 
&c., as we do by spears and arrows.] 

105. Armentum, Jumentum, Pecus, Grex. Ar men- 
turn^ beasts, cattle used for agricultural purposes; in gen- 
eral, larger animals, cattle, horses, stags, large sea^animals : 
Bourn armenta, Virg. Jumentum, animals for draught 

106. Armtis, 108. Arrogans. 79 

or carriage, as horses, asses, camels : Timoleon vectus ju- 
mentis junctis, Nep. Metellus jumenta sarcinis levari 
jubet. Sail. Pecus^ pecoris, cattle, collectively, which 
we raise and take care of; Pecus,, pecudis^ a single one 
of cattle, plur. also pecua^ obsolete: Est scientia pecoris 
parandi et pascendi; ejus pars est una de minorihas pecu' 
dihus^ cujus generis tria^ ovis^ capra, sus; altera de peco' 
re majore, in quo sunt boves^ asini^ equi, Varr. Patres 
pecu a captiva, prcBter equos^ restituenda censuerunt domi- 
nis, Liv. Gr ea:, a herd, a number, also of the larger cattle ; 
but if the object is distinction, grex is used of smaller beasts 
only: Mille greges illi, totidemque arm en t a per herbas 
pascehant. Ovid. Pecudes dispulsa sui generis sequuntur 
greges^ ut bos armenta. Cic. 

106. Armus, Humerus, Lacertus, Brachium. Armus^ 
poetically, the strong, muscular upper-arm : Latos huic hasta 
per armos acta tremit, Virg. ; generally the breast with 
larger quadrupeds; Humerus^ the upper-arm with the 
shoulder, from the shoulder-blade and the clavicula (jugulum) 
to the elbow (ulna) ; Ldcertus, the fleshy part of the upper- 
arm in the middle ; BrachiuMt the lower part of the arm, 
from the elbow to the beginning of the hand : Homini uni 
humeri,, ceteris armi, Plin. Milo humeris sustinebat 
hovem vivum, Cic. FemincB Germanorum nuda brachia 
ac lacertos, Tac. - 

107. Arra, Arrabo, Pignus. Arra, abbreviation of 
Arrabo^ the earnest-money in a bargain, in order to fix it, 
to make the bargain certain : Mdes destinat talentis dv^bus^ 
sed arraboni has dedit qu^raginta minas. Plant. Pig' 
nu5, a pledge, left, in making a contract, in the hands of the 
other party, which he shall keep until the contract is fulfilled. 
On the fulfilment, the pignus is returned, the arrabo not: 
Ager oppositus est pig nor i ob decern minas. Tef., as 

108. Arrogans, Superbus, Insolens, Fastidiosus, Va- 
Nus; SuPERBiA, Fastus, Fastidium. Arrogans^ arro- 
gant, to dare and undertake something against propriety, 
against the rights and dignity of others: Ne arrogans in 
prceripiendo populi beneficio videretur. Goes. Superbus 
{super, VI.), proud, he who in overvaluing his own merits or 
talents, considers himself above others, and makes them feel 
this opinion by undervaluing them, by contempt, love of splen- 
dor, also by tyranny: Dionysius superbum se prabuit in 

80 109. Ars. 110. Arteria. 

fortuna, Cic. Sup erhos verier efuneHhis triumphos, Hor. 
Insolens^ haughty, presumptuous, overbearing, he who 
abuses his superiority in offending and humiliating others. In 
super bus is the idea of proudly elevating ourselves above 
others; in ins o I ens, the idea of surprising {in — sohre)^ 
offensive, scornful superciliousness : Qucb est ista m comme' 
moranda pecunia tarn insolens ostentatio? Cic. Fasti» 
diosus, he who shows to others his antipathy and proud 
contempt because they displease him : In superiores contU' 
max, in cequos et pares fastidiosus, in omnes intolerabilis. 
Ad Herenn. Vdnus (belongs to vdcare, German TFoAn, 
XI, 2.), vain, conceited, who imagines superiority and boasts 
of it, a superiority which he does not possess, or which a 
rational man would not value : Pari vanitate atque in so- 
lent i a Vitellius lapidem, memorice Otkonis in^criptum^ in- 
tuens, dignum eo mausoleo, ait. Suet. — Superbia is pride 
from too high an opinion of one's self, as quality; Fastus^ 
pride which manifests itself by indifference or disdain against 
others, as not good enough, the proud conduct: Fastus 
inest pulchris sequiturque super hi a formam, Ovid. Prudely 
playing the rechercM. Fastidium, fastidiousness, disre- 
garding, despising others, as a state of the mind, in the ab- 
stract : Apparet, non superbia et fa stidio te amplissimoi 
honores repudiare. Plin. Pan. 

109. Ars, Artificium, Opus ; Scientia ; Artes, Dotes. 
Ars, the art as skill and (by exercise, ex-ercere, acquired), 
skilfulness : Quam quisque noriV art em, in hac se exercedb, 
Cic. Artificium, the art in its application, skill of the 
artificer, also artiRce, knack : Simulacrum Diana singulari 
op ere atque artificio perfectum, Cic. Vincere artifi- 
cio quodam et scientia oppugnationis. Caes. Opus, a work 
full of art, a skilful work, work of the fine arts : Locus €i 
natura et op ere munitus. Caes. Mirari Gr<Bcarum artium 
op ere. Liv. — Ars, the art, as system of the rules of art; 
Scientia, the knowledge and science of the art, philosophy 
of the art: Tum disciplina militaris in artis peipetuis 
prcRceptis ordinate^ modum venerat, Liv. Ars sine scien- 
tia esse non potest. Cic. — -4 rfes, acquired skill; Dotes^ 
natural gifts and talents: Omnibus ingenuis artibus in- 
struclus. Cic. Tibi natura raras dotes ingeniumque de- 
dit. Ovid. 

110. Arteria, Vena. Arterim, arteries, the pulsating 
conduits, according to Cicero mere channels of air, by the 

111. Artifex. 113. Asper. 81 

beating of which the blood in the veins, lying above them, is 
carried on: Vena (via, obsolete vea, XI, 2., 6.), vein, also 
used of veins of ore or water: Sanguis joer venas in omne 
corpus diffunditur, et spiriUis per arterias. Cic. 

111. Artifex, Faber, Opifex, Operarius, Operje, Mer- 
CENARius. Artifex^ the artist, in respect of talent, study, 
and ingenious invention: Qui distingues artificem ah in- 
scio? Cic. GrcBci dicendi artifices et doctor es. Id. jPo- 
i e r, the artificer who fashions hard substance, in respect to 
his skilful treatment of the substance, and joining of its parts, 
e. g. ferrarius^ tignarius : Grcecia marmoris aut eboris fa- 
bras, aut aris amavit. Hor. Opifex^ "the maker of me- 
chanical productions, in which a pleasing exterior and useful- 
ness are requisite, a mechanic : Adhibitis opificum mani" 
bus tecti^ vestiti^ salvi esse possumus. Cic. Zeno verborum 
opifex. Id. Operarius^ the workman, laborer, destined 
for manual labor, and executing it, frequently expressed in 
English by hand: Vineam habere oportet operarios dC' 
cem, Cato. Opera, the workmen, hands, who are employed 
in a certain work, the abstract for the concrete: Opera 
conducted et ad diripiendum urbem concitatce. Cic. Merce- 
narius, a workman or laborer, inasmuch as he works for 
wages, day-laborer, opp. servus, 

112. Arx, Castrum, Castellum, Munitio, Munimen- 
TUM. Arx, an eminence which overlooks the surrounding 
country, hence an eminence fortified for the security of a 
place, a castle : Roma sepiem una sibi muro circumdedit 
arces, Virg. Tarento amisso, arcem tamen lAvius retu 
nuit. Liv. Castrum, a, place, fort, fortress surrounded with 
walls and redoubts against hostile attacks; Castra, plur. a 
camp surrounded with wall and fosse : Alcibiadi Grunium 
dederat, in Phrygia castrum. Nep. Castellum, prop, 
a reservoir near an aqueduct, a small fort : Erant circum 
castra Pompeii editi colles: hos Ccesar prcesidiis tenuity 
cast ell a que ibi communiit, Caes. Munitio, fortification, 
as action, as well as the work which fortifies; Munimen- 
tum, the means of protection and fortification ; the fortifica- 
tion as a work: Brutus Mutinam operihus munitionibus- 
que sepsit Cic. Instar muri hcB sepes muniment a prcb' 
hebant. Caes. Tenere se munimentis castrorum, Tac. 

113. AsPER, Salebrosus, Confragosus. Asper, 17, 
rough, uneven :. Loca asp era et montuosa, Coes. Sale- 
brosus, rugged, where, on account of the many stones, we 

82 114. Assecla, 116. Assidtms, 


can proceed only, as it were, by leaping {salire) : Ipsa comes 
veniam^ nee me salehrosa movebunt saxa, Ovid. Con- 
fragosus, full of rents, where hollows, glebes, stones, and 
rocks make proceeding difficult: In eonfragoso ac dif' 
jicili fundo amenta valentiora parandum. Varr. 


SociETAs, SoDALiciuM, COLLEGIUM. -4 ssecZa, he who fol- 
lows in our steps from flattery and interest : Ipsos prcBtores 
et consules^ non legatorum asseclas^ recipere. Cic. As' 
sect at or^ the constant companion, follower, from esteem or 
attachment : Africani vetus assectator^ ex numero amico- 
rum, Cic. Auditor assectatorque Protagoras, Gell. Co» 
«65, the companion who goes with some person by way of 
company ; Socius, the associate, for the same purpose, par- 
ticipator in the same undertaking or fate : Fugientis comes, 
rem publicam recuperantis socius videor esse dehere, Cic. 
Socii putandi sunt^ quos inter res communicaia est. Id. 
Sodalis^ a comrade, member of a gay company, not open 
to all, club: Epulabar cum sodalihus, Cic. — SocietaSj 
society, as a union for general participation : Cum bonis o»i- 
nibus coire non modo salutis^ verum etiam periculi societtt" 
tem, Cic. Sodalicium, sc. convivium^ an assembled so- 
ciety of sodales^ club; Collegium^ the union of fellow 
officers, e. g. pontijicum^ and a corporation acknowledged by 
the state, a guild, e. g. pistorum^ naviculariorum. 

115. AssEQui, CoNSEQui, Adipisci, Impetrare, Obti- 
NERE. Assequi^ to follow that which precedes, to ap- 
proach, reach something high, difficult ; Consequi, to over- 
take, to obtain, to enter into real possession : Ite cito : jaM 
ego assequar vos. Plant. Propera^ ut nos consequare. 
Cic. Omnia, qua: ne per populum quidem sine seditione se . 
ass e qui arbitrabdntur, per senatum consecuti sunt. Id. 
Adipisci, to obtain or overtake something pursued, an ob- 
ject, something desired: Fugientes in via adipisci. Liv. 
Lentulus summos honores a populo adeptus est, Cic. Jm- 
petrare, to obtain by prayers, representations: Demetrio 
Dolabella rogatu meo civitatem a Ccesare impetravit, Cic. 
Obtinere, to insist on the possession of a disputed thing, 
against the danger of losing it, to hold, e. g. jus suum, hS' 
reditaiem: Suam quisque domum tum obtinebat, nee erai 
usquam tua, Cic. 


Nuo, — NENTER. AssiduuSy he who sits always by it, 

117. Astrum, 119. Ater. 83 

always present^ without interruption : Roscius ruri assidU' 
tis, semper vitiL Cic. Assidua hella cum Volscis gesta. 
Liv. Continuus^ holding togeth/er, hanging together, con- 
tinual, used of uninterrupted connexion; Perpetuus^, 47, 
in one series, of uninterrupted continuation : Denies serrati 
sunt canibus ; continui^ homini^ equo, Plin. Tres cori' 
tinui consvlatus, Liv.' Erant Menapii perpetuis pahtr 
dibus silvisque muniti, Cses., one touching the other. Mori' 
tes con tinui, mountain chains; perpetui, contiguous 
mountains, which, nevertheless, can be distinguished from 
one another. Biennium continuum, of a long duration; 
perpetuum, of uninterrupted duration. — Flumen Jiuit con- 
tinue, Varr., continually. Ignis in aqvum conjectus con- 
tinuo restinguitur. Cic, immediately after, of direct eon- 
sequence. BelgcB cum Germanis continenter helium ge- 
runt, CaBS., without interruption. 

117. Astrum, Sidus, Stella. Astrum (Saigov), and 
Latin Sidus, the constellation, a group of stars, and as 
larger heavenly body with reference to its signification and 
influence upon the earth : Orbem per duodena regit mundi 
sol aureus astra, Virg. Homines annum solis, id est unius 
a fitri, reditu metiuntur, Cic. Occidente jam si d ere Ver- 
giliarum, Liv. Sid era, quce vocantur errantia. Cic. 
Stella, a single star, as effulgent body of the heavens: 
Stella Veneris, Cic. 

118. Asylum, Per — Refugium. Asylum, a public, 
sacred asylum, the sacredness of which protected : Qucestor 
vi prohibitus est, quominus e fano Diancb servum suum, qui 
in illvd asylum confugisset, abduceret. Cic. Perfugi' 
um, a. refuge for protection against danger, or for assistance 
in calamity: Morini paludes non habebant, quo perfugio 
superiore anno fuerant usi, Caes. Refugium, a remote 
place of refuge, into which we retire : Silva tutius dedere 
refugium {ex campis), Liv. 

119. Ater, Niger, Pullus, Fuscus. -4 ^er, coal-black, 
as the pure color ; opp. albus, 55 ; also signifying mourning 
and misfortune, e. g. cupressus : Tam at ram reddam, quam 
carbo est. Ten Dies atri, were the Calendce, Nonce, Idus 
and dies Alliensis. Niger, black, like the night, raven- 
black, opp. candidus : Cmlum pice nigrius, Ovid. Ni' 
gris oculis nigroque crine decorus. Hot. Niger corvus 
inter olores ridetur. Martial. Pullus, dirty-black: Toga 
pull a, with common people and mourners. Fu scus, black- 

84 120. Athleta. 122. Atrox. 

ish, dark, e. g. the skin, in consequence of exposure to a hot 
sun: Andromede, patricB fusca colore sucb, Ovid. 

120. Athleta, Pugil, Gladiator, Lanista. Athleta^ 
one who appeared in public games in general, in which 
bodily strength, nimbleness, and rhythm of motion were 
requisite: Athletes se exercentes in curricula, Cic. Pu- 
gil^ a pugilist, whose hands were armed with the cestus: 
Pug lies, etiam quum feriunt adversarium, in jactandis 
cestibus ingemiscunt. Cic. Gladiator, the fighter, cham- 
pion by profession, who, with the gladius, fights publicly : 
Athletas et gladiatores videnms nihil facere, in quo nan 
motus hie haheat palcestram quandam, Cic. Lanista, the 
fencing- master who instructs the gladiators and deals in them. 

121. Atrium, Vestibulum, Aula. Atrium, the entry 
of a Roman house, from the door to the curtain of the kitchen 
in the back part, from which the smoke passed through it, 
the place where images of the family were placed, and where 
visits were received ; in temples, the halls and porticos near 
the entry: Atria servantem posiico falle clientem, Hor. 
QucBstiones habitcB in atrio lAbertatis. Cic. Vestibu' 
lum, the front-yard or open place from the house-door to the 
low wall which separated it from the street. Gell. 16, 5. Jbi 
primo aditu vestibuloque templL Cic. Aula, the hall 
and front-yard, with reference to spaciousness and magnifi- 
cence, generally of princely buildings: Janitor aulas Cer- 
berus. Virg. Penetrant aulas et limina regum. Id. 

122. Atrox, Trux, Truculentus, Torvus, Teter, Di- 
Kus, Immanis, Barbarus, Ferus, Durus, Crudelis, SjE- 
vus. Atrox {ater, 119, V, 2.), who causes misfortune, 
mourning, and who or which is apt to do it, e. g. cades, pug' 
na: Furit te reperire atrox Tydides. Hor., panting for 
revenge. Horrida et atrox videbatur Appii sententia, 
Liv., cruel. Trux, spiteful, of the wild, staring look, which 
threatens successful resistance and danger : Horatiu^ Codes, 
circumferens truces minaciter oculos ad pro ceres Etrusco' 
rum, Liv. Tauro scevior truci. Ovid. Truculentus, 
full of spite, causing fear and shuddering, by a wild, spiteful 
look : Alter tribunus quam teter incedebat, quam truculen- 
tus, quam terribili adspectu ! Cic. Torvus, wrathful, 
grim, with dark look and distorted features : Irati vultus 
torvaque forma minantis. Ovid. Teter, Teeter, disgust- 
ing, ugly, horrid for sight, scent, and taste, e. g. aqua, libido : 
Ne qua scintilla teterrimi belli relinquatur, Cic. Dirus 

123. Avatus. 124.' Audio, 85 

(as divus^ from deus^ VIII, 2.), ominous, and thus causing hor- 
ror, horrid to hear or to see, dire, e. g. Hannibal, Hor. ; hence 
parentibus abominatus. Id. Dira exsecratio, Liv. Di- 
r(B sicut cetera auspicia nuntiant eventura, nisi ptovideris. 
Cic, bad indications. Immanis^ that which catises surprise, 
horror, or fear by that which is unusual and unnatural : Im- 
mani magniiudine simulacra, Cses. Tetra et immanis 
helua, Cic. 5a riarus, foreign, rude, unpolished : Imma- 
nis ac barbara consuetudo hominum immolandorum, Cses. 
Ferus, wild, living wild, and of uncivilized, callous senti- 
ment : Homines in agris et in tectis silvestribus abditos ex 
feris et immanibus mites reddidit et mansuetos, Cic. 
Filium ego ferus ac ferreus dimisi. Id. Durus^ hard, 
callous, without feeling. Crudelis^ cruel, of disposition 
and action, of rude character, he who delights in the suffer- 
ing of others. Scevus, furious, used of the wild passion of 
an infuriated person, who is no longer master over himself: 
S(Bva canum rabies, Propert. ScBva Tisiphone. Hor. 

123. AvARus, AviDus, SoRDiDus, Parous, Tenax, Re- 
STRICTUS. Avar us, avaricious, of continual and insatiate 
desire to possess the property of otliers : Avaritia pecunicR 
studium habet; ea semper infinita, insatiabilis est. Sail. 
Avtdusy impelled by cupidity, longing, yet transitorily, for 
something, also innocent things, e. g. pecunice, cibi, sermonis, 
laudis, Sordidus, meanly avaricious, niggardly, he who 
does not care for honor or propriety in order to satisfy cupid- 
ity : llliberales et sordidi qucBStus mercenariorum omnium, 
Cic. Parens, saving, he who observes the limits of neces- 
sity to the utmost, bordering close on the shabby : Temperat 
et sumtus pare us uterque parens, Ovid. Tenax, tight, he, 
who keeps the money back, miserly : Par cum genus, quce- 
sitique tenax, et qui qucBsita re-servent. Ovid. Restrictus, 
penurious, tight : Ad largiendum ex alieno fui restricti- 
or, Cic, the parens shuns expenses; the restrictus dis- 
likes to give, gives little ; the tenax gives nothing. 

124. AucTio, Sectio, Licit atio. Audio, public auc- 
tion to the highest bidder : Bona Roscii, constituta audi- 
one, vendebat, Cic. Sectio, the division of booty or prop- 
erty of condemned persons by auction among the Sectores, 
who bought them in order to sell them again by single pieces : 
Ad illud scelu^ sectionis accedere nemo est ausus, quum 
tot essent circum ha^tam illam, Cic. Licitatio, the bidding 
in an auction : Licitationem facere, Cic. 


86 125. Auctor, 


Rius, Lator, Suasor, Princeps, Testis, Sponsor. Auc- 
tor {augere^ 76.), the author of any thing, he who causes a 
thing, and to whom, therefore, it may be imputed. From 
this idea, however, every thing relating to manifestation of 
power, of exertion, is excluded. This is expressed by other 
words. Auctor urbis, the author of a city, i. e. he from 
whom came the idea, plan, and execution; Conditor, the 
founder, he who built it. Rerum auctor, the historian, in- 
asmuch as he is author of the plan and guaranty of the con- 
tents; Scriptor, as author, in the modern sense, with the 
mode of representing things, peculiar to him. Auctor, pre- 
decessor in doctrine and example; Doctor, Prceceptor, 
Magister, the practising teacher, school-teacher: PlcUo 
non intelUgendi solum, sed etiam dicendi auctor et ma- 
gister. Cic. Auctor, the leader, he who gives the tone, 
who in deliberation speaks first, and whose vote is of peculiar 
weight; Consiliarius, Senator, he who was used as 
giving counsel, a counsellor: Senatui pacts auctor fax, 
Cic. £a ratio cBdificandi initur, consiliario quidem et 
auctor e Vectorio. Id. Auctor legis, the ojie who starts 
the law, with whom it originates, and through whose authority 
or approbation it becomes law; Lator legis, he who pro- 
poses a law to the people ; Suasor, he who praises, supports 
it: Cassia lex Scipione auctor e lata esse dicitur, Cic. 
Auctoribus Diis ad rem gerendam proficisdmur. Liv., 
who approve of our undertaking. Decreverunt Patres, ut^ 
quum populus regem jussisset, id sic ratum esset, si Patres 
auctor es Jierent, Id., if the senators approved and con- 
firmed the resolve of the people. Auctor, the ringleader, 
originator, inasmuch as the guilt of an action or effect must 
be imputed to his influence; Princeps, Dux, he who 
makes the beginning, places himself at the head : Auctor es 
belli, defectionis. Liv. Te bonis omnibus auctorem, prin- 
cipem, due em prcebeas. Cic. Auctor, the voucher, whose 
statement and declaration is appealed to on account of his 
credibility; Testis, witness, who declares hinjself for the 
truth of a fact af\er perception by his senses : Varro pmdi- 
cavit, adversa CcBsarem prodia fecisse ; id se certis nunti' 
is, certis auctoribus comperisse. Cses. Majores nostri 
nullam rem agere feminas sine auctor e voluerunt. Cic, 
without confirmation and guaranty of the guardian or a rela- 
tive. Auctor, who offers himself as bail; Sponsorship 

126. Auctoritas. 127. Audere. 87 

who formally and according to law becomes bail: T^ates 
Apuli fcedits petitum venerunf.^ pacts per omnem Apuliam 
prcBstandcR populo Romano auc tores. Id audacter spon- 
den do impetravere, ut fcedus daretur. Liv. 

126. Auctoritas, Gratia, Favor ; Senatxjs auctori- 
tas, coNsuLTUM, DECRETUM. Auctoritas, authority by 
which we exercise influence with others; Gratia^ favor, in 
a passive sense, the being popular, beloved ; Favor^ favor, 
inasmuch as it shows itself to others, e. g. popularity as be- 
stowed by the people, applause : Habet^ ut in atatihus auC' 
toritatem seneetus, sic in exemplis antiquitas. Cic. Atiico 
honor es patebant propter V el gratiam^vel dignitatem, Nep. 
Rumore et favor e populi tenetur^ et ducitur, Cic. Trium' 
phus actus magno favor e plebis. Liv. Senatus auctO' 
ritas was a decree of the senate, inasmuch as it pronounced 
its decision or will, as the highest power or executive, and 
confirmed it by the names of the present senators {auctori' 
tates)^ which were signed at the head, even if the tribunes of 
the people had vetoed; Senatus consultum^ with re- 
spect to the previous deliberations, especially when, by the 
approval of the tribunes, it had received the force and 
authority of law ; Senatus decretum^ inasmuch as it pro- 
nounced the unalterable and decisive will of the senate, £is 
result of their deliberations : Severitatem majorum Senatus 
vetus auctoritas de Bacchanalibus declarat, Cic. The 
same decree is called Senatus consultum^ Liv., 39, 17, 
pr. cf., Cic. Fam. 8, 8. Si quis intercedat Senatus cqn^ 
sulto, auctoritate se fore contentum, Liv. Accepto inde 
Senatus decreto^ ut jussu populi Camilhis dictator ex- 
templo diceretur^ nuntius Vejos contendit, Liv. 

127. Audere, Conari, Moliri, Niti ; Audens, Audax, 
Temerarius. Audere^ to dare, at the peril of failure and 
one's own danger, designates fearlessness, and daring in a 
bold undertaking; Co wart, to have the boldness, the bold 
undertaking of a work which demands pains and exertion ; 
Moliri (properly to strive to remove a large, heavy mass, 
moles) ^ to endeavour to bring about something important and 
difficult, undaunted and unceasing exertion in a great and 
laborious work ; Niti, to exert one's self, to stem against; 
it indicates exertion of power in the execution of a work : 
JEquos desperatio ultima audere et experiri cogebat. Liv. 
Magnum opus et arduum conamur : sed nihil difficile 
amanti puto. Cic. Mundum efficere moliens deus terram 

88 128. Audire. 129. Ave. 

primum ignemque jungebat. Id. Pugnabatur loco iniquo : 
milites tamen virtute et patientia nitebantur atque omnia 
viUnera sustinebanL Csbs. Optimi cujusque animus maxime 
ad immortalitalem glorias nititur, Cic. — Audens^ bold, 
courageous, only for a certain case; Audax^ bold, daring, 
designates habit, disposition, and a higher degree, a heedless 
man, who with impious temerity challenges danger. Teme- 
rarius, without any consideration, who undertakes or be- 
lieves without judgment ; Tu ne cede malis^ sed contra 
audentior ito, Virg. NautcB per omne audaces mare 
qui currant. Hor. Ad consilium^ prima specie temerarU 
um magis quam audax^ animum adjecit^ ut vitro contra 
hostium oppugnareL Liv. 

128. Audire, Ex — Inaudire, Auscultare; Audientem, 
AuDiTOREM ESSE. Audirc^ to hear, perceive by the sense 
of hearing; Exaudire^ to hear from a distance yet dis- 
tinctly; Inaudire^ to hear, learn by the way, unofficially: 
Maxima voce^ vi omnes ex audire possint, dico, Cic. Po- 
etically, also, to hear and grant, to hear favorably, e. g. 
prayers, the German erhoren also: Dii preces mea^s audi' 
verunt, Cic. Concilia sunt inita de me ^ quce te video in* 
audisse. Id. , also in the participle : In audit a credulitas. 
Id., unheard of. Auscultare {av^siculo^ from auris, XIX, 
5, 10.), to listen, pay attention in hearing, secretly and open- 
ly ; alicui, to pay attention to what one says, to obey, pre- 
cisely as the German gehorchen, to obey, comes from hor* 
chen, to listen: Omnia ego istcBc auscultavi ab ostio. 
Plant. Ausculta paucis^ nisi molestum est, Ter. Mihi 
ausculta: vide, ne tibi desis, Cic, more intense than aw- 
dire, to listen attentively to one's whole statement, to listen 
with approval, following the speaker : Veniunt, qui me audi- 
ant, quasi doctum hominem, Cic. Vellem a principio te 
audisse amicissime monentem. Id. — Is qui audit is the 
present person who hears ; Audi ens, the continual hearer; 
Auditor, the hearer in general, the scholar, pupil ; Oratorum 
eloquentioR moderatrix est auditorum prudentia. Omnes 
enim, qui probari volunt, voluntatem eorum, qui audiunt, 
intuentur, Cic. Te, annum jam audientem Cratippum^ 
abundare oportet prceceptis philosophic^. Id. Numa Pytha" 
gorcB auditor fait. Id. Omnes oportet senatui dicta' 
audientes esse. Id., to follow, obey one exactly, to the 

129. Ave, Salve, Vale. Ave, H ave, long live \ live! 

130. Avertere, 133. Avis. 89 

and havere te juheo, the common greeting: Simul atque 
have mihi dirit^ statim, quid de te audisset, exposuiU Cic. 
jSaZue, hail! and saZuere te jubeo^ the greeting in the 
morning, to those who arrive, those who sneeze, and to the 
gods: Mysis^ salve. M, Salvus sis^ Crito, Ter. 
Vale, be healthy, well, of bodily feeling well, used on going 
away, but here salve and ave were likewise used, and the 
latter returned with vale: Liherti servique mane salvere^ 
vesperi Valere domino singuli dicehant. Suet. Vale^ mi 
Tiro^ vale et salve! Cic. Have, Have et vale, SaU 
ve ! afso the last farewell to the dead. 

130. Avertere, Averruncare. Avertere, to avert 
threatening dangers, used of wishes, expression of desire ; 
Averruncare, XIX, in ancient forms of prayers, to avert, 
also of real evils: Quod dii omen avertant! Cic. Mars 
pater, te precor, ut tu m^orbos calamitatesque prohihessis, de- 
fendas, aver runces que, Cato. Placuit, aver run can d(B 
Deum ircB victimas ccedi. Liv. 

131. Auferre, Tollere, Avertere, Adimere, Di — 
SuBRiPERE. Auferre, to carry off, away, to the loss of the 
possessor; Tollere (lift), to take up, away, used of re- 
moving entirely, e. g. frumentum de area ; hominem de — e 
medio : Signum Apollinis Verres, si portare potuisset, non 
duMtasset auferre. Cic. Ludi dies XV. auferent. Id. 
Avertere, to embezzle, to take secretly and with bad inten- 
tion, e. g. pecuniam puhlicam ; also intervertere, intercipere. 
Adimere, to take, deprive, e.g. alicui compedes : Pecuniam 
si cuipiam fortuna ad emit, aut si alicujus eripuit injuria, 
Cic. Of violent taking away: Diripere, to rob and plun- 
der, if it is done in wild disorder, e. g. provincial, bona locu- 
pletum ; Subripere, to carry off violently but covertly: 
captivum e custodia. Cic. Virtus nee eripi, nee surripi 
potest. Id. 

132. AuGEscERE, Crescere, Adolescere. Augescere, 
to increase from time to time and externally : Uva et succo 
terra et calore solis augescens. Cic. Crescere, to grow, 
of a continuous augmentation from within: Crescit, occulta 
velut arbor cbvo, fama Marcelli. Hot. Adolescere, to 
grow up, to become more perfect after obtaining a certain 
increase : In satis fructibusque arborum nihil ad justam 
magnitudinem adolescere potest, quod loco, in quem cres' 
cat, caret. Quinclil. 

133. Avis, Ales, Volucris, Alites, Prjepetes, Os- 

8* ■ 

90 134. Augur. 

ciNES. Avis, bird, according to its nature ; Ales,, inasmuch 
as it has wings and uses them, of large birds, and poetical ; 
Volucris, every creature capable of flying : Canorus ales. 
Hor., the swan. Ales equus, Ovid., winged, i. e. Pegasus. 
Volucres videmus Jingere et construere nidos. Cic. Deum 
volucrem. Ovid., i. e. Cupido, In the terminology of the 
augurs, alites are those birds whose flight and beating of 
the wings are observed: Prcepetes, those who, indicating 
good luck, fly high before the observer; Infer cr, those who 
do the contrary, and bring bad luck; Oscines^ birds whose 
voice and singing serve for prophesying. 

134. Augur, Auspex, Haruspex, Extispex, Hariolus: 
AuGURiuM, AuspiciUM, DiviNATio, Prjesagium, Omen. AU' 
gur {oculus, German Auge, XIX, 3., VIII, 1., a.), a public 
soothsayer, who explained the will of the gods, and unveiled 
future events from the flight and song of birds, dreams, and 
phenomena of the heavens and on the earth. The augurs 
formed a collegium, and granted the office for life ; it super- 
intended the whole system of soothsaying, and upon it de- 
pended the most important state transactions : Romulus oniF 
nibus puhlicis rebus instituendis, qui sihi essent in au^pudis^ 
ex singulis tribuhus singulos cooptavit augures^ Cic. Au" 
spex, observer of birds, who, before the beginning of an 
undertaking, observed the flight, song, and eating of certain 
birds, to discover whether the gods approved of it ; hence 
also, the author of a certain deed or undertaking : Ego, pro» 
vidu^ auspex, oscinem corvum prece suscitabo, Hor. ia- 
tores et auspices legt^, Cic. Haruspex, observer of 
sacrifices, soothsayer, who, from the liver of the victim, pre- 
dicted ; more especially Extispex, observer of the entrai|ai; 
Ea, quxB significari dicuntur extis, cognita sunt haruspicit 
bus observatione diutuma. Cic. Hariolus, a travelling 
soothsayer. — Augurium, the solemn observation of the 
predicting birds by the augur, and the interpretation of the 
will .of the gods or prediction of future events, founded upon 
this observation, or upon other phenomena considered impor- 
tant {signa, portenta, ostenta) : In arce augurium augur es 
acturi erant, Cic. Divitiacus partim auguriis, partim 
conjectura, qua essent futura, dicebat. Id. Auspicium^ 
observation of birds, plur. Auspicia, the significant indi- 
cations which birds, lots, &c. give, and from which the will 
of the gods and their approval of an undertaking was learned ; 
also the right to make this observation, and the highest 

135. Avius» 137. Austems. 91 

power connected therewith: Consul pullarium in auspici-^ 
um mittit, Liv. Quantum ex augur io auspicii intelligo, 
Plaut. Gracchi consulis imperio auspicioqvs exercitus 
popvM Rom. Sardiniam subegiU Liv. Dii auguriis 
auspiciisque mihi omnia lata ac prosper a portendunt. Id. 
The augurium has its fixed reasons; not so the divina- 
tio^ the indefinite presentiment, or gifl of prediction {divini^ 
tas) : Divinatio est earum rerum, quce jortuitcB putantur^ 
prcBdictio atque prcBsensio, Cic. Prcesagium^ presage, as 
effect of a finer, acuter feeling, prophetic sight, e. g. tempes- 
tatis futurcB, Colum. Omen (for opimen, from opinari)^ 
every thing which by chance has been heard or seen, and 
which is considered as indicating something future, good or 
bad : Casar prolapsus in egressu navis^ verso ad melius om* 
ine : Teneo te^ inquit^ Africa, Suet. 

135. A — De — Invixjs, Inaccessus. -Auiw*, off from 
the road, remote; Devius, situated off from the road, 
whither no road leads ; Invius^ where it is difficult to pro- 
ceed ; Inaccessus^ inaccessible : Jugurtha Metellum sequir 
tur nocturnis et aviis itinerilms ignoratus. Sail. Aquinates 
in via habitabant ; Anagnini quum essent devii^ descende' 
runt^ut consulem salutarenL Cic. Invia virtuti nulla est 
via, Ovid. Montes inaccessi amne interjhiente, Plin. 

136. AuKA, Ventus, Spiritus, Flatus, Flamen, Fla- 
BRUM. Aura, the air which is gently moved ; Ventus, the 
air current, wind ; Spiritus, 79, the wafting, draught of 
air: Semper aer spiritu aliquo movetur ; frequentivs tamen 
auras, quam ventos habet, Cic. Flatus, the blowing, 
also of favorable winds: Flatu Jiguratur vitrum, Plin. 
Prospero flatu fortunm uti, Cic. Flamen, violent blow- 
ing; Flab rum, gentle fanning, blowing, also of puffs of 
winds, poetically: Fugant inductas f lamina nubes. Ovid. 
Cacumina sUvcb lenibus alludit flabris levis Auster. Ya\. 
Flacc. BorecR flabra, Propert. 

137. AusTERus, Tetricus, Tristis, Severus, Serius, 
RiGiDUS. Graveness, simply considered as external appear- 
ance : Austerus, 17, grave, like the Stoic, who disdains all 
serenity in his conduct; Tetricus {teter, 122, V, 1.), som- 
bre, of excessive gravity, which disposes even to melancholy ; 
Tristis, of sorry appearance, dark, if it is rather forbidding 
8uid causes fear: Agit mecum austere et Stoice Cato, Cic. 
Disciplina tetrica ac tristis veterum Sabinorum, Liv. 
Judex tristis et integer, Cic. — Grave, as belonging to 

92 188. Aut 139. Attxiliari. 

character: Severus^ stern, he who is not indulgent toward 
himself and others ; Serius^ serious, that which is according 
to the disposition of the serious person, in contradistinction to 
the gay or jocose ; Rigidus, stiff with cold, inflexible, who 
cannot be induced to yield: Non potest is sever us esse in 
judicando^ qui alios in se severos esse judices non vult. 
Cic. Si quid per jocum diad^ nolito in serium convertere. 
Plant. Porcius Cato fait invicti a cupiditatihus animi et 
rigid a innocentice, Liv. Rigidus censor, Ovid. 

138. Aut, Vel, Ve, Sive, Seu, Neve, Next. If two 
ideas in a disjunctive relation are so opposed to one another, 
that only one of the two can take place, it is expressed by 
Aut^ or, if they differ essentially, but by Ve Z, or, even, if they 
differ only in certain things ; by Fe, or, if they are consid- 
ered convertible, and one may take place as well as the 
other. If they stand in a perfectly equal disjunctive relation, 
we use Aut — aut^ either — or, if the taking place of the one 
excludes entirely that of the other ; Vel — t? e Z, partly — 
partly, if it excludes only in the given case ; Ve — ve, poet- 
ical, if the choice between the two remains free. Sive and 
Seu, or, be it, it may be — or, express this alternative con- 
ditionally; Neve and iVew, or not, and not, neither — nor, 
express it negatively : Audendum est aliquid universis, aut 
omnia singulis patienda. Liv. Epicurus, homo minims mains 
vel potius vir opiimus. Cic. Ex ingenio suo quisque demat 
vel addat fidem, Tac. Hcrc sunt omnia ingenii vel medi* 
ocris, Cic. Consules alter ambove rationem agri haheant. 
Cic, the one or the other, or also both together. Hoc te ro» 
go,ut resistor sive etiam occurras negotiis. Id. Ascanius 
Lavinium urbem matri seu noverccB reliquit, Liv. C(Bsar 
milites cohortatus est, uti sucb pristine^ virtutis memoriam te* 
tinerent, neu perturbarentur animo, Cses. — -4w< vivam, 
aut moriar, Ter. Pauci nobiles vel corrumpere mores civ»' 
itatis, vel corrigere possunt, Cic. Ubi potest senectus aut 
calescerevel apricatione melius vel igni, aut vidssimum-^ 
bris aquisve refrigerari salubriv>s7 Id. Si quis in adver- 
sum rapiat casus ve deusve, te super esse velim, Virg. Veniet 
tempus mortis, sive retractabis, sive properabis, Cic. Car- 
ihaginiensibus conditio pads dicta, bellum neve in Africa, 
neve extra Africam, injvssu populi Romani gererent, Liv. 

139. AuxiLiARi, Adjuvare, Opitulari, Subvenire, Suc- 
currere, Sublevare ; Auxilium, Adjumentum, Ops, Sxtp- 
FETiJE, PRiBsiDinM, SuBsiDiuM. AuxxHum {ougeTCi 76.), 

139. Auxiliari. 98 

assistance, in reference to him to whom it is given, and inas- 
much as his power is thereby increased, augmented ; plural, 
Auxilia^ auxiliary troops; Auxilium ferre^ to briijg 
assistance, which is yet to be performed; Auxiliari^ to 
help, of active and actual assistance : Dii poptdo contra tari' 
tarn vim scelefis prcRsentes auxilium ferent, Cic. Nihil 
Numantinis vires corporis auxiliata sunt. Ad Herenn. 
Adjuvare (ad -juvare^ make young [juvenis^ 30], strength- 
en, help), to be of use in the furtherance of some object, to 
support, to assist: Ad navem actuariam multum humilitas 
adjuvat, Cses. Adjumentum^ the means of Assistance 
for a certain purpose, e. g. rei gerenda : A philosophia om- 
nia adjumenta et auxilia petamus bene beateque viven- 
di. Cic. (Oj9 5, goddess of the earth and riches, as symbol 
of power ; of this Gen., Ace, Abl.) Opis, opem^ ope^ the 
faculty, power, which one is in possession of, and through 
which we can effect something, and may assist others ; the 
assistance of him who gives it : Sidicini aut ipsi mover ant 
bellum, aut moventibus auxilium tulerant Itaque Pa- 
tres omni ope adnisi sunt, ut Valerium Corvum consulem 
facerent, Liv., with all their influence, which they possessed 
by their power, authority, and riches. Quum vallis aut locus 
declivis suberat, ii, qui antecesserant, morantibu^ op em 
ferre non poterant. Cses., bring assistance; Opitulari 
(XIX, 5., a.), to ^end assistance with one's means, to help : 
Ad gubernaculum accessii et navi, quoad potuit, est opitu- 
I at us, Cic. SubvenirCyXo come to assistance to him who 
is in want of it; Succurrere, to run to assist, rescue from 
imminent danger, e. g. urbi incenscB, Virg. Sublev are, to 
help one up again, to give him a lift, to assist, e. g. aliquem 
facultatihus suis, Cic. Suppetim, the existing assistance, 
standing in readiness from without : Qui auditis clamorem 
meum, ferte suppetias. Plant. PrcBstdium, protecting 
assistance, securing the obtaining of an object: Subst- 
dium, reserve, assistance for a case of need: Pompeius 
Siciliam, Africam, Sardinidm, hac tria frumsntaria sub» 
sidia, rei publica firmissimis prcRsidiis classibusque^ 
munivit, Cic. 

94 140. Baculum, 143. Bardus. 


140. Baculum, Scipio, Sceptrum, Ferula. Baculum^ 
at a later period Baculus^ a stick, staff, e. g. of him who 
beats (hatuere)y of a wanderer; Scipio and Sceptrum^ 
a shorter stick, for support : Cornelius qui patrem luminibus 
carentem pro haculo regebat^ Scipio cognominatus est, 
Macrob. Scipio ebumeus was in Rome the mark of honor 
of the highest magistracy, the Sceptrum that of triumphers 
and kings: Sceptrum Dieted regis, Vii^. FerwZa, the 
shrub ferula^ vdg&Tj^, which was used for staves for old peo- 
ple, and for rods in schools: Ferulceque tristes, sceptra 
padagogorum, Hor. 

141. Balneum, TflERMiE, La vatic, Lavacrum. Bali- 
neum^ Balneum^ the bath as the place, and water in a 
private house; Balnece at a later period, and poetically, 
Balnea^ B. public bathing establishment with several baths : 
Labrum in halneo ut sit, cur a, Cic. Fatigatis balneum 
fervens idoneum non -est. Gels. Occiditur ad balneas 
Palatines Roscius. Cic. Therm a, public warm baths, near 
warm wells, as in BaisB, and artificial warm baths, e. g. iVe- 
roniana, in Rome. Lavatio, the bathing, and the bath as 
vessel, the bathing- tub, water, and place; Lavacrum^ the 
bathing-room : Seponit lavationem argenteam, Phasdr. 
Faciam, ut lavatio parata sit, Cic. Lav a era pro sexi' 
bus separavit, Spartian. 

142. Barbarismus, Stribligo, Soloscismus. Barb a- 
rismus, a mistake in a single word, with reference to pro- 
nunciation or grammar; Stribligo, and at later periods 
SolcBcismus, a fault in the grammatical construction. 

143. Bardus, Hebes, Stupidus, Absurdus, Ineptus, 
Insulsus, Stultus, Fatuus, Insipiens, Stolidus, Brutus. 
With reference to mind and judgment, he is Bardus who is 
of slow mind, slow in understanding a thing ; Hebes, dull, 
^who wants the gift of sharp discrimination; Stupidus, stu- 
pid, who, possessed by impressions of the senses, is incapable 
of mental exertion, and feels no interest in it : Populus studio 
stupidus in funambulo animum occuparat, Ter. Absur- 
dus, 7, clumsy, clownish, who has no skill, who has no 
practical judgment, wanting in common sense; Inept us, 
foolish, who behaves childishly, makes a fool of himself, in 

144. Beatus, 145. Bellum. 95 

contradistinction to the judicious, sedate person : Risu inep' 
to res ineptior nulla est. Catull. Insulsus, absurd, he 
who, by unsuccessful witticisms, makes a disagreeable im- 
pression upon persons of fine feeling, he who has no taste, a 
rather bad taste : Qui ridiculi et salsi artem conati sunt tra- 
dere^ sic insulsi exstiterunt^ ut nihil aliud eorum, nisi ipsa 
insulsitas rideatur, Cic. Stultus^ ill-advised, foolish, 
who in single cases acts contrary to wisdom and prudence, 
be it from error or from being blinded : Exploranda est veri' 
tas multum^ prius quam stulta prave judicet sententia. 
Phsedr. Fdtuus {Jfdtiscere^ to sta.nd idling about), simple, 
who, from weakness of understanding, remains without 
thought in cases which ought to stir his activity, and allows 
himself patiently to be fooled by others, or to be made their 
laughing-stock : Pollio triplicem usuram prcBStare paratus 
circuit et fatuos non invenit, Juvenal. Insipiens, un- 
wise, acting contrary to wisdom from want of intelligence ; 
Stolidus^ fool, from conceit or thoughtlessness, who, in his 
opinion of his superiority above others, neglects all prudence 
and caution, sometimes from excessive self-confidence, some- 
times from stupidity, as the clown or fop : St olid am fidu» 
dam hosti augere, Liv. Legati velut ad ludibrium stolid <b 
superhicB in senatum vocati. Id. Brutus (belongs to bar* 
dus^ prop, clumsy, unwieldy), without reason, without sense 
or feeling for any thing, incapable of understanding any 
thing, perfect blockhead : L, Junius ex industria /actus ad 
imitationem stultiticB Bruti haud abnuit cognomsn, Liv. 

144. Beatus, Felix. Beatus^ happy, who is not want- 
ing in any physical or moral thing for his existence : Verho 
beati subjecta notio est, secretis mxilis omnibus cumulata bO' 
norum complexio, Cic. Felix, lucky, he who is always 
successful, who is always fortunate : CoRsar Alexandria se 
recepit^felix, ut sibi quidem videbatur, Cic. 

145. Bellum, Tumultus. Bellum, war, in general; 
Tumultus, tumult, a war suddenly broken out, which by 
its suddenness, and by surprise, causes dismay, disorder, tu- 
mult, a sudden rebellion ; see C. Phil. 8, 1. ^qui tantum 
BxmuB terrorem fecere, quia vix credibile erat, solos per se 
ad bellum co6rtos,ut tumultus ejus causa dictator dice- 
retur, Liv. — Bellum facer e, to begin war; agere, to carry 
it on ; gererCf to lead it, to carry it on with judgment ; du' 
cere, to protract it ; projligare, to suppress it, to bring near 
an end ; patrare, to bring it entirely to an end ; conficere, to 

96 146. Benignus. 149. Bonus, 

make an end by annihilation of the hostile forces ; compone» 
re, to make an end by treaty, mutual arrangement. 

146. Benignus, Beneficus, Liberalis, Munificus, Lar- 
Gus, Prodigus, Profusus. Benignus {henus for honus^ 
XI, 1.), benign, kindly from goodness of heart and inclina- 
tion; Beneficus (doing good), beneficent, doing good to 
others: Beneficus est ^ qui alter ius causa henigne facit, 
Cic. Liberalise liberal in giving from noble disposition, 
where circumstances, honor, and decorum demand it ; Mu' 
nificus^ generous in giving, who makes presents frequently 
and largely, from charity, generosity, or a disposition of show 
of munificence ; Largus, who spends largely ; Prodigus^ 
liberal in a prodigal way: Duo sunt genera largorutn^ 
quoram alteri sunt prodigi, alteri liber ales: prodigi^ 
qui pecunias profundunt in eas res^ quarum memoriam nullam 
sint relicturi, Cic. The prodigus throws away some good 
as worthless ; the Profusus^ the spendthrift, who incurs ex- 
penses beyond his means, manages it badly, carelessly, though 
he considers it not witliout value: Prof us is sumtibus vi- 
vere, Cic. 

147. Bestia, Fera, Bellua. Bestia^ an animal with- 
out reason, in contradistinction toman: Bestias hominum 
gratia generatas esse videmvs, Cic. . Fera^ a wild animal 
living on land, in contradistinction to the domestic (cicur) : 
Excitare et agitare feras, Cic. Bellua^ ancient Belua^ 
a monster, a large and fearful land or sea animal, e. g. a 
lion, elephant, wild boar, sea-monster: Belua vasta et tm- 
manis. Cic. 

148. Bibere, Potare; Combibo, Potor, Potator. Bi» 
bere, to drink, to draw in a liquid; Potare^ to empty a 
liquid, and fill one's self with it, to drink in full draught, the 
German saufen: Sat prata biberunt, Virg. Domus erat 
plena ebriorum: totos dies potabatur, Cic. — Combibo^ 
drink-companion; Potor^ a drinker, one who empties the 
vessel of potation: Aqua potores. Ho/. Potator^ fud- 
dler, drunkard. 

149. Bonus, Probus ; Bonum, Commodum ; Bona, For- 
TUN-E, Res, Facultates, Opes, Divitije, Copije. Bonus^ 
good, perfect as to its destination, answering it, and good in 
itself, opp. malus ; e. g. poeta, causa^ memoria; Probus^ 
proof, that which has been found, is acknowledged as good 
by test, e. g. argentum, navigium, Oratione eficitur^ ut 
probi, ut bene morati^iU boni viri esse videantur. Cic, 

150. Bos. 152. Brevi. 97 

tried, honest. — Bonum^ something which is good, a good, 
e, g. formcB, liter arum; Commodum, an advantage, that 
which benefits a person in order to obtain a good, e. g. pacts ^ 
opum^ potenticB: Commodum est, quod plus v.sus hahet 
quam molesticB : honum sincerum esse debet et ah omni parte 
innoxium. Senec. — Bona, goods, a fortune as good in it- 
self: Liheris proscriptorum bona patria reddere. Cic. 
For tun ce, goods, blessings which we owe to fortune, such 
as honor, honorable pffices, property; Res (temporal), prop- 
erty as possession, things collectively which we possess : 
Rem auger e ; Rem fa miliar em dissipari nolumus ; im- 
petum prcBdonum in tuas for tunas fieri nolo, Cic. Prop- 
erty as belonging to the family, family property. Facuh 
tates, fortune of a private citizen, inasmuch as he can effect 
something by it, property in respect to its influence : Caven- 
dum est, ne benignitas major sit, quam fa cult ate s, Cic. 
Opes, 139, riches, power, and force, as a means of obtain- 
ing an end: Magnas inter opes inops, Hor. Divitia, 
riches, goods of this world in abundance : Supero Crassum 
divitiis, Cic. Copice, stores, certain goods or things 
which for future use are in greater abundance than necessary ; 
Domestids copiis rei frumentaria uti. Cses. 

150. Bos, Jtjvencus, Taurus; Vacca, Juvenca, Forda. 
Bos, a male or female of cattle, ox, bull, or cow: Bo- 
urn cervices nata ad jugum. Cic. Juvencus, a young 
steer; Taurus, the bull: Rudes operum juvenci. Ovid. 
— Va cca, cow, inasmuch as she is a breeding animal and 
furnishes milk : Ubera vacca lactea demittunt. Virg. Ju- 
venca, a young cow; Forda, a cow with calf: Forda 
ferens bos est, fecundaque. Ovid. 

151. Bractea, Lamina. Bractea,B. thin metallic plate 
for the purpose of plating, also a veneer, wood for veneering ; 
Lamina, Lamna, is thicker, iron &c. sheet, tin: Tenuis 
bractea ligna tegit, Ovid. Tigna laminis clavisque re- 
ligant, CsBs. 

152. Brevi, Propediem; Breviter, Strictim. Brevi, 
sc, tempore, oratione, briefly, in a short time, in a few words : 
Quum tu tam multis verbis ad me scripsisses, faciendum mihi 
putavi, ut tuis Uteris brevi responderem, Cic. Prope- 
diem, soon, very soon : Propediem te videbo. Id. J5re- 
viter, briefly, not diffusive: Rem summatim breviterque 
descripsimus, Cic. Strictim, short, only superficially: 


98 153. Bruma. 156. Cadere, 

Ea^ qua copiosissime did possunt^ hreviter a me stric- 
timque dicuntur. Cic, only touching the chief points, heads. 

153. Bruma, Solstitium, Hiems. Bruma, properly 
the rainy season, the shortest day, the beginning of winter ; 
Hiems, the stormy, cold, rainy season, winter in Italy, be- 
tween the Ides of November and February; Solstitium, 
the summer solstice, beginning of summer: Solis accessus 
discessusque solsiitiis hrumisque cogno^ci potest, Cic. 
Only in later periods solstitium cestivum and hiemale or 
hibemum, Et glacialis hiems aquilonihus asperat un- 
das. Virg. 

154. BuccA, Gena, Mala, Maxilla. Bucca, cheek, 
from the cheek-bone to the lower jaw: Buccas injlare. 
Hor. Gena, the elevated part or surface under the eyelids, 
which covers the cheek-bone : Confusa pudore sensi me totis 
erubuisse genis. Ovid. Maxilla, the upper and lower 
jaws, in which the teeth are placed; dentes maxillares, 
back teeth: Timarclvus duos dentium or dines hahuit maxil- 
larum, Plin. Mala, the lower jaw externally: Juven- 
tus molli vestit lanugine malas, Lucret. Originally the 
same with maxilla. 


155. Cadaver, CoEPTJS, FuNus. Cadaver, the corpse, 
as /aZZew body ; Corpus, as mass; Funus, as the corpse 
destined to be burned : Caiilina longe a suis inter hostium 
cadavera repertus est. Sail. Sepeliendi cau^a conferri in 
unum corpora suorum jussit, Liv. TJrhs assiduis exhausta 
funeribus : multcB et clara lugubres domus. Id. 

156. Cadere, Con — Occidere, Ruere, Corruere, Peo- 
cuMBERE, Labi, Ferri. Cadere, to fall, to fall heavily 
with the whole body on the ground; Conctdere, to col- 
lapse, to fall to the ground, breaking down, sinking to the 
ground; Occidere, to perish: Omnes adversis vulneribus 
conciderant. Sail. Sub onere concidere, Liv. Sol 
occidit. Omnia honoris insignia occiderunt, Cic. 
Ruere, to fall precipitately, to fall in, of houses, mountains: 
Crebris terrce motibus ruunt tecta, Liv. Corruere, to 
break in with rattling noise: Tabernce mihi dua cor rue- 
runt, Cic. Pro cumber e, 15, fall forward, slower, and so 

157. CcRCus. 158. Cadere. 99 

as to be in a lying position after the fall : Procumhit humi 
hos. Virg. Repentina ruina pars tvrris concidit^ pars 
reliqua consequens procumhehat Cses. Ldhi^ to glide 
on a smooth surface, to slide on a slippery surface before the 
fall takes place : Sunt in luhrico^ indtataque semel proclivi 
lahuntur, Cic. Lapsa cadunt folia, Virg. Ferri^ 
being violently driven down by the force of gravity : Ne 
ferar inprceceps, Ovid. 

157. Cjecus, Luscus, Cocles, Strabo, Pjetits ; CiEcu- 
TiRE, Caligare. Ccbcus, blind, pass, invisible: Ccbco 
carpitur igni. Virg. Luscus^ with one eye by mishap: 
Dux luscus, Juvenal, i.e. Hannibal, Cocles, one-eyed 
by nature, e. g. Cyclops, Strabo, squinting; Pat us, who 
has no fixed look, and looks somewhat to the side ; of the 
roguish look of Venus: Strabonem appellai P est urn pa- 
ter, Hor. — CcBcutire, not to see well, to be half blind by 
nature ; Caligare, not to see well, indistinctly, from exter- 
ternal causes: Utrum oculi mihi ccecutiunt, an ego vidi 
servos in armis contra dominosl Varr. Ex somno oculi 
caligant. Gels. 

158. Cjedere, Secare, Scindere, Findere, Recidere, 
Rescindere ; Cjedes, Glades, Strages, Occidio, Inter- 
NECio. CcBdere, to give a blow with an axe, rod : Lapides 
ccedere; virgis cadi, Cic. Secare, to cut with sharp 
instruments, e. g. marmora : Ne glades secet aspera plan- 
tas, Virg. Scindere, to split, tear, thereby to destroy, 
e. g. vestem, epistolam : Cuneis scindebant fissile lignum. 
Virg. Findere, to split, by penetrating into the inner parts 
which sever naturally, to cleave: Fissus erat tenui rima 
paries, Ovid. Recidere, to cut off with a blow unneces- 
sary or obnoxious parts, e. g. vepres, immedicabile vulnus, 
Rescindere, to tear off, injuriously, destroy ingly : Pontem 
jubet rescind i, Cses. — Cades, the cutting to pieces, the 
act of killing: Cades, in qua Clodius ocdsus est, Cic. 
Equites magnam cadem ediderunt, Liv., carnage. CI a- 
des, the defeat, as the great loss we sustain, e. g. dextra 
manus: Claudii ristis, classe devicta, magnam clad em at' 
tulit, Cic. Strages, the defeat, as the mass of bodies by 
and upon one another: Strage hominum armorumque campi 
repleti, Liv. Occidio, the cutting down of an army : Duo 
exercitus prope occidione occisi s(unt, Liv. Interne- 
cio, the deadly defeat, entire destruction : Neque resisti mx)r- 
ho sine internecione posse arbitramur. Cic. 

100 159. Cijdare. 163. Calceus. 


ToRNUS. Ccelare^ to polish or smooth with the calum a 
statue or relievo after the casting, and to give it finish, make it 
perfect ; also used of relievi in wood, ivory, clay, &c., hence 
gemnuB ccelatcs^ cameos, precious stones with figures of the 
same mass protruding from the surface : Hanc speciem PraX" 
iteles ccelavit argento, Cic. Scuta auro ccelaverunt 
Liv., to ornament with figures of gold. Scalpere^ to carve, 
especially into the substance, engrave: Sardonyches scalp- 
t<B ceramnon auferunL Plin., gems. Sculpere^ to carve, 
to work out statues: Non est e saxo sculp tus sapiens, Cic. 
— Calum^ the hollow chisel ; 5 c a Zprwm, the graver, and 
the chisel; Tornus^ a turning tool, is used likewise for 
Ccdum and Scalprum, Virg. Eel. 3, 37. 

160. Cjerimonia, Ritus. Ccerimonia^ the prescribed 
procedure in the execution of a sacred and solemn custom, 
by which something referring to a deity is symbolically rep- 
resented; Ritus, ^e prescribed or accustomed manner of 
acting, which guides in the performance of some business or 
aflfair, usage, e. g. nuptiarum : Sacra Cereris summa religi' 
one ccerimonia que conficere, Cic. Hominem non funditus 
interire, e ccRrimoniis sepulcrorum intelligitur. Id . Quo 
modo ri tuque sacra Jiant, discunto ignari a puhlicis sacer- 
dotihus. Id. Latronum ritu vivere. Id. 

161. CjERULEtJS, Cjesius, Glaucus. Car ulcus, daric 
blue, and nearly so or similarly so, e. g. dark violet-color : 
mare, hyacinthus, Casius, light blue, grayish-blue, as the 
eyes of cats: Casios oculos MinervcB, caruleos esse 
Neptuni. Cic. Glaucus, bluish, greenish-blue: Glauca 
canentia fronde salicta, Virg. 

162. Calcab^ Stimulus; Stimulare, Pungere. CaU 
car, the spur, fastened, with the ancients, to the heel of the 
foot: Concitat calcaribus equum, Liv. Stimulus, the 
artificial sting (see 21), and the stick provided with the same, 
to drive oxen of draught, prong: Stimulo tardos increpare 
hoves, Tihulh Hence Calcar, a means of - encouraging, 
animating ; Stimulus, a. discomforting means of excitement, 
e. g. doloris. — Stimulare, to excite, discomfort by prick- 
ing, enduringly; Pungere, to ^ting, to push in the sting, 
and thus to cause pain : Te conscientice maleficiorum stimu' 
lant ; Ignominia pupugit. 

163. Calceus, C a lce amentum, Pero, Solea, Crepida, 
Sandalium, Caliga, Soccus, Cothurnus, Ocrea. CaZ- 

164. Calere. 165. Caligo. 101 

ceus^ the Roman shoe, covering the foot as far as the ankle, 
and fastened with thongs up to the middle of the shin, of 
black leather (aluta) ; calcei mullein o^ purple color and 
soft leather, worn by consuls, praetors, sediles, and triumphers 
on solemn occasions ; C alee amentum, French chaussure^ 
separate from vestimentum : Milo ealceos et vestimenta 
mutavit, Cic. Pero, a similar shoe of rough leather, some- 
times with the hair on the leather. Sole a, the sole, fastened 
with thongs; Crepida, the same, if fitting for both feet; 
Sandalium^the same, richly ornamented, for ladies ; Cd' 
liga, the same, with nails 9,nd fastened up to the calf, of the 
common soldiers; So ecus, the low, light slipper of the wo- 
men and actors in the comedy; Cothurnus, that of the 
tragedians, with soles four fingers thick; O ere a, the shin- 
plate of iron or brass, of the soldiers. 

164. Calere, Tepere ; Calor, Tepor, Fervor, -^stus. 
Ardor. Calere, to be warm: Sentimus calere ignem. 
Cic. Tepere, to be tepid: Tepentes aura Zephyri, 
Virg. — The warmth perceived from without is Tepor, a 
mild warmth; Calor is warmer; Fervor is heat, as that 
of boiling water: Medii fervor es. Virg., heat of noon. 
JEstusva the internal heat which makes a body boil or show 
symptoms of a high degree of heat: Rigor auri solvitur 
cBstu, Lucret. Ardor, 97, the burning heat of a burning 
or glowing body, e. g. solis : Mea domus ardore suo de- 
Jlagrationem urhi mindbatur, Cic. 

165. Caligo, Obscuritas, Tenebrje, Nox; Umbrosus, 
Opactjs. Caligo, darkness, obscurity, which prevents the 
observer from properly seeing; Plscuritas, darkness, as 
quality of things, which protects against the observer; Ten- 
ebrcB, twilight, caused by the vanishing of light, obscurity as 
such ; No X, night, as contradistinguished from day : Deus 
inducta caligine terras occuluit. Ovid. Obscuritas la- 
tebrarum, Tac. Tenebra eruptione Mtnaorum ignium 
Jinitimas regiones obs cur aver unt, Cic, hence of dizzi- 
ness, giddiness. Milites e scalis, quum altitude^ mcmium ca- 
liginem oculis offudisset, ad terram delati sunt, Liv. Te- 
nebrcB oboriuntur ; genua succidunt. Plaut. — Umbrosus, 
shady, designates the extent of shade ; Opacus, shady, that 
which gives dark shade ; Arbor umbrosa, that which throws 
shade on a large place, even if not quite perfect; opaca, 
that which does not allow the sunbeams to penetrate ; both, 
also, in a passive sense, where, or under which there is 


102 166. Calidus. 167. Ctdo. 

shade: Colle sub umhroso. Ovid. Cuhicula ohductis veils 
opaca, nee tamen ohscura facio, Plin., dark, but not to- 
tally so; (the same difference which there is in German 
between dunkel and finster ; it is not precisely the same with 
regard to dark and obscure.) 

166. Callidus, Astutus, Versutus, Vafek, Vetera- 
TOR, Captiosus, Subdolus; Astus, Astutia, Dolus, Fraus, 
Fallacia. He who possesses skill and ingenuity to obtain 
by a sure means a certain object, which another strives 
to prevent, and, unperceived by the latter, to obtain an advan- 
tage or to escape a danger, is Callidus, cunning, shrewd, 
e. g. Hannibal: Callidos eos appello, quorum^ tamquam 
manus opere^ sic animus u>su concalluit, Cic. More in a de- 
preciating sense : A status, cunning, with innate sharpsight- 
edness, vulpes : Pro bene sano ac non incauto fictum astu» 
turn que vocamus. Hor. Versutus^he who, in pursuing his 
plan quickly, without showing it, changes his measures ac- 
cording to circumstances, dexterous, e. g. Lysander : Ver- 
suti^ qtuyrum celeriter mens versatur, Cic. Vafer^ he who 
cunningly discovers the tricks of others, and plays them still 
better ones, cunning with inventive power: Captes astutus 
testamenta senum^ neu^ si vafer unus et alter insidiatorem 
prceroso fugerit hamo^ spem deponas, Hor. Veterator., a 
cheat, one who is experienced in tricks, cheating, and 
rogueries: In causis privatis satis veterator. Cic. Fin» 
gamus omnia callide refer entem ad utiliiaiem^ acutum^ 
versutum^ v eter at orem^ facile ut excogitet^ quo occulte 
sine ullo conscio fallat. Id. Captiosus^ captious, design- 
ing to lead others so that he gets the advantage over them : 
Fallacibus et captiosis interrogationibus decepti, Cic. 
Subdolus^YfYio covers his tricks: Rete subdolum. Mar- 
tial. — Astus^ the cunning, a cunning device; Astutia^ 
cunning, as natural quality and skill ; DoluSy trick, with bad 
intention: Dolo pugnare^non armis. Nep. Dolus malus 
est, quuTn est aliud simulatum, aliud actum, Cic. Fraus^ 
the cheat, fraud, if the expectation of honesty has riot been 
fiilfilled: Fraus fidem in parvis sibi prcBStruit, tU, quum 
operce preiium sit, cum mercede magna fallat. Liv. Fall a- 
cia, deception, also intrigue: Composita est fallacia, tU 
auro me privent. Plaut. In Dolus and Fraus is immor- 
ality; in Astus, Astutia, Calliditas, is intelligence, 
mental dexterity, the chief modifying idea. 

167. Calo, Lixa. Cdlo, properly a club, — one who 

168. Calumniari. 170. Canere. 103 

carries the mace as servant of an officer, one who attends to 
the baggage of an army : Calonum atque impedimeniorum 
non magnus numeras desideratus, Cses. Lixa^ a sutler, 
who on his own accord followed the army with edibles ; from 
elixum, cooked meat : Metellus lixas e casiris summovity 
cihumque coctum venalem prQponi vetuit, Val. Max. 

168. Calumniari, Obtrectare, Conviciari. Caluni' 
niariy properly, to misrepresent the words of a person ; to 
accuse falsely and maliciously, to practise chicane : DefeU' 
soris locus est, quum accusatorem calumniari criminatur. 
Ad Herenn. Obtrectare, maliciously detract, to speak 
disparagingly of good actions or qualities of others ; ali' 
cujus laudes, Liv. Conviciari, to reproach, to use in-, 
vectives, to call names: Eum conviciatus est, qui tarn 
sero venisset ad constitutum {tempos). Varr. Maledictum 
est, si f also ohjicitur, npaledici c(fnviciatoris, Cic, the 
calumniator who slanders the good name of another. 

169. Caminus, Fornax, Furnus. Camlnus {itdfuvog) 
and Fornax, furnace with vaulted cover, in which there is 
an aperture : Ne frigeas in hihernis, c amino luculento 
utendum censeo. Cic. Recoquunt fornacibus enses. Virg. 
Furnus, the oven to bake: In fur no calido torreto me 
pro pane rubido. Plant. 

170. Canere, Cantare, Modulari ; Canor, Cantus, 
Canticum, Cantilena, Cantamen, Cantio, Carmen, Po- 
BMA. Canere, to sing, to produce harmcmious sounds 
with the voice or on an instrument, and to make that which 
can be sung, i. e. verses; also to prophesy; Cantare^ 
to sing audibly and with art; Modulari, to sing according 
to tact, to give rhythmical motion to the song: Canere voce, 
fidibus, tibiis, Cic. Cicero ea, qucB nunc usu veniunt, ceci' 
nit ut votes, Nep. Cantare ad chordarum sonum, Cic. 
Virgines carman in Junonem canentes, sonum vocis pulsu 
pedum mo dul antes incesserunt, Liv. — The song is Ca- 
nor, if heard as such, e. g. lyra; Cant us, according to its 
mode, e. g. remissior ; Canticum, ^^ text, as a song, poem, 
made to be sung : Nosti canticum, Cic. Convivium can" 
ticis strepit, Quinctil. Cantilena, di song which goes by 
a well-known tune, a song sung everywhere, so that it be- 
comes tiresome: Cantilenam eandem canis, Ter. Can» 
t am en, a, formula of incantation : O utinam magiccB nossem 
cantamina Muscb, Prop. Cantij), the song when actually 
sung, as action, the singing, e. g. luscinicB: Veneficiis et 

104 171. Caper. 172. Capere. 

cantionihus TiiinicB factum erat Cic. Carmen^ the 
poem, £^ that which can be sung, also a single verse, i. e. 
line, an epigrammatic verse or verses, an oracle, dec. : Rem 
carmine signo : Mneas hac de Datum victoribtis arvuL 
Virg. Poem a, poem, as a poetic composition and produc- 
tion of art : Non esse illud carmen (Sibylla) Jurentis^ ip» 
sum poem a declarat; est enim magis artis ac diligentUBy 
qttam incitationis et motus. Cic. 

171. Capee, Hjedus, Hircus. Cdper^n, he-goat, entire 
or emasculated: Vir gregis ipse caper, Virg. Caper^ 
qui excastratus est, Varr. HcBdus^ a young he-goat: Te- 
nero lascivior hado. Ovid. Hi rcus^a, he-goat, with refer- 
ence to his striking qualities, as knocking, smelling, &c. : Olet 
hircum, Hor., of the unpleasant flavor of perspiration from 
under the arm-pit. 

172. Capere, Sumere, Rapere; Accipere, Assumeee, 
Arrogare, Adsciscere; Decipere. Capere^ to take, 
grasp, and to have room for something : Cape hoc fiabellum 
et ventulum huic sic facito, Ter. Stipendium cap it victor^ 
quod victis imposuit. Gees. Turbam ades vix capienL 
Ter. Sumere^ to take up and away from some place of 
rest, to take for some purpose : Epistolam, in pulvino post* 
tam^ sum it ac perlegit. Sail. Sumite mMeriam vestris^ 
qui scribitisy aquam viribus, Hor. Arma capere^ to take 
up arms, to arm one's self; sumere^ to take them away 
from their place. Exemplum cap it de <e, he catches it from 
you, learns it from you ; ex aliis sumere. Ter., to take as a 
model, choose. Rapere, to take away hastily, tear away: 
Distat, sumasne pudenter anrapias. Hor. — Capere^ to 
take that which is given; Accipere, to accept, in order to 
keep, approvingly: Verres contra leges pecuniam cepit. 
Cic. Prcedonum duces, accept a pecunia, dimisit. Id. Su- 
mere, io assume, to be bold enough to do something not fit 
for us, trespassing the limits of propriety, modesty, and right ; 
Assumere, to claim with right in certain respects : Legatus 
prodio decertare noluit, ne imperatorias sibi partes sum^ 
sisse videretur, Cses. Quod est oratoris proprium, si id 
mihi as sumo, videor id meo jure quodam m>odo vindicare, 
Caes. Arrogare, 108, to arrogate, from pride or conceit: 
Non vereor, ne mihi aliquid videar arrogasse, si de quaS' 
tura mea dixero, Cic. Assumere, to receive addition; 
Adsciscere, by a decree, and as property : Sacra Cereris 
assumta de Grcecia. Cic. Adsciverunt oppidumpirata; 

173. Capillus. 174. Capite censi, ' 105 

primo commerdo^ deinde etiam societate. Id. Rhetores ex» 
pertes fuerunt prudenticB^ quam sibi adsciscerent. Id.— 
Cap ere, to catch, take prisoner, to capture, occupy, to se- 
duce ; Decipere^ to deceive, to allure one into a trap, in 
order to take advantage : Callida assentatione^ enure capi, 
Cic. Decipimur specie recti. Hor. 

173. Capillus, Crinis, Coma, Cjesaries, Cincinnus, 
Cirrus, Villus, Pilus, Seta. Capillus^ the hair of the 
head: Promissa barba et cap ill i efferaverant speciem oris, 
Liv. Crinis^ the hair collectively, in French chevelure; 
plur. CrineSj the hairs as thin bodies: Crinem barbamque 
submittere. Tac. Cap ill o pexo^ vitiisque innexis crinu 
bus. Varr. Coma^ the long hair: intonsa^ calamistrata. 
Cic, hence also the mane of the horse, foliage : Galeceque 
tremunt horror e com arum. Stat., meaning the comb on the 
helmet; in plural, of several divisions or layers. C<Bsa» 
ries^ the thick, long, curly hair of adults: Scipionem ador-» 
nabat promissa ccesaries. Liv. NymphcB ccesariem efi 
fas(B nitidam per Candida colla. Virg. Cincinnus, an 
artificial lock; Cirrus, a. natural lock, of boys : Istos com' 
positos, crispos cincinnos tuos unguentatos expellam. Plaut. 
AmbracicR primum cap ilium puerilem demtum, item cir* 
ros ad Apollinem ponere solent. Cato. Villus, a bunch 
of hair, adhering to one another and pending from the head : 
Ovium villi. Cic. Pilus, a. single, thin hair: Muniti sunt 
palpebrcB tamquamvallo pilorum. Cic. Neullum pilum 
viri boni habere dicatur. Cic. Seta, a single strong hair, 
bristle, e. g. equina, leonis : Barba viros, hirtceque decent in 
corpore seta. Ovid. 

174. Capite censi, Proletarii, ^Erarii. Capite cen» 
si, valued by the head, were those Romans who possessed 
three hundred and seventy-five asses at the highest, and who, 
as poor, were excluded from the five classes which had a 
right to vote and did military service ; Proletarii (blessed 
with children), citizens possessed of one thousand five hun- 
dred asses at the utmost, and who, with their sons, in sudden 
and dangerous wars, entered the army, where the state sup- 
ported them; Mrarii, serfs of the public treasury; when 
the censor expelled senators or knights from their tribe, de- 
clared their citizenship and right of voting as lost {in Cari- 
tum tabulas referri), and themselves and fortune henceforth 
to belong to the public treasury ; yet the succeeding censor 
could reinstate them : Marius milites scripsit non more 

106 175. Capulus. 178. Carpere. 

majorum^ neque ex classibus^ sed capite censos plerosque. 
Sail. Censores scepenumero superiorum jiuiiciis non steterunt^ 
ut alter in cerarios referri aiU tribu moveri juheat^ alter 
vetet, Cic. 

175. Capulus, Manubrium, Ansa. Capulus^ the han- 
dle of a tool or instrument of any sort, e. g. sceptri^ ensis^ 
aratri ; Manubrium^ handle, in as far as it designates rings 
and the like to liH &;c. a thing, also the handle, if it is a long, 
projecting piece, hand-piece, as it were, e. g. the handle of a 
broom, and, in general, the handle considered as contrivance 
for the hand, e. g. securis: Ad ferramenta facta manU' 
hria aptare, Colum. Vas vinarium manuhrio aureo. 
Cic. Ansaf ear, handle of a vessel : Attrita pendehat can- 
iharus ansa, Virg. 

176. Carbo, Pruna. Carbo^ the coal, as effect and 
product of the fire, burning or not : Prcdia^ ntbrica picta aut 
car hone. Hot, Dionysius candente car hone sibi adure- 
hat capillum, Cic. Prwwa, the burning, glowing coal: 
Suhjiciunt verihtis p run as, Virg. 

177. Careee, Egere, Indigere, Vacare; Caritas, Pe- 
nuria, Inopia. Car ere, to want, i. e. to stand in want of, 
to feel the want, not to have, the opposite of having or pos- 
sessing : malo^ dolore^ fohri, consuetudine amicorum, Cic. 
Non caret is, qui non desiderat. Id. Egere^ to suffer 
want, the opposite of having in plenty, abundance : Consilio 
non eges, vel ahundas potius, Cic. Eg ens ceque est is, qui 
non satis hahet, et is, cui nihil satis potest esse. Ad Herenn. 
Indigere, to stand in great need of: Bellum indiget ce- 
leritatis, Cic. Vacare, to be open, free, empty of and for 
something: Tota domus superior vacat, Cic. Vaco culpa. 
Id. Scribes aliquid, si vac ah is. Id. Philosophic^ semper 
vaco. Id. Caritas, ^^, the quality of a thing if we dislike 
missing it, and it has, consequently, much value to us ; the 
high price of articles on account of scarcity : Vilitas annona 
ex inopia et car it ate rei frumentaricR consecuta est. Cic. 
Penuria, want, scarcity of stores, opp. copia: Cmlo, terra 
penuria aquarum. Sail. Inopia, want of assistance, help- 
lessness, embarrassment : Magna sollidtudine affidor, magna 
inopia consilii, Cic. 

178. Carpere, Legere, Metere; Vellicaee. Carpe* 
re, to take off piece by piece, to pluck, e. g. poma, gramen^ 
Legere, with selection ; ^ores et fraga, Virg, Metere^ 
to mow off, to reap: Ut sementem jeceris, ita metes. Cic- 

179. Casa. 181. Castigare. 107 

Carpere^ to attack partially, by parts, and tttus injure: 
Hostes fessum agmen car punt ah omni parte^ incursantqite. 
Liv., and to tease some one, to ridicule him strongly: In 
multorum peccato carpi pueros ad ignominiam non oportet, 
Cic. Vellicare, to pluck violently (the German rupfen 
and zupfen), to pinch with words, to taunt with nipping words : 
More hominum in conviviis rodunt^in drculis vellicant^ 
maledico dente car punt, Cic. 

179. Casa, Tugtjrium, Mapale. Casa, the hut, a small 
house, as the covering refuge : Casa capiehat parva Quiri- 
num. Ovid. Tugurium, the hut, covering against wind and 
weather: Pauperis et tuguri congestum cespite culmen. 
Virg. Map alia, Mag alia, small huts, like ovens, of the 
African nomadic tribes: NumidcB, map alia sua, hoc est 
domus, plaustris circumferentes, Plin. 

180. Cassis, Galea, Cudo. Cassis, Cassida, a. hel- 
met of metal, as the hollow covering of the head; (Or ale a, 
of leather, also covered over with metal, as the hiding cover- 
ing ; Cudo, of rare use, the covering, as skin-like, protecting 
covering of the head : Aurea cassida. Virg. Ad gale as 
inducendas tempos defuit. Cses. ; both were ornamented by 
feathers {crista), Capiti cudone ferino cautum, Sil, 

181. Castigare, Punire, P(enas petere, repetere, Pce- 


CARE, MuLTARE ; PcENA, MuLTA. Castigarc, to punish 
with the view of correcting, to correct, if used for punishing 
(German zuchtigen) : Segnitiem atque inertiam hominum, 
Cic. Punire J to punish, to make one suffer for something, 
retaliate in the sense of punishing: sontes. Cic. Poena, 
punishment, as atonement for a crime; Posnas petere a 
quo, to bring one to condign punishment; repetere, to de- 
mand punishment as satisfaction, atonement, to demand, as it 
were, hack; to revenge something with some one : Leges 
pcenas repetunt ad injusto judice, qui pmnas ah inno' 
cente petiit, Sumere pcenas, punishment in general; 
Sum ere supplicium, a severe bodily infliction, or capital 
punishment, execution : Qui ne de damnata quidem pcenas 
sumere potuisset, de ea supplicium sumsit, Cic. An- 
imadvertere (80) in qusm, to visit a crime judicially. 
Institueras in eos animadvert ere, qui perperam judi- 
cassent, Cic. Plectere^ to whip, chastise with blows, 
stripes, generally Plecti, to suffer painful punishment, to 
suffer dearly for something: Quidquid delirant reges, plee- 


108 182. Castus. 184. Caiapulta. 

tuntur Achivi. Mule are, punish with bodily ill-treat- 
ment; Mult are^wkh loss: Familiam mulcavit usque ad 
mortem. Ter. Multantur bonis exsules. Cic — MwZ^a, 
generally fine: Centum millium mult a irrogata erai, Liv. 

182. Castus, Pudicu^, Verecundus. Castus, chaste, 
he who so chastens his sensual appetites that his morality 
appears spotless: Castus animus pumsque. Cic. Pudu 
cus, to have the proper sense of shame, indicating that bash- 
fulness which proceeds from a chaste feeling (in Grerman 
ziichtig), he who avoids that which might excite his sensual 
appetites or might hurt his sense of shame : Erubescunt pu- 
dici etiam loqui de pudicitia. Cic. Verecundus, 
decorous, of moral deportment, from natural sense of chas- 
tity, moral delicacy, and fear of giving just scandal : Decet 
verecundum esse adolescentem. Plant. Verecundi sunt, 
ut bene audiant, ut rumorem bonum colligant, Cic. 

183. Casus, Fobs, Fortuna, Sors, Fatum ; Exitus, 
EvENTUS. Casus, the case, accident, untoward event, in- 
asmuch as they are unforeseen : Quod temere Jit ccbco casu, 
prcBdici non potest, Cic. Spemvarii casus jefellerunt. Id. 
Fors, the accident by which an event is caused, brought 
about: Non casu te sortitus sum amicum; nulla etenim 
mihi te fors obtulit, Hor. Fortuna, the fate which has 
been brought upon us by accident, as event to be perceived 
by the senses, as phenomenon, good or bad luck: Fortune 
commutationem queri, Cses. In/ima est conditio et fortuna 
servorum, Cic. Forte fortuna adfuit. Ter., by a happy, 
fortunate accident. Sors, the lot which, as effect of acci- 
dent, falls to one, with the additional idea of a mysterious 
destiny ; Fatum, the order of the world, of things, unchange- 
ably destined by the supreme ruler of the universe ; fate, as 
the steadily and secretly swaying power ; there is the idea of 
the unchangeable, and therefore irresistible, in fatum : Fati 
lege immobilis rerum humanarum ordo seritur, Liv. Nescia 
mens hominum fati sortisque futurce. Virg., differing like 
cause and effect. — Casus, event, as that which happens; 
Exitus, the end, issue of an event ; Eventus, its effect and 
consequence, its turning out so or so, successfully or not, 
happily or not: Contigit consiliis nostris exitus, quern 
optamus, Cic. Non ex sententia eventus dicendi pro- 
cedit. Id. 

184. Catapulta, Ballista, Onager, Scorpio. Cat a' 
pulta, and the (difiTerently arranged) Ballista^ were large 

185. Catena, 187. Cavere. 109 

machines for throwing (tormenta) with bows and strings, they 
threw large arrows and pieces of rocks; Onager threw 
stones; Scorpio, & small hallista or scaffold, which threw 
very pointed arrows. From the times of Caesar, that which 
was formerly called catapulta was named hallista^ and the 
former hallista was called onager, 

185. Catena, Torques, Monile ; Vinculum, Neevus, 
Manic A, Compes, Pedica. As ornament of the neck served 
the Catena^ a chain composed of rings; Torques^ the 
twisted chain ; Monile^ an ornament of the neck, composed 
of separate parts, more independent links than those of the 
chain: Eriphyla quum vidisset monile ex auro et gemmiSj 
salutem viri prodidit. Cic. Chains to fetter, fetter, is Fin- 
culum^ every thing which serves to lash, to tie (vincere)^ the 
rope, if used for this purpose; Nervus^ cord^ and fetter 
made of sinews; Manic a, manacle; Compes^ a fetter 
applied to the lower leg (con-pes)^ foot-iron; Pedtca^ a 
noose, fetter in which the foot is kept : In vinculis et ca- 
tenis esse, Liv. Corpus in nervum ac supplicia dare. 
Id. In manicis et compedibus te sub custode tenebo, 

186. Cavea, Cunei, Geadus, Fori. Cave a, the seats 
in form of stairs in the amphitheatre, and the theatre as a 
hollow place, considered as a whole; ima, the lowest divi- 
sion, for senators; media^ for the equites; summa^ the 
highest, for the people ; Cune% the divisions of these seats 
made by the stairs from above down, and which appeared, 
of course, in the form of wedges, since the upper circumfer- 
ence was wider than the lower ;^ below was the orchestra^ 
for. the senators. Cunei equestres s, quatuordecim^ 
for the knights; populares, for the people; Gradus^ 
these seats according to the horizontal rows. Fori^ the 
stair-like seats in the circus, the large racing-ground. 

187. Cavere, Cautionem habere ; Cautio, Satisdatio. 
Cavere, to prevent a danger, or endeavour to do it, to take 
care against something, insidias ; ah ali quo, to be on his 
guard against some one, and to make some one give guar- 
anty, bail; Cautionem habere, to require caution and 
carefulness : Ego, qua provideri poterunt, non foliar in iis r 
qucR cautionem non habebunt, de iis non ita valde la- 
boro, Cic. Beneficentia multas habet cautiones. Id. — 
Cautio, caution, foresight, the pledge and guaranty in a 
contract, given orally, in writing, or by an actual pledge, a 


110 188. Cavema. 190. Causa. 

thing pledged; Satisdatio^ihe action of giving bail, by 
which the other is satisfied : A malts natura declinamus : 
qucB declinatio^ quum ratione fit^ cautio appellaiur, Cic. 
Satisdationem prcestare, Ulpian. 

188. Caverna, Antrum, Specus, Spelunca. Caverna^ 
cavern, inasmuch as it is hollow, a hollow, excavation : E 
terrcB cavernis ferrum elicimus. Cic. Antrum^ cavern, 
grotto, entering deep, poetical : Silvestribus ahditus ant r is. 
Ovid. Specus^ the more elongated hollow, cleft of rocks, 
whence dangers may be espied, hence the name; Spelun- 
ca (for speculunca), the smaller spelunca, the hiding-place, 
corner: In earn speluncam penetratum cum signis est, et 
ex eo loco obscuro multa vulnera accepta, donee altero spe^ 
cus ejus ore {nampervius erat), invento,utraque fauces con^ 
gestis lignis accensa. Liv. 

189. Caula, Ovile. Caul a, the pen, inasmuch as it 
surrounds the sheep; Ovile, the place where sheep are 
kept: Lupus insidiatus ovili, quum /remit ad caul as. 

190. Causa, Ratio ; Res, Lis ; Causari, Pr-etendere, 
Pr-etexere. Causa, cause of an effect; Ratio, the pro- 
ceeding according to a certain calculation, hence the word ; 
that which contains the reasons why we destine a thing to 
produce an intended effect, the reasons, the grounds : JVw»- 
quam bellorum semen et causa deerit, Cic. Ex laqueis se 
aliqua via ac rati one explicare. Id. In explicandis can- 
sis rerum novarum ea, qua placebunt, exponendis rationi- 
bus comprobabis. Id. — If we have distinct objects in view, 
causa is the interest^ especially of each disputing party, as, 
to have a good cause ; Res is the subject of dispute, in which 
the parties have different interests ; Lis, 62, the legal action, 
process, which is brought and had about the res : Senator 
causas populi teneto. Cic. Causam pro publicanis dixit 
LcbUus, Id., to defend in court. Jus in rem; Rei vindi- 
catio, Quibus res erat in controversia, ea vocabatur Lis. 
Varr. — Causari, to assert, give something as cause; 
Prcetend ere, to extend a veil before something ; PrcR- 
t ex ere, to weave a veil before something, i. e. to pretend, to 
veil, cloak, cover the truth ; the German vorwenden, literally 
to turn before, is taken from a very similar trope : Consent 
sum Patrum causabantur tribuni, quo jura plebis labe* 
facta essent, Liv. Te Pythagoricum soles dicere, et homi- 
nis doctissimi nomen tuts barbaris moribus prcetendere, 
Cic. Blando fraudem pratexere risu. Claudian. 

191. CarUus. 194. Celeher. Ill 

191. Catitus, Consideratus, Circumspect cts, Providus. 
All these signify the same with the corresponding English • 
words, except that providus does not only mean provident, 
i. e. foreseeing wants, and therefore laying in provisions or 
other articles wanted at some future period, as it does in 
English, but it signifies carefully avoiding distant dangerous 
consequences. Cautus^ cautious, careful against possible 
danger, being upon one's guard; Consideratus^ consid- * 
erate, who weighs judiciously all circumstances; Circum' 
spectus, circumspect, who views all surrounding dangers, 
and tries to protect himself suitably, who has his '* eyes wide 
open." Propter insidias cautus providusque. Cic. 
Considerati hominis est, qua de re jure decertari oportet, 
armis non contendere. Id. In cognoscendo ac decernendo 
circumspectus et sagax. Suet. 

192. Cedere, Concedere, Connivere. Cedere, to 
yield against resistance; Concedere, to yield, to concede 
from kindness, to grant; Connivere, to close the eyes, 
connive at, to be indulgent : Hie tempori, furori, consulibus 
cessit, Cic. Concedere amicis, quidquid velint. Id. Cur 
in hominum scelerihus maodmis connivetis? Id. 

193. Celare, Silere, Tacere ; Tacitus, Taciturnus. 
C el are, to hide, to conceal something of which we ought to 
inform another on account of his interest; Silere, to be 
still, quiet, not to talk; Tacere, to be silent, when we 
might or ought to speak, to abstain from talking about a 
thing, to conceal by silence, by not talking, the German ver- 
schweigen: Celare est, quum qued tu scias, id ignorare 
emolumenti tui causa velis eos, quorum intersit id scire, Cic. 
Muta silet virgo, Ovid. Silent leges inter arma, Cic. 
Enuntiabo, quod adhuc semper tacuL Id. — Tacitus, who 
is silent; Taciturnus^ taciturn, still more one who keeps a 
secret well, and cannot be made to speak: Ta ahi tacit us 
tuam viam. Plant. Ingenium statua taciturnius. Hor. 
The English language having no verb for being silent, is de- 
ficient in all these various derivatives. 

194. Celeber, Frequens, Creber; Frequenter, Cre- 
BRO, Sjepe ; Celebrare, Frequentare, Agere diem festum. 
Celeher, noisy, by a large concourse of people, by numer- 
ous visits, e. g. forum, nupticB, oraculum; Locus c el eh r is, 
an desertus. Ad Herenn. Frequens, crowded by people, 
opp. pauci, singuli ; that which is in great number, and be 
who does in great number : theatrum ; municipium, populous : 

112 195. Cehr. 

Senatus frequens conv enit, Cic. Demosthenes frequens 
fmi Platonis auditor. Id. Creber of increasing, accumu- 
lating number : Castella primum pauca^ postea^ exercitu auc- 
to^ creberrima fecerunt. Liv., of frequent, increasing oc- 
currence. — Fr equenter^ frequently, closely one to another ; 
Crebro^ numerous, frequently in succession ; ScepCy SapC' 
numero^ often, at various times : Alexander frequenter 
in officinam Apellis ventitabaL Plin. Crebro CatuLum^ 
sape me, scepissime rem publicam nominabat, Cic. — 
Celebrare^ to make loud, solemn, famous by concourse of 
people; Frequentare^ to make crowded, full, to visit in 
numbers; Agere, Agitare diem festum^ to celebrate 
solemnly a feast day by observing accustomed rites : Quum 
urbes Italice festos dies agere adventus mei videbantur^ 
vicB multitudine legatorum undique missorum celebraban- 
tur. Cic. Res omnium sermone celebrata. Id., rendered 
famous. Multi frequent ant domum meam. Id. 

195. Celek, Velox, Pernix ; Levis, Agilis, . Alaceb, 
Promtus ; CiTus, Properus, Festinus ; Celerabe, Pro- 
perare, Festinare, Maturare. Celer (ceZstw, 64.), quick, 
of a violent motion, or as effect of certain talents, as skilful- 
ness: Velox (volar e), fleet, nimble, used of ease in the 
movement of the limbs; Pernix (niti), rapid, quick, of 
lasting moving power: Pedites velocissimi, si quo erat 
celerius recipiendum. Cobs. Famam pedibus celer em et 
pernicibus alis, Virg. As capacity: Levis, liglit, op- 
posed to heavy of motion ; Agilis, movable, agile, quick at 
work, opp. tardus; Aldcer, lively, sprightly, effect of a 
lively feeling of spirits, e. g. equus ; Promtus, ready, 
always prepared: Corpuscula volucri levitate feruntvr, 
Lucret. Oderunt agilem gnavumque remissi. Hor. Vip' 
tores alacritate ad canendum excitantur. Cic. Ad hella 
suscipienda Gallorum alficer et promtus est animus, 
C8Bs.,*only of shortness of time : Cttus, expediting with ex- 
ertion; Properus, hasty, in order to approach the end in 
view; Festinus, anxiously hastening, hastening while driven 
by internal disquiet: Cito transcurre curricuh ad nos, 
Plaut. Ecce venit Telamon properus. Ovid. Cursu fe 5- 
tinus anhelo advolat. Id. — Celer at, qui mora periculum 
sentit; Festinat, quem urget necessitas aut cupiditas; 
Properat, qui citius quam diligentius agit, ut aliquid coU' 
ficiat; Maturat (to do that for which it is the right time, 
not to delay), qui rem tempestive perfectam cupit. Nonius* 

196. Cento. 198. Cessare. 113 

Inde ventis remis in patriam omni festinatione prope- 
r^avi. Cic, to hasten, to hurry to obtain one's object. Multa^ 
forent qucB mox codo properanda sereno^ maturare da- 
tur. Virg., the farmer may perform with considerate dili- 
gence many labors, which he would be obliged to hurry if 
it should soon be fine weather. 

196. Cento, Lacinia, Pannus. Cento^a dress or cover 
patched together of old pieces, patchwork; JLacznia, a 
blanket, a towel, and the comer of a dress, e. g. togcB ; Pan^ 
nu5, a larger blanket, as that which is woven, a dress; in 
plur. Panni^ rags: Centones sibi sarcire. Cato. Same 
I acini am atque absterge sudorem tiM. Plaut. Pannis 
annisque ohsitics, Ter. 

197. Certus, Ratus; Certe, Certo, Profecto, Sane. 
Certus^ certain, according to the ground of our knowledge 
or perception, in the which we cannot doubt ; also, sure, safe, 
of the person in whom we rhay trust ; also, a certain (person) 
whom we may mention as the cause, author, &c. of a certain 
thing, but whom we do not choose to designate farther : Mi' 
hi certum est, I am resolved, indicates the firmness of will 
to do something acknowledged by us as the best to be done : 
Quum certum sciam, faciam te certiorem. Cic. Sunt 
cert a vitia, quce nemo est quin effugere cupiat. Id. Habe- 
ham certo s homines^ quibus darem literal. Id. Certum 
est deliberatumque omnia dicere. Id. Ratus^ calculated, 
settled, that which is concluded upon, cannot be changed : 
In omni atemitate rati immutabilesque siderum cursus, Cic. 
Testamentum ruptum aut ratum. Id., valid. -^ Cerie, cer- 
tainly, of a thing ; at least, if it applies to a given case ; 
Certo^ with certainty, of the conviction of him who knows : 
Si Deus scit^ certe illud eveniet, Cic. Quod ex nostris lit' 
eris certe scire potuistis. Id. Homines mortem vel optare 
incipiant^ vel certe timbre desistant. Id. De quo te non 
dubitare certo scio. Id. Profecto^ assuredly, in fact, 
assuring something as fact : Non est ita, judices^ non est 
profecto. Cic. Sane, entirely so, verily; Sane vellem 
potuisset obsequi voluntati iucB. Cic. ; in " concessive style," 
it signifies, may it be so : Hac sint falsa sane. Id. 

198. Cessare, Intermittere, Desistere, Desinere ; 
Intermissio, Intercapedo. Cessare (cedere, XIX, 10., b.), 
to stop repeatedly in a work from indolence, to tarry, loiter ; 
Intermittere, to interrupt the work for a time altogether; 
Desistere, to desist from it, uncertain whether the work 


114 199. Cibus. 202. Cingere. 

will be taken up again, e. g. hello y incepto ; Desinere^to 
leave off, never to resume it again : Gorgias nunquam in suo 
studio atque opere cessavit. Cic. Milites paulisper in^ 
termittunt proMvm^ seqite ex lahore reficiuat. Gees» Ut 
incipiendi sermonis ratio fuerit, ita sit desinendi modus» 
Cic. — Intermission intermission for a time, e. g. officii; 
Intercapedo, the interval, interruption: Intercapedi' 
nem scribendi facere. Cic. 

199. Cibus, Esca, Cibaria, Edulia. Cihus, food, as 
that which satisfies, assuages hunger; Cibaria^ every thing 
used for this purpose, victuals; Esca^ prepared food, meal; 
also, bait; EduliajoW eatables except bread : Ciho et pO' 
tione famem sitimque depellere. Cic. Cibaria coda die' 
rum decem, Nep. Dii non escis out potionihus vescuMur, 
Cic. Commercatis conquisite edulibus, Afran. 

200. CicuR, Mansuetus, Mitis, Lenis. Ctcur^ tamed, 
accustomed to man, not fearing him; Mansuetus^ accus- 
tomed to the hand of man, serving man, tame, mildly dis- 
posed ; Mitis^ yielding, soil, mild; Lenis, soft^ not disa- 
greeable to the feeling, agreeable to it: Genera bestiarum 
vel cicurum vel ferarum, Cic. Vir quidam sapiens hom^ 
ines ex feris etimmanibus mites reddidit et mansuetos, 
Cic, of sociable disposition. Ccesar^ homo mitissimus 
atque lenissimus. Id. 

201. CiERE, ExciRE, ExciTARE. CHre, excite, stir up, 
set into activity, e. g. motus^ lacrimas^ pugnam^ helium ; pa^ 
trem ctere, to call one's father, and thus prove birth as a 
freeman ; Excire, to chase up that which was at rest: Ex- 
tremos pavor cubilibus suis excitos in Jugam tulit. Lit. 
Excitare^ to excite more violently, by calling or any other 
stirring means, e. g. e somno^ ah injeris. 

202. Cingere, Redimire, Circumdare, Aioire ; Cin- 
GULUM, Redimiculum, Zona. Cingere, to fence (circum- 
fence), to gird, holding together : castra valloj comam lauro : 
Flumen oppidum cingit, Redimire^ to wind around, to 
hem, hem in: capillos serto^vitta; Circumdare^ to sur- 
round all around : brachia collo, oppidum vallo et fossa ; 
Ambire (amb^ XVII.), to walk round something, to surround 
a thing from all sides, neutraliter^ i. e. being situated all 
around: Oceanus terram, amnis insulam ambit, — CingU' 
lum^ the girdle ; Cingulus^^. large circle which surrounds 
something : Cemis terram quasi quibusdam . redimitam et 
circumdatam cingulis. Cic. Cingula^ the saddle-girt: 

203. Cinis. 206. Civis. 115 

Nova cingula Icedit equum. Ovid. Redimiculum^ that 
which serves to tie round, riband, band, sash : Hahent redi- 
micula mitra, Virg. Zona^B. girdle in general: Zona^ 
qua cincta fait, Ovid. Quinque tenent ccdum Zona, Yug,^ 
the zone. 

203. Cinis, Favilla, Scintilla. Cints, the ashes, be- 
cause a grayish-white (55) body ; Favilla^ the flying cishes 
(fdvere) ; Scintilla, spark : Dilapsam in cineres facem, 
Hor. Scintillas agere; ac late differre fav ill am, Lucret. 

204. CiRCTJs, CiRcuLus, Orbis, Gyrus. Circus and 
Cir cuius, the circle, as the outermost line of a circular 
space: Stella circos sues orhesque conjiciunt, Cic. al, cir-^ 
culos; especially Circus maodmus, the race-ground in 
Rome; circus theatri; Vasa circulis dngere, with 
hoops; sermones in circulis. Cic, in circles of society. 
Orbis, the circular space, space marked out by the circle, 
hence terrarum, because the earth was considered to be such : 
huna quater junctis implerat comibus orb em, Ovid. Gy- 
rus, the motion in a circle: In gyros ire coacttts equus. 

205. Cis, CiTRA. Cis, this side of, designates the whole 
space between the person who speaks and a certain limit ; 
Citra,, on this side of, a place or country in this space: 
Gallia Cisaljdna, Cic. Vinum citra mure natum. Hor. 

206. Civis, PopuLARis, Incola ; Civitas, Urbs, (Caput,) 
Oppidum, Municipium, Colonia, Prjefectura. Civis, cit- 
izen, as member of the state, and participator in its liberties 
and burdens: Eques Romunus, hujv^ rei publica civis. 
Cic. Mei ciwes, my fellow-citizens (not concives). Pop» 
ularis, one of the same nation, a countryman: Indibilis 
Herges non populares modo, sed Ausetanos quoque, vici' 
nam gentem^ concitat. Liv. Incola, inhabitant of a certain 
place or country: Totiv^ mundi incola et civis, Cic. — 
Civitas, all the citizens, as society forming the state, and 
the citizenship, the aggregate of rights of a citizen : Servos 
liber tate, id est civ it ate donare, Cic. ZJrJs, city, as the 
place, solemnly consecrated and surrounded by a wall, of a 
civitas ; also this place with reference to its magnitude, 
rights, privileges, a capital : Et Romu Urbs est, et cam ci- 
vitas incolit. Cic. {Caput, head, it is called in as far as 
it is the most powerful, considerable, of a country : Theba, 
caput totius GrcBcice, Nep. Thus, New York would be the 
caput, but Albany the urbs, by way of preference, of the 

116 207. Clam. 210. Clarus. 

State of New York.) Oppidum^ town, as a remaining^ 
stationary dwelling-place : Ubii siia omnia ex agris in op pi- 
da conjerunU Gees. Oppidum Britanni vocant^ quum 
silvas impeditas vallo atque fossa munierunt. Id. With re- 
spect to Rome as the capital, Municipium is a free, pro- 
vincial city in Italy, with its own laws, magistracy, and Sacra^ 
generally also with Roman citizenship ; CoZonta, a Roman 
colonial city, which was granted to Roman citizens for colo- 
nization: In colonias Latinos sape nostri cives profecti 
sunt, out SIM voluntate, aut legis multa. Cic. Frafecturay 
a town suspected of want of loyalty, and which was governed 
by a prafectus appointed by Rome, e. g. Capua. 

207. Clam, Clanculum, Furtim, Secreto. Clam, se- 
cretly, without knowledge of others, unobserved by others ; 
the same, but stronger, is Clanculum, in secret; Multa 
palam dorrtum suam auferebat ; plura clam de medio remo- 
vebat, Cic. Alii clanculum patres qiuB faciunt, eaneme 
celet, consuefed filium. Ter., without knowledge of their 
fathers. Clanculum ex (Bdihus me edidi foras. Plaut 
Furtim, stealthily, like thieves: Lagena furtim exsic- 
catcB, Cic. jSc ere <o, secretly, separated from others: Ego 
et Fompeius secreto collocuti sumus, Cic. 

208. Clam ARE, Vociferari; Clamator, Rabula. CI a- 
mare, indicating the scream, in speaking or calling ; Voci' 
ferari, vociferate, to speak violently, with great exertion, 
m passion, pain: Ipse minitari dbsenti Diodoro; vocife- 
rari palam: vix tenere, Cic. — Clamator, the 
bawler, who with great noise makes empty speeches (in Grer- 
man SchreiJiaU) ; Rahul a, a bad lawyer, who can only 
make noise and use scurrilous language in court: Rahul (B 
aut plane indocti et inurhani, aut rustid etiam, Cic. 

209. Clangor, Stridor, Crepitus, Strepitus. The 
sound, ringing and sounding loud, is, as far as we perceive it 
with the sense of hearing. Clangor, e. g. ttiha, aquilcB, an" 
seris ; Stridor, whistling, hissing, whizzing, screaming, or 
loud and not agreeable sound, as the cackling of geese, the 
sound of owls, elephants, monkeys, the grunting of hogs : 
Stridor anguis, serr<B, teli ; Crepitus, screaking, clat- 
tering, rattling, suddenly and violently, yet in short intervals, 
e. g. claustrorum, plagarum, digitorum; Strepitus, roar- 
ing, rustling, of lasting sound, noise, e. g. roiarum, Canes^ 
sollicitum genus ad noctumos strepitus. Cic. 

210. Clarus, Manifestus, Evidens, Pebspicxttts; II- 

211. Classiarii. 117 

LusTRis, Insignis, Nobilis, Celebek, Inclitus. Clarus^ 
clear, light, for the sense of sight and hearing, as the Ger- 
man bell is used for color and sound, and as we say clear 
day, clear voice, opp. ohscvrus, dark ; e. g. dies ; lucema, 
Stella^ effulgent, bright; vox, clear and audible : Clara, res 
est, iota Sicilia celeberrima atqtie notissima, Cic. Mani' 
festus, plain, open, from manujs, as the German handgreif' 
lick, that which can be grasped with the hand ; opp. latens. 
Cades manifest a, Cic. Evtdens, evident, that which 
clearly appears to the eyes, the German augenscheinlich, o.^ 
pearing to the eyes, not requiring farther proof, opp. duhius^ 
e. g. narratio, argumentum: Tarn evidens numen hac tem^ 
pestate rehits adfuit Romanis. Liv. Perspicuus (trans- 
parent, through which we may see), perfectly clear, not 
requiring farther explanation: Ita perspicua Veritas, tU 
earn infirmare nulla res possiL Cic. — Clarus, bright, giving 
light, lustre by excellent qualities, celebrated, e. g. genere 
factisque; Illustris, famous, enjoying fame and glory 
from without, illustrious: Homines illustres honor e ac 
nomine, Cic. Factum illustre notumque omnibus. Id. 
Insignis, distinguished, good or bad: Virtus Scipionis 
etiam posteris erit clara et insignis, Cic. Nobilis, 
very much known: Demetrius ex doctrina nobilis, Cic. 
Competitores non tarn genere insignes, quam vitiis nobi- 
les. Id. Hence Nobilitas, celebrity by birth, nobility. 
Celeber, 194, famous, renowned, of whom much noise is 
made: Mcenii celeb re nom^n laudibus fuit, Liv. Inclu 
tus, obsolete Inclutus, very loud, famous, of whom they 
talk much: Templum FeronicB inclitum divitiis. Liv. 

211. Classiarii, Classici, Nautje, (Vectores), Nau- 
Tici, Soon NA VALES, Remiges. Classiarii, crew and 
marines belonging to a fleet, according to their profession : 
Centurio classiarius, Tac, naval centurio. Those who 
belong according to their species to the fleet, are Classici; 
if belonging to the same fleet, Nautici crew belonging to 
one Vessel. These were taken from among the lowest citi- 
zens and freed slaves ; but the sailors, who as a corporation 
were called Socii nav ales, were enlisted in the maritime 
cities. From these differ the Remiges, oarsmen, who were 
slaves: Jussus e nauticis unu^ escendere in malum. Liv. 
Hasdrubal classicos milites, navalesque socios in 
naves compellit. Id. Nauta is the sailor who manages, 
serves the vessel; Vector, the passenger: Lahore et pet' 

118 212. Claudere. 215. Clemens. 


sever aniia nautarum se vim tempestatis super are posse 
sperabat. Cees. Omnis vector nihil prius quarit^ quam CU' 
jus se diligenticB credat, Petron. 

212. Claudere, Obsekare, Obturare, Obstruere, Op- 
FiLARE. Claudere^io lock up, to surround and thps lock 
up, as it were, farem cubicidi, urhem operibus^ transitum 
angusti saltus : Ducb legiones agmen claudehant, C&es. 
Obserare, to lock with a bolt (lock) : Ostium obsera tn- 
tus, Ter. Obturare (to door up, as it were), to stop an 
opening, hole : Cadum operculo^ formicarum foramina ; ali' 
cui 05, ne maledicat, Plaut. . Obstruere^ to obstruct by 
layers of things one upon the other, block up by building : 
iter^ portas castrorum, Oppilare^ to dam up with piles: 
Potest magnus congestus arena fluctibus adversis oppilare 
ostia, Lucret. 

213. Claudere, Claudicare. Both are limping, being 
lame, but the first only tropically: Beata vita etiamsi ex 
aliqua parte clauderet. Cic. Carvilius graviter claudi- 
cab at ex vulnere. Id. Vulgus^ si quid in oratione claudu 
cat, sentit. Id. 

214. Claustrum, Pessulus, Repagulum, Obex, Sera. 
Claustrum, every contrivance to keep something locked 
up, also turnpike, outer wall, frontier fortress : Effringi fo- 
res, revelli claustra. Cic. Claustris retinere feram. 
The ancients used a bolt instead of a lock. The bolt had a 
hole in the middle ; into this, the opening person put, through 
the key-hole, an iron, with which the bolt was lifted ; in lock- 
ing a door, this iron was taken out with the key {clavis). 
Pessulus \a the small bolt, turning downward, and which is 
pulled up ; the cross-bolt, going into the wall, and hence 
must be pulled back, was Repagulum, inasmuch as it 
firmly secured the door, and Obex, inasmuch as it was 
pushed across: Occlude fores ambobus pessulis. Plaut. 
Portas objice clauserat. — Sola Venus porta ceddissere' 
pagula sensit, Ovid. Sera, a bolt which can be taken 
away : Sera, quibus remx)tis fores panduntur. Varr. 

215. Clemens, Indulgens, Placidus, Misericors. Gle- 
mens, gracious, he who, from humane motives, tempers his 
feeling of revenge, clement, opp. iratus ; Indulgens', in- 
dulgent, who does not blame or punish, though he disapproves 
of something, opp. severus, stern: Clementi castigatione 
licet uti. Cic. Pater nimis indulgens quidquid ego ad- 
strinxi, relaxat. Id. The clemens is merciful toward the 

216. Clipeus, 219. Ccma. 119 

criminal, the indulgens gracious in granting favors. PZa- 
ciduSj calm, mild by self-rule, placid, opp. iracundus: 
Quum mihi videretur irasci, eum placidum mollemque red" 
didi, Cic. Misericors, compassionate toward unmerited 
suffering, from the interest of the heart : Pater ipso nomine 
patrio valet apud clementes judices et misericordes, 

216. Clipeus, Scutum, Parma, Pelta, Cetra, Ancile. 
Clipeus^ the smaller, oval, hollow shield of bronze, cover- 
ing the whole breast; Scutum^ the larger shield, four feet 
long, two and a half wide, made of wood, and covered with 
linen or skin, and on the rim with iron; Parma^ a round 
shield, about three feet in diameter, of wood covered with 
leather, used by the light infantry and cavalry. Pelta^ 
smaller, crescent-like, also square, without protuberance or 
knob {unibo) in the centre, used by the Macedonians, Ama- 
zons, &c. Cetra^ similar to the pelta, made of thongs of 
buffalo or elephant skin, used by the Spaniards and Africans ; 
Ancile, elongated oval, and in the middle on both sides cut 
out, as the Salians carried in processions. 

217. Cochlea, Concha, MiTULUs, MuscuLus. Cochlea, 
an animal with one shell, wound, the shell as well as the 
animal in it: Iste tamquam cochlea, abscondens retentat 
sese tacitiLs et cum doino sua, ut com^datur, aufertur. Ad 
Herenn. Concha, b, shell-fish with two shells, as the oys- 
ter: Pisciculi parvi in concham hiantem innatant. Cic, 
also the mere shells: Ostreaque in conchis tutafuere suis. 
Ovid. Mitulus and Musculus, the former small, are 
species of it. 

218. Codex, Codicilli, Liber, Volumen, Periculum. 
Codex, a book made of thin boards covered with wax, leaves 
of parchment or papyrus, tied together at the back with a 
thong; Codicilli a small note-book, with smaller boards 
covered with wax; Liher, properly, the bark of trees, a 
book consisting thereof, or of papyrus, generally used with 
reference to the contents of a book : Lib rum tibi mittam de 
gloria, Cic. VoliJtmen, the scroll of a book consisted of 
several leaves (pagina) glued together, Avhich were wound 
around a wooden cylinder : Libros tres in sex volumina 
propter amplitudinem divisi, Plin. Epist. Periculum, a 
protocol, as an original writing : Scribarum Jidei tabulce pub' 
lic(B periculaque magistratuum committuntur. Cic. 

219. Cgena, Jentaculum, Prandium, Merenda ; Ccena- 

120 220. Ccemm. 

CULUM, CoENATio, Triclinium. CcRTia^ the chief meal, 
which, with the ancient Romans began Math sunset, about the 
twelfth, but at a later period at the tenth and eighth hour of 
the day: CcRnato mihi et jam dormitanti epistola est red- 
dita. Cic. Ccena recta^ a complete meal, wanting nothing, 
well furnished: Promissa est nohis sporttda: recta data 
est. Martial. Jentaculum, the breakfast: Surgite ; jam 
vendit pueris jentacula pistor. Martial. Prandium^ 
luncheon, a slight meal toward noon, or merely some small 
relish before going to the forum, or with laborers : Claudius 
ad spectaculum meridie^ dimisso ad prandium populo^ per- 
sedebat. Suet. Merenda^ the '^ aftemooning,'' afternoon 
luncheon ( Vesperhrot^ in German) . — Ccenaculum^ the 
dining-room, generally a back apartment of the upper story : 
TJbi ccenabant^ cmnaculum vocitabant, Posteaquam in «u- 
periore parte ccmitare cceperunt^ superioris domus universa 
coenacula dicta, Yarr. Coenatio^ the magnificent dining- 
room of the rich: Coenationes laqueatce tabtdis ebumeis. 
Suet. Triclinium^ SL composition of three sofas for dining, 
each . generally for three persons, around a table; also the 
room where such was standing : Rogatus est^ ut triclinium 
stemeret. Atque ille stravit pelliculis hadinis lectulos P«- 
nicanos, Cic. 

220. CcENUM, LuTUM, LiMus; Stercus, Fimus, Merda, 
QuisQuiLi^ ; Situs, Squalor, Sordes, P^dor, Illuyies. 
Ccenum, liquid dirt, filthy, disgusting fluids, drainings of the 
barnyard; Lutum^ dirt, consisting of dissolved earth and 
water, mire ; Limus^ thin slime, sediment of impure fluids: 
Male olet omne ccenum. Cic. Milites luto et assiduisim' 
hribus tardabantur, Cses. Amnis aJmndans obducto late 
tenet omnia limo. Virg. More consistent masses are: 
Stercus^ animal excrements, both as such and as manure : 
quod ex avibus^ ex hominibus^ ex pecudibus conjit. Colum« 
Stercore et ccBno aliquem incessere. Suet. Segetem ster* 
cor ant fruges^ lupinum, faba, vicia, Stercus unde fo" 
cia^^ sir amenta^ lupinum^ paleas^ fabalia. Cato. Fimus 
and Ft mum, dung, excrements mixed with other bodies, 
used for the mass of dung, e. g. on the dung-hill : Annus 
facilius concoquit, et bene confectum atque idoneum protinus 
arvo fimum reddit, Colum. Si quis fimo corrupio ali' 
quem perfuderit, ccBno, luto oblinuerit, Digg. Fdb<B ca- 
prini fimL Plin. Merda, dirt, rather liquid animal excre- 
ment, in as far as it soils: Merdis caput inquiner gibis 

221. Ccepisse. 222. Cogere. 121 

corvorum. Hor. QuisquilicR^ all sorts of offal, mixed 
rubbish, sweepings, slops : Omitto quisquilias seditionis 
ClodiancB, Cic, i. e. bad people, scum. Sticking dirt is St' 
tus^ also dirt or soiling or disfiguring substance which has 
originated from an article's long lying in a damp place, dirt, 
mould, rust: Situ corrumpi. Plant. Squeal or is the dis- 
gusting dirt of a sloven, opp. nitoTj neatness : Ohsita squor 
lore vestis. Sordes^ the offal which is thrown away, the 
dirtiness of the rabble, in which they live, opp. splendor^ 
cleanliness, neatness: Sint sine sordibus ungues i Ovid. 
With mourners and the unfortunate, who wish to excite com- 
passion, squalor AS soiled appearance, if they disregard or- 
nament and beauty ; sordes,if they disregard their standing 
and dignity. PcBdor^ filth which emits offensive effluvia 
from protracted uncleanliness (st^i^s) : Barba peed ore hoT' 
rida atque intonsa, Cic. IlluvieSj accumulated filthy which 
gradually has increased : Ablue corpus ill uvie ceternisque 
sordibus squalidum. Curt. 

221. C(EPissE, Incipere, Inchoare, Ordiri, Ii^pit. Cos-' 
pisse<i having begun, intransitive, and \Vith respect to the 
action, hence with the jnfinitive : Divitiacus domum discedere 
coBpiL Cses., the action did begin, but was not completed, 
Strepitus audiri cmpere. Tac, passive: Pons insHtui 
coeptus est. Gbbs. Incipere^ making the beginning, lay- 
ing hand to a work, active, e. g. opus, iter ; also. Jam frw- 
menta maturescere incipiebant, Cses. Hence In dpi ens 
annuSi the beginning of the first period of a space of time ; 
Iniens annus, the entering, now arriving year, of the first 
point from which it begins. Inchoare, to plan, to lay out a 
tiling, to lay the first foundation of a thing which is to be ex- 
ecuted, opp. perjicere, e. g. navem, picturam : Opera proR^ 
clare inch oat a mtdta, perfecta non plane, Cic. Ordiri^ 
to begin something at the foremost part, used with reference 
to the duration and weariness of a work, properly of a time : 
Pertexe modo, qitod exorsus es, Cic. Cum bonis pre- 
cationihus Deorum libentius inciperemus, ut or sis tanti 
aperis successus prosperos darent, Liv. In fit, he begins, 
an ancient form of introducing a person as adding something 
new in one's relation : Ibi infit Albany^, Liv. 


CoNFiCERE. Cogere, to drive together, to assemble, crowd- 
ing together; Compellere, driving on, and pushing on: 
Cog ere senatum, copias, pecuniam; Tityre, coge pecusi 


122 223. Cogitare. 225. Cohibere. 

Virg., keep together. Pastor es compulerant greges in 
unum. Id. In hunc sensum et alii ci or beneficiis hominum, 
et compellor injuriis, Cic. Contrahere^ to draw to- 
gether into a narrower space : Vihullius ex Jinitimis regioni- 
bus contrahit cohortes. Cees. Colligere, to collect, 
picking singly, e. g. fructiiSj sparsos capillos in nodum ; Se 
colligere est dissipatas animi partes rursum in suuvi locum 
cog ere. Cic. Co nfi c e r e, to bring together with care and 
labor, and produce something in a degree of completeness : 
Ubliothecam, magnam ex aliqua re pecuniam; Bellovaios 
posse conficere armata millia centum, Caes. 

223. Cogitare, Reputare, Perfendere, Deliberare ; 
Sentire. Cogitare^ thinking: Mens cogitate id est^ 
plura in unum cogit (XIX, 10., a.), unde eligere possit, Varr. 
Mihi visus est toto animo de tuis commodis cogitare. Cic. 
Reputare (see 94), to reflect repeatedly upon something 
which we call back in our memory, thinking over : Hcbc ille 
reputans et dies noctesque cogitans. Cic. Perpen' 
dere^ to weigh something thoroughly, to examine on all 
sides: Cato diligentissime perpendet momenta officiorum 
omnium. Cic. Deliberare^ to deliberate, to weigh reasons 
pro and contra^ in order to determine one's self, with free 
choice, as to a final resolution : Deliberat senatus^ captivos 
ah hostibus redimat^ an non. Ad Herenn. Iste statuerat et 
deliberaverat non adesse. Cic, conclude upon af^er ma- 
ture reflection. Cogitare designates merely activity of 
the mind; Sentire^ 94, the determination of judgment or 
opinion by the moral feeling: Orator pervestiget^ quid ii 
homines, quibus aliquid dicendo persuadere velit, cogitent^ 
sentiant, opinentur, exspectent. Cic. Omnia de re publica 
prcBclara atque egregia sentire. Id. 

224. CoGNOSCERE, Agnoscere, Dignoscere. CognoS' 
cere, to become acquainted with, to know something by cer- 
tain marks of distinction (in German, erkennen). Casar 
Illyricas nationes adire et regiones cognoscere volebat. 
Caes. Statilius cognovit et signum et manum suam. Cic. 
Agnoscere, recognising something already known, ac- 
knowledging: Deum agnoscis ex operibus ejus. Cic. DU 
gnoscere, to distinguish something by known marks from 
other things : Ut possem curvo dignoscere rectum. Hor. 

225. Cohibere, Continere, Coercere, Comprimere, 
Frenare, Compescere, Inhibere. Co a* ft ere, keeping to- 
gether, closely one to another : crinem nodo^ brachium toga ; 

226. Colapkus. 229. Columen. 123 

^e cohihere^ to take courage (that which familiarly is ex- 
pressed by plucking up a good heart, and very beautifully in 
German by ermannen^ to bring out th^ man in one's self, to 
take courage and be a man) ; Continere^ to keep together 
by application of power from without: exercitum castris; 
Taciturn continere gaudium non poterant, Liv. Se cou' 
tin ere, to restrain fits of passion or strong feeling. CosT' 
cere, to limit, bring back to a smaller place of action, to 
restrain within proper bounds that which resists : amnem extra 
ripas diffiuentem; cupiditates, seditionem, Comprimere, 
to press together, repress, manus, vocem ; to stem by physical 
force, to stop, to stem : seditionem, furorenu Frenare, to 
bridle, restrain : equum, laying on a bridle : Clodii furores 
nullis legibus, nullis judiciis frenare poteramus, Cic. 
Compescere, suppressing something on the point of exceed- 
ing measure and limit, violently or forcibly, and with judg- 
ment not allowing it to become too large or too violent: 
ramos Jluentes. Virg., querelas, dolor es ; dissolutos mores vi 
compescere, Phaedr. Inhihere, to stop, to keep back 
something in its course, flight: impetum victoris; remos ; 
navem remis or retro inhihere, to row back. 

226. CoLAPHUs, Alapa. Coldphus (x6Xaq>og), a blow 
in the face with clenched fists; A I dp a, with the flat hand, 
a box on the ear. 

227. CoLLis, Clivus, Mons, Jugum, Tumulus. Collis, 
a hill, the sides of which converge at the top in an arched 
line; Clivus, the inclination, inclining side of a hill or 
mountain: In clivum Capitolinum erigunt aciem. Liv. 
Mons, mountain, higher and steeper than Co His; Mou' 
ies, B, mountain chain, aggregate of mountains. Jugum^ 
the yoke which unites two or more mountain tops ; also a 
chain thus connected: Jugum eos montes perpetuo dor so 
inter sejungit, Liv. Tumulus, a hillock, a natural or arti- 
ficial small hill: In planitie erat tumulus terreus satis 
grandis, Cses. 

228. Color, Pigmentum, Fucus. Color, color: Iris 
trahens varios adverso sole color es. Virg. Pigmentum, 
dye, the body which imparts color: Adspersa temere pig'^ 
menta in tabula, Fucus, sea. grass, as dyeing stuff*, and 
rouge : Non fuco illitus, sed sanguine diffasus color, Cic. 

229. Columen, Fulcrum; Columna, Pila, Antje. Co- 
lumen, the round, perpendicular support of the gable end ; 
tropically, the column, the support : reipuhlica; Fulcrum, 

124 230. Cominus. 233. Camiiia. 

the support in general, especially of the bed, bedposts : Pueri 
nobiles ad fu I era hctorvm vescebantur. Suet. Columna^ 
the round column, as support or ornament of a building : 
Column <z et templa'et portions sitstinent, Cic. Pi Za, the 
pillar, as support or against the wall, not round, but with 
corners, and of brick work: Pil<B pontis. Liv. AntcB^ the 
door-posts: Ant a sunt latera ostiorum, Fest. 

230. Cominus, Prope. Comtnus^ also Commtnus^ 
threatening near by, or in order to pick a quarrel, to come to 
combat : Cum haste eo minus in acie pugnare. Cic. Pro' 
j9 6, near, of the local situation: Erat in Italia helium. tarn 
prope a Sicilia, tamen in Sicilia non fuit. Cic. 

231. CoMis, HuMANUs, Urbanus. C mis {homo) ^ kind, 
kindly, ready to serve, anticipating : Comes^ henigni^ faciles, 
suaves homines esse dicuntur : qui erran^i co miter mon' 
strant viam, Cic. Humanus, humane, he who, in social 
relations, proves a man of education, kindness of heart, and 
well-meaning disposition toward others, benevolent, conde- 
scending: Hoc ignoscere^ est humanitatis tua, Cic. Ur* 
hanus^ one who has good manners and fine education, 
urbane, mannerly, polite, polished, opp. rusticus: Hie tili 
comis^et urbanus, liberque videtur, Hor. 

232. CoMiTARi, Prosequi, Stipare. Comitari^io ac- 
company some one, going with or by the side of him ; Pro» 
sequi on account of honoring him, to go before him, but 
following his movements {pro -sequi) ; Stlparef to accom- 
pany one in multitude, surrounding and protecting him : Pas» 
torem comitantur oves, Virg. Valerium decedentem do* 
mrnn homines cum favore ac laudibus prosecuti sunt. Liv. 
Magnus comitatus fuit regius, cum amicorum, turn sateU 
litum turba stipante, Liv. 

233. CoMiTiA, Concilium, Consilium, Concio, Ccetus, 
CoNVENTUS. Comitia, a solemn meeting of all Roman 
citizens, in which, by majority of votes, resolutions were 
passed respecting the elections of priests and magistrates, 
laws and punishments for highly penal crimes : Tenetis c o- 
mitia centuriata et tributa curiata tantum auspidorum causa 
remanserunt. Cic. Concilium, a meeting of part of the 
people called {cdlare) together : Is, qui non universum popw- 
lum, sed partem aliquam adesse jubet, non comitia, sed con^ 
cilium edicere debet, Gell. Consilium, a meeting of a 
number of men deliberating jointly and for common interest : 
Senatus est consilium publicum, Concio, a meeting 

234. Commemoratio. 237. Commissura. 125 

called together to hear something: Consul advoccU concio- 
nem: habet orationem, Cic. Dimissa condone^ consU 
Hum hoMtum^ omnibusne copiis Luceriam premerent, Liv. 
Cmtus^ a multitude convened for some purpose or other: 
Solemnes cmtus ludorum. Cic. Conventus^ a meeting, 
inasmuch as it assembles at a certain place : Syracusani 
festos dies agunt, celeberrimo virorum mulierumque con» 
ventu. Cic. 

234. Commemoratio, Mentio. Commemoratio^ the 
mentioning of a thing, supposed to be known to the addressed 
person ; Mentio, of one, of which the speaking person thinks 
just now: Istac commemoratio quasi exprobraiio est 
immemorishenefidi. Ter. Casu in eorum mentionem in' 
ddi. Cic. 


Commendare, recommending, to charge some one that he 
take care of, or interest in, a person, according to the desire 
of the recommending person; Committer e, to hand over 
the recommended person to the protection of another in con- 
fidence in his honesty ; Permittere, to leave a thing to the 
free disposition of another; Credere^ 97, trusting some- 
thing to another, convinced that he will correspond to our 
confidence, e. g. pecuniam alicui : llle tihi moriens nos com» 
mendavit senex, Ter. Homo vestra commissus est 
Jidei, per.missus potestati, Cic. 

236. CopiMENTARi, Meditari. Commcntari^ to re- 
flect upon something, and thus to produce new thoughts, or a 
new disposition of the m : Futuras mecum commentabar 
miserias. Cic. Hortensius erat memoria tanta, ut, qiuB se- 
cum commentatus esset, ea sine scripto verbis eisdem 
redder ei, quibus cogitavisset. Id. Meditari, to think out 
means and to practise in order to obtain an object, to think 
out something : Meditare, quibus verbis illius cupiditatem 
restinguas. Cic. M edit or esse affdbilis, et bene procC' 
dit. Ter. 

237. CoMMissuRA, CoMPAGES, CoMPAGo. Commissuva, 
the joint, groove, at the spot where two parts attached to one 
another join : Digitorum contractio facilis propter molles 
commissuras et artus, Cic. Compages, the joining of 
closely attached parts of a whole, as quality : Species efficiens 
lapidum c o mp a gibus arcum, Ovid. C o mp ag o, the means 
of joining, by which parts are kept together: Calami com- 
pagine cera inter se juncti. Ovid. 


126 238. Commodore. 241. Comparare. 

238. CoMMODARE, MuTuiTM DASE. Commodarc, to 
give something to another for his use, to assist him with 
something gratis ; Mutuum darCy to give something in 
exchange, i. e. so that it be returned in equal value, equal 
quality; also with interest: Mdes amico ad nuptias eom- 
modare. Ad Herenn. Egnatio magtiam dedimus pecu» 
niam mutuam. Cic. 

239. CoMMODus, Opportunus, Utilis; Facilis. Com^ 
modus, that which is convenient, comfortable of itself, always 
so; Opportunus, convenient according to circumstances, 
opportune, or by its situation and circumstances, for the exe- 
cution of some plan: Urbs opportunissima portu egre- 
gio, unde terra marique, qucE belli usus poscunt, suppediten- 
tur. Liv. Utilis, useful, that which may serve as proper 
means for a purpose: Cibus utilis cegro, Ovid. — Com- 
modus, he who yields to others, kind, obliging : Commodis 
esse moribus. Cic. Facilis, tractable, yielding : Fa ciles 
nos ad concedendum habebit. Cic. 


PuBLicus. Communicare, to make something entirely 
oommon with another, so that both have, enjoy it, to commu- 
nicate, not to retain it for one^s self: consilia, cur am cvm 
aliquo ; Provinciam Gallium cum Antonio communicavi. 
Cic. Participare, to give a part of a whole to some one, 
to make one share in something, and to be made to share in 
something, to receive a share in a thing, participate in : Ser- 
vum sui participat consilii, Plaut Qui alteri exitium 
parat,pestem participat parem. Cic. Imp er tire, rarer 
Impertiri, to assign a proper share: Salutem alicui and 
saliUe aliquem, to greet. Indigentibus de re familiari it»- 
pertiendum. Cic. — Communis, common, of which all 
have an equal degree of use or advantage : jRe^ publica res 
communis, Cic. Mare commune est omnibus, Plaut. 
Publicus, belonging to the people forming a state, peculiar 
to it, relating to it : Via, pecunia publica, 

241. Comparare, Componere, Conferre, Contendere. 
Comparing, in order to find out the degree of similarity of 
two or more things, is given by Comparare, discovering 
the marks of equality of two things (par) ; Componere, to 
place them by the side of each other, in order to see how far 
they agree or disagree : Testes cum his legatis se compa* 
rent, dignitati horum componant suam, Cic. Compa» 
.nere causam suam cum causa adversarii, Quinctil. Co ft* 

242. CampUum. 247. ConcUarh. 127 

ferre^io bring them together, when they differ much from, 
or are opposed to, each other : Parva magnis scepe rectissime 
conferuntur, Cic. Contendere^ holding together, to 
see whether they fit, if the latter is yet doubtful : Signum 
reete comparebat ; hujus contendi annulum, Plaut. 

242. CoMPiTUM, Trivium. Compitum, cross- way, place 
where two or more roads join ; Trivium^ where three roads 
meet: Ubi via competunt, turn in compitis S€tcri/ic(Uur. 
Varr. In triviis out in compitis auctionari, Cic. 

243. Compos, PoTENS. Comjso^, he who is master of a 
thing, has power of mastering it, disposes freely of it, over it : 
mentis and mente, sui^ lingua, libertatis : Prada ingenti 
compos exercitus, Liv. C o mp o s designates possession ; 
Potens, powerful, having capacity of, and signifies that 
which is actually possessed, e. g. regni, Dum liber^ dum 
mei pot ens sum, Liv. 

244. CoNCAvus, CoNVEXus. Concdvus, hollow of a 
surface, depressed in the central region, concave ; a surface 
which is capable of receiving, containing something : Ventus 
con cava vela tenet, Ovid. Convexus, arched, of a body 
which regularly rounds off from the central part, both of thi 
outer and inner surface : Cmli convex a tueri, Virg. 

245. CoNciNNirs, Elegans, Sitbtilis. Concinnus^ 
pleasing by symmetry and harmony, fitting ; Elegans^ by 
choice, selection, tasty; Sub tt lis, 21, by precision, accu- 
racy, and simplicity, fine; of expression: Virgo est con* 
cinna facie. Plaut. In oratione forma ipsa concinni- 
t as que verbomm^onficiat orbem suum, Cic. Intelligo, te, 
hominem in omni judicio elegantissimum, qtue me digna 
putaris, coemisse, Cic. Sub t His defnitio . — Hcbc subti* 
lis oratio etiam incomta delectat. Id. 

246. CoNcio, Oratio. Concio, a speech, inasmuch as 
it is directed to a meeting, see 233. Marcellm in castris 
concionem apud milites habuit, Liv. Oratio, a dis* 
course, arranged according to art and system, prepared for 
public delivery : Isocrates, orationis fadenda et omanda 
auctor locupletissimus, Cic. 

247. Con — Incitare, Instigare, Exstimulare ; Soli- 
ciTARE. Concitare,io excite together, to set one's self in 
motion: multitudinem ad arma; calcaribus equum. Inci- 
tare, to excite that which is already in motion: currentem, 
Cic. Instigare (to punch, prick), to excite, instigate vio- 
lently against something, to set on (a dog) : canem in aliquem; 

128 248. Conchwe, 251. Condimentum. 

(in Geiman, anhetzen) ; Age^ si hie non insanit satis stia 
sponte, instiga. Ter. Exstimulare^ 162, to harass, 
drive one by a more acute means of incitement : fame^ dictis. 
Sollicitare^ to incite to sedition, rebellion, generally to in- 
cite to something bad : Pausanias Helotes sollicitare spe 
lihertatis existimahatur. Nep. Servum ad venenum Aoito 
dandum spe et pretio sollicitavit, Cic. 

248. Conclave, Cubiculum. Conelave^ a room that 
can be locked ; Cubiculum, a room in which one may rest 
on a sofa or sleep : Comprehensos conelavi ad qucBstionem 
servare. Liv. Vir, quum Verres etiam cubaretj in cubicu» 
lum introductus est. Cic. 


CoNVENiRE, QuADRARE. Agreeing is given by ConcoT" 
(fare, if it means to harmonize in disposition, if the effect of 
this harmony is clear and visible: Fr aires concordant. 
Just. Animi sanitas dicitur, quum ejus judicia opinionesque 
concordant. Cic. Conctnere, if actions and thoughts 
harmonize with each other : Sioici cum Peripatetids re con- 
c in ere videntur, verbis discrepare. Cic. Consentire^ if 
the reason of the agreeing in the different subjects is consid- 
ered, being consentaneous: Erexerat se civitas, in retinenda 
libertate consentiens. Cic. Congruere, mutually to 
agree in effect, to come to the same, the same happening to- 
gether, to coincide : Forte congruerat^ut duorum civium 
ccBdes nuntiarentur. Tac. Dies mensesque congruunt cum 
solis lunaque ratione. Cic, they agree. Convenire, com- 
ing together, fit, if the one arranges itself to the other : unum 
in locum ; Cothurnus ad pedem apte convrnit. Cic. Quad' 
rare, precisely fitting to a thing : Omnia in istam midierem 
quadrare apte videntur. Cic. 


cVes cere, to become thick, solid, to curdle, and congeal, as 
now used by chemists; Cogi, 222, by an astringent sub- 
stance; Coagulari, by rennet {coagulum), or something 
similar; Congelari, by cold, congealing: La^ concre- 
vit; Lac cogitur agni aut hcedi coagulo. Colum. Lac 
coagulatur in stomacho. Plin. Frigoribus oleum conge» 
latur. Colum'. 

251. Condimentum, Aroma. Con(£tmen^um, spice, or 
condiment, inasmuch as it gives a better taste to food ; 
ma (aQWfjLo), as substance, articles of spice: Cibi condv- 
mentum est fames, potionis sitis. Cic. Aromata contusa 
et cribrata insperges, Colum. 

252. Conditio. 255. Conjundere, 129 

252. Conditio, Status. Conditio (canciere, 2, II, 3., 
not condicio)y position, which something Occupies in reference 
to that which surrounds it ; situation, in which fate makes a 
person exist as a member of social union; generally, the 
condition under which something exists or takes place : Jfo- 
mines nos ess& meminerimus, ea lege natos^ ut omnibus teJis 
fortunes proposita sit vita nostra: neque esse recusandum^ 
quominus ea, qua nati sumus, conditione vivamus, Cic. 
Alienum appetis, qui mortalis natus conditionem postules 
immortalium. Id. Conditio atque fortuna injimi generis 
hominum. Id. Status, the state, circumstance in which 
some one finds himself at a certain period respecting the con- 
dition of his life, the present or actual state, condition of a 
thing : Si, quo quisque loco nostrum est natus^ aut, si in qua 
fortuna est nascendi initio constitvius, hmc vita statum 
usque ad senectutem obtinere debet ; non gravior L, Comelio^ 
quam multis viris bonis, constitid lex vita et conditio vt- 
detur, Cic. De statu nostra dignitatis nobis non est rec»- 
dendum. Id. 


to fight with some one violently, without reference to the 
kind of arms, to be engaged in a conflict of arms, e. g. manu 
cum hoste; Dimicare, to wage a fight, at the peril of being 
overcome and beaten ; Digladiari,to fight like gladiators, 
with mortal arms, and for life or death: Equites hostivm 
acriter prcelio cum equitatu nostro in itinere conflixerunt, 
CsBS. Dutis fretus numsro copiarum suarum confligere 
cupiebai, quod, priusquam Lacedamonii subsidio venirent, 
dimicare utile arbitrabatur, Nep. De sua potentia di- 
mi cant homines, periculo dvitatis, Cic. C. Gracchus rw- 
nas et sicas in forum projecit, quibus digladiarentur 
inter se cives. Id. 

254. CoNFUGERE, Perfugeke. Confugcrc, to fly to 
some place, to seek Tefuge somewhere, flying to it, e. g. in 
silvas, in aram, ad amicum, ad opem alicujus; Perfugere^ 
escape by flight, and arrive at a place secure against further 
pursuit: Jam Tarquinii ad Lartem Porsenam, Clusinum 
regem, perfugerant, Liv. 


C nfu ndere, throwing together : Una multa jura c o nfu »- 
dit coctis. Plaut. Confundere vera cam falsis. Cic. 
Mi scere, mixing : Mi scebat mella Falemo, Hor. TuT' 
bare, bringing into confusion, stirring, making muddy : Limo 

130 256. Confutare. 258. Conjugare. 

turhata aqua, Hor. Elephanti^ peditum adem turhafi' 
tes. Liv. Perturbare^io bring into utter confusion, thor- 
oughly to disorder and confuse : Civitas perturbata sedi- 
tionibtis, Cic. 

256. Con — Refutare, Refelleee, Redargitere. Con- 
futare^ to damp, smother, check: Cocus dhenum^ quando 
fervit^ confutat trua, Titinn. Confutavit verbis iratum 
pair em. Ter. Stoicorum argumenta confutare. Cic, to 
disarm them. Refutare^ driving back, pressing back, re- 
pressing: Ula^ nationes imperatores nostri refutandas 
potius belloy quam lacessendas puiaverunt. Cic. Testes re- 
futare. Cic, not to admit them. Refutatio orationis 
didtur^ in qua est depulsio criminis: confutatio est loco- 
rum contrariorum dissolviio. Cic. Refellere^ showing by 
arguments that that which has been said is false, refuting : 
Ita vivunt quidam^ut eorum vita refellatur oratio. Cic 
Redarguere^ convince of error, untruth: Redargue tne^ 
si mentior. Cic. 

257. CoNGiARiUM, DoNATivuM. Congiarium^ a pres- 
ent of oil, wine, salt, and the like, in kind or money, to the 
poorer among the people, handed singly, and measured out 
according to a certain measure (congius)^ also to soldiers and 
favorites ; Donativum^ a, present in money to the army, to 
each soldier individually, on peculiar festival days, gratuity : 
Virilis toga Neroni maturata. — Additum nomine ejus d o- 
nativum militi^ congiarium plebi. Tac 

258. Conjugare, Conjungere, Copulare, Colli6Ae!b, 
CoNNECTERE, CoNSTRiNGERE. Conjugare, yoHng to- 
gether, pairing, uniting by pairs for concord and common 
bu rden : Amicitiam similitudo morum conjugavit. Cic 
Conjungere^ uniting for one purpose: Pan calamos cera 
conjungere plures instituit. Virg. Copulare^ to unite 
similar things closely together by a band, thong {copula) : 
Hannibal ita quodam uno vinculo copulavit milUes suos^ 
ut nulla nee inter ipsos^ nee adversus ducem seditio exstiterit. 
Liv. Colltgare^ to tie together by a band surrounding the 
whole and keeping it close together, to fetter together : J, 
Idctor^ colliga manus. Cic Verbis colligare senten- 
tias. Id. Connect ere, to tie together with a knot, connect 
with some inner means of connexion: Ossa connectuntur 
nervis et cartilagine. Cels. Constringere^ to tie tightly 
together, draw together with exertion: Constringe tuiUi 
manus. Plant. Bellua constricta catenis. Cic. 

259. Conjurare. 260. Conjux, 131 

259. CoNjUEAEE, CoNSPiKAEE, CoiEE. CoTijurare^ to 
unite by a mutual oath, to conspire against some one : Inter 
se milites conjurabant, sese ex ordine non recessuros. Liv. 
Catilina contra rem puhlicam conjuravit. Cic. Conspi' 
rare, to unite for a common endeavour, e. g. in ccedem ali- 
cujus : Conspirate tiobiscum; consentite cum bonis. Cic. 
Co ire, to go seditiously together, make seditious clusters: 
Nullam societatem neqiie sceleris neqiie prcemii cum homine 
ullo coieras, Cic. 

260. CoNjux, Maeitus — ta, Patee — Mateefamilias, 
Mas, Uxoe, Mateona, Muliee, Femina ; Conjttgium, Con- 
NUBiuM, Mateimonium, Contubeeniitm. Conjux, obsolete 
Conjunx, either of the married pair, spouse, consort, united 
in mutual obligations (in German, Gemahl) : Quis te casus 
dejectam conjuge tanto excipit? Virg. Fidelissimam 
conjugem me prosequi non sum passus, Cic. Ma ritus-^ 
ta, husband, wife, inasmuch as each one for himself has and 
exercises his own rights and obligations: Corruptos scepe 
pravitatibus uxorum maritos, Tac. Hie {CcRsar) castas 
jubet esse mar it as, Ovid. Violataque jura maritce. Id. 
Paterfamilias, the father of the house and family, with 
reference to his children, slaves, and establishment; Mater- 
familias, the mother of the family and house, who, having 
by lawful matrimony been placed in the power of her hus- 
band (conventione in manum s, in potestaiem maritalem)^ 
shares his rights and is his heiress: P atresfamilias op' 
tant flios suos rei familiari maxime servire. Cic. Mater- 
familias, qua in m^riti manu mancipioque est, non in 
matrimonium tantum, sed infamiliam quoque mariti et in sui 
heredis locum venit. Gell. Mas, male, according to sex, a 
man as male being: Bestia alia mares, alia femina 
sunt. Cic. Non me mar em, sed feminam vidni rentur 
esse. Plaut. Uxor, the wife, inasmuch as she is matrimoni- 
ally united to her husband for a physical purpose : Uxor is 
du^ forma: una matrumfamilias, ea sunt, qua in ma- 
num convenerunt; altera earum, qua tantummodo uxores 
hahentur. Cic. Matron a, a free-born, married woman, 
who, not to place herself entirely under the power of her 
husband, slept annually for three nights {per trinoctium) out 
of the house of her husband, with the additional meaning of 
dignity and spotless reputation: Spectata pudicitia matro- 
na et qua uni viro nupta fuisset. Liv. Mulier, a woman 
that is a marriageable bemg, whether married or not, with 

182 261. Consecrare. 262. Consilium. 

the additional meaning of weakness and delicacy, want of 
protection, in contradistinction to vir : Philodami esse JUiam, 
qiUB cum patre IwhitareU propterea quod virum non haheret^ 
mulierem eximia pulchritudine. Cic. Mulieres omnes 
propter infirmitatem consilii majores in tutorum potestate 
esse voluerunt. Id. Femina, a female, only with reference 
to sex, and the opposite to Mas. — Conjugium^ matri- 
mony, as the union between spouses as man and woman, 
male and female, hence used of animals: ColumbcB conju- 
gii Jidem non violant, Plin. Connubium^ legal matrimo- 
ny, according to civil rights, since a Roman citizen was 
allowed to marry a Roman female citizen only ; to marry a 
foreign woman, it required the approbation of the people : 
Connuhium est uxoris ducendm facuUas. Ulpian. Jkfo- 
irimonium^ matrimony, lawful according to the law of 
nations, according to which a foreigner was allowed to marry 
a Roman woman, but had no claim to the privileges of the 
connuhium: Glaucon^ medicos Pansce^ sororem Achilleos 
nostri in matrimonio hahet. Cic. , of freed slaves. Con* 
tuhernium^ the matrimonial connexion among slaves, also 
concubinage, that is, enduring connexion without lawful mar- 
riage : Vespasianus post uxoris excessum Canidem, Antonia 
libertam^ revocavit in contubernium, habuitque pene justa 
uxoris loco. Suet 

261. CoNSECBARE, Dedicare, Inaugurare. Consecra' 
re, withdrawing from common use and destining to the gods, 
to make sacred, consecrate, e. g. candelabrum Jovi Optimo 
Maximo. Cic. , Omne fere genus bestiarum Mgyptii conse» 
craverunt. Id., i. e. adored. Dedicare, to consecrate 
something as something holy {consecratum) to a deity, espe* 
cially which, respecting temples, was performed by one or 
two magistrates in presence of the Pontifex maximus, who 
cited to them the formula of dedication : Horatius consul, <e- 
nens postern, precationem peragit et dedicat templvm {Jovis 
in Capitolio). Li v. Inaugurare, to consecrate (Germ. 
einweihen), after the auspices have been consulted : Augures 
jvssi adesse,locumque inaugurare, ubi auspicato cum po" 
pulo agi posset. Liv. 

262. Consilium, Prjeceptum ; Consulere, Consultare, 
Deliberare. Consilium is the result of rational reflec- 
tion, which weighs every thing well {ratio, 190), and which 
we communicate to others for free use ; good counsel, or a 
measure followed by us ; the maxim or principle, as ground 

263. Consohrinus, 264. Consors, 133 

of a rational mode of acting: In capiendo consilio pru- 
dentitty in dando fides requiritur. Cic. Consilium est 
(diquid faciendi non faciendive excogitata ratio. Id. Pra- 
ceptum^ the precept, the rule given for a mode of action, 
and which ought to be followed : Ut simus ii^ qui haberi 
velimus^ pracepta danda sunt, Cic. Longa oblivia Bri" 
tannia etiamin pace fuerunt. Consilium id Divus Au- 
gustus vocahat^ Tiberius prcBceptum, Tac. Political expe- 
diency, political maxim, principle. Consulere^ to seek the 
best ; aliquem, with some one, i. e. asking his advice ; alicui^ 
for some one, take measures in his behalf, sUd, suce s^alutiy 
pad ; in aliquem^ taking measures against some one : Per 
literas te consului^ quid mihi faciendum censeres, Cic. In 
humiliores libidinose crudeliterque consuleb,atur, Liv. 
Consult are^io deliberate with one's self or others: Civi- 
tates de hello consultabant, Cses. Deliherare^ freeing 
something of objections, to reflect upon sometliing and resolve 
accordingly : Distrahitur in deliberando animus affert» 
que ancipitem curam cogitandi, Cic. Iste certe statuerat 
atque deliberaverat non adesse. Id. Consilium fidele 
deliberanti dare. Id., deliberate with another upon one's 
petition, desire, that which we have in view. 

263. CoNSOBRiNUS, SoBRiNirs. Consobrini^ children 
of brothers and sisters, issue of actual sisters and brothers ; 
Sobrinus, the same in the second degree, second cousin: 
Sequuntur fratrum conjunctiones^ post consobrinorum 
Mobrinorumque. Cic. 

264. Consors, Particeps, Socixjs, Popitlaris; Exsors, 
ExPERS, Immunis. Consors, who participates in some- 
thing before it is divided, such as brothers and sisters in the 
paternal inheritance; he who has the same lot (sors), a 
fellow-fated being: Fratres consortes sunt mendidtatis, 
Cic. Particeps, who participates in something, receives a 
share, e. g. prcedce ac prcemiorum, Socius, 114, fellow: 
Belli socius et adjutor ; socius et consors gloriosi la- 
horis, Cic. Popularis, belonging as member to a social 
union, or union for any purpose, e. g. conspiracy: Popula- 
res conjurationis. Sail., are the real members of a conspir- 
acy ; participes, Cic, those who joined in the undertaking 
of the conspirators, supported, aided them, participated in 
their guilt. — Exsors, he who has no share, no part in 
something, e, g, culpcB, amiciticB foederisque. Liv. ExperSy 
he who does not take, or has no share in it: pramiorum 


134 265. Constans, 266. Consuetudo. 

heneficiorumque ; humanitatis, Immunis^ he who has not 
the burdens in common (con- munis ^ in -munis) with others, 
free of service, e. g. militia: Immune s operum famu- 
la. Ovid. Siculi agros immune s arant, Cic, free of 

265. Constans, Firmus, Stabilis, Solidits. Con- 
stans, remaining the same, constant, not changeable, valiant, 
that is, not changing by way of fear, to be of consistency of 
character: Stellarum cursus certi et constantes, Cic. Fo- 
luntas in rem publicam perpetua atque constans. Id. Fir» 
mus {ferre, XI, 3.), firm, that which can resist external 
attacks and repel them, that which cannot be shaken, hence 
of firmness of character : Tremens et nondum poplite fir mo 
constitit. Ovid. Nondum satis fir mo corpore esse. Cic. 
St ah His, standing firm, that which remains as it stands, 
unchangeable, stable: Navis velut medio stabilis sedet 
insula ponto. Ovid. Amid sunt fir mi et stabiles et 
constantes eligendi, Cic, trustworthy, unchangeable, and 
remaining in their disposition the same. Solidus, massive 
and firm, solid, fast, genuine, something which by its nature 
is a closely compressed mass : Columna soli da, nee extrin* 
secus inaurata, Cic. Soli da laus veraqus. Id., no sham 
praise, no compliment, but genuine, solid praise. 

266. Consuetudo, Mos, Mores, Usus. Consuetudo^ 
custom, i. e. a mode of action which by repetition and prac- 
tice has become dear to us : Quadam jura ex utilitatis ra- 
tione in consuetudinem venerunt. Cic. Mos, the custom 
(German Sitte), i. e. a mode of action (relating of course to 
free actions), which by long time has become a rule, usage : 
Philodamus negavit,moris esse Grcecorum, ut in convivio 
virorum accumberent mulieres. Cic. Mos majorum (ancient 
usage, in German Herkommen, literally, the coming down, 
that which has come down). Consuetudo, is that which 
is done by the multitude or majority ; Mo s, that which has 
been done since a distant period, for a long time ; both differ 
from Ritus, 160. Mores, these forms of free actions, inas- 
much as they correspond more or less with the laws of moral- 
ity, propriety, and decorum in social intercourse (in German, 
Sitten, in French, moeurs ; we have no word for it in English, 
and must say custom, habits, and manners, and yet it does 
not express the idea) : Civitatum Gracorum mores lapsi 
ad mollitiem. Cic. Usus, use, repeated practice or applica- 
tion, repeated intercourse with some one, inasmuch as we 

267. Contaminare. 270. Contiguus, 135 

make use of him : Dicendi omnis ratio communi quodam in 
usu atque in hominum more et sermone vertatur, Cic. 
Longo cognitus usu, Ovid. 

267. Contaminare, Inquinare, Polluere, Spurcare, 
CoNSPURCARE. Con/ amtwar 6, to soil by iniquitous touch, 
e. g. se civium sanguine ; veritatem mendacio, Inquinare^ 
to soil with dirt which adheres from without : Mihi sunt ma" 
nus inquinatcB^ quia ludo luto, Plaut. Polluere, to pol- 
lute, i. e. make impure, especially that which is holy, with sin 
or crime: Pollui cuncta sanie, odore, contactu. Tac. Di' 
vina atque humana jura scelere nefario polluere, Cic. 
Spurcare, to cover with filth, to render impure or dirty 
with something disgusting : Supersiliens avis proluvie ventris 
cibos et aquam conspurcat, Colum. 

268. CoNTEMTUs, ViLis, Abjectus. Contemtus, con- 
temptible, in as far as we consider something not worthy of 
attention, or to be rejected ; Vilis, inasmuch as we ascribe 
little value to it; Abjectus (thrown away), inasmuch as it 
is considered entirely worthless : Contemtissimorum Con- 
stdum levitas, Cic. Etiam^i honos noster vohis vHior fuit, 
solus certe car a erit. Id. Homo Roma coniemtus et ab- 
jectus. Id. 

269. Contendere, Certare, Decernere, Decertare, 
Depitgnare. To fight, struggle with arms, fists, or words, is 
Contendere, if it be done with the exertion of the whole 
strength ; Verbis inter nos contendimus, non pugnis, Cic. 
Certare, if emulation, the mutual endeavour to surpass the 
other is to be expressed : armis de principatu : Consul par- 
simonia et vigiliis et labore cum ultimis militum certabat, 
Liv. Decernere, if the struggle is allowed to come to an 
end, to a decision, by some procedure, directed by some rea- 
son {de - cemere) or other, generally by arms : Gladiatorium 
viUE certamen ferro decernitur, Cic. Decertare, to he 
one's self the struggling party, and to bring it to an end by 
sword or word : Quum tempus necessitasque postulat, decer- 
tandum manu est, Cic. Expetenda est magis decernen- 
di ratio, quam decertandi fortitudo. Id. Depugnare, 
to fight a fisticuff, to bring a struggle to an end by the fist : 
Utrinque copies ita parat<z ad depugnandum sunt, ut, 
utercunque vicerit, non sit mirum futurum, Cic. 

270. Contiguus, Continens, Vicinus, Finitimus, Con- 

touching one another: Domus contigucB. Continens, 

136 271. Continue. 

connected with something, e. g. aer mart : CappadocuE pars 
ea, qucB cum Cilida continens est, Cic. Vicinus^ prop- 
erly, belonging to the same vicus^ row of houses, neighbour^ 
ing, of the nearness of all relations in space, dwelling, prop- 
erty, position: Arrius proximus est vicinus, Cic. Via 
vidua domus. Ovid. The joining of the limits, frontiers, 
as mathematical line of division, respecting surfaces (campi^ 
agri^ fundi) ^ is expressed by Finitimus^ situated on the 
frontier, bordering on : FinitimcB civitdtes. Liv. Confi- 
nis^ to be contiguous to ^adjacent), if two surfaces are di- 
vided by a common limit {con -finis) : Cataonia jacet supra 
Ciliciam, confinis Cappadoda, Conterminus^ joining 
by a common goal or end, poetical : Ardva morus erat^ ge- 
lido contermina fonti, Ovid. JEthiopia Mgypto con* 
termina, Plin. — Vicinia^ neighbouring countiy, places, 
dwellings, with their persons and things : Mxdier commigra- 
vit hue vicinicB, Ter. C o nfi nium^ frontier division, that 
which divides fields : Arhores in confinio nata in utroque 
agro serpunU Varr. 

271. Continue, Statim, Confestim, Actutum, Illico, 
Protintts, Repente, Subito, Extemplo, Ex tempore. 
Continuo (see 116.), immediately after: Ignis in aquam 
conjectus continuo restinguilur, Cic. Statim^ on the 
spot, without first doing something else : Literas scripsij 
statim ut tuas legeram, Cic. Confestim^ right away, 
expresses rapidity: Mulier confestim hue advoUwit, Cic. 
Actutum (as if it had been done already), without a mo- 
ment's hesitation, quick, used of rapid movement : Aperite 
aliquis actutum ostium! Ter. Illico (in loco), on the 
spot, at once : Simul atque increpuit suspicio tumultus, artes 
illico nostrcB conticescunt. Cic. Protinus (forward), 
without delay : Fit protinus, hoc re audita, ex castris Ged' 
lorum fuga, Csbs. Repente, suddenly, so that we are sur- 
prised thereby : Amicitias magis decet sensim dissuere, quam 
repente pnecidere, Cic. Subito, on a sudden, instantly, 
sudden in its existence, without surprising us : Infebrim sub- 
ito incidere. Cic. Extemplo, at the moment, presently, 
immediately: Erubescit ; quidfingat extemplo, noil hahet, 
Cic. Ex tempore, properly, according to circumstances, 
as they require it ; they, therefore, may require resolution ; 
on the spot, not by way of preparation : Curioni minime mt- 
rum est, ex tempore dicenti solitam effluere mentem, Cic, 
extempore, extemporizing. Expedire rem et consilium ex 
tempore capere. Id. 

272. Contumada. 275. Conviva, 137 

272. CoNTUMACiA, Pertinacia, Pervicacia, Obstinatio. 
Contumaciam spite, which from pride will not yield to the 
will or power of others, the unbending disposition, refractori- 
ness: Vitellius libertum^ oh nimiam contumaciam et fe- 
rocitatem gravatus^ lanistcB vendidit. Suet. Pertinacia^ 
obstinacy in persisting in one's opinion, assertion, or way of 
actins, which the pertinacious person will not give up : Nos 
et rejellere sine pertinacia et refelli sine iracundia para» 
ti sumus, Cic. Pervicacia^ perseverance in the endeavour 
to carry something in spite of resistance, and to gain the 
victory : Hac pervicacia^ tua et superhia coegit me loquij 
et nisi legi parueris, in vincula duci juheho. Liv. Tandem 
pervicacia victi inceptum omisere, Tac. Obstinatio^ 
the steady perseverance in one's resolution, from strength of 
character as well as from obstinacy : Atticus preces Agrippa 
taditurna sua ohstinatione depressit. Nep. 

273. Conveniens, Consentiens, Consentanetts. Con- 
veniens, coinciding, fitting, designates uniformity of desti- 
nation ; Consentiens^ agreeing, uniformity of disposition, 
of meaning, or signification, — both of things existing at the 
same time (see 249). Consentaneus, conformably, agree- 
ably to, uniformity of the relation between cause and effect, 
or consequence : Nihil est tam natura aptum^ tam convent" 
ens ad res vel secundas vel adversas^ quam amicitia. Cic. 
Status oratoris^ incessus, omnisque motus cum verbis senteu' 
tiisque consentiens. Id. Mors cons en tan e a vita sane- 
tissime honestissimeque acta. Id. 

274. Convincere, Revincere, Persuadere. Convin- 
cere^ convincing, proving the truth of a fact which has been 
denied, with victorious evidence, proving it upon the accused 
person : Epicuri errores, Cic. Si negem^ me unquam istas 
liter as ad te misisse; quo me teste convincas? Id. Se- 
rine ere, proving, with convincing counter-proof, the con- 
trary of an assertion, refuting: Crimina^ r evict a rebus^ 
verbis confutare nihil attinet, Liv. Persuadere^ persuad- 
ing, making believe by representations and reasons : Hoc 
mihi non modo confirmavit^ sed etiam persuasit, Cic. 

275. Conviva, Convivator, Convictor ; Convivium, 
Epulitm, Epul-e. Conviva (con-vivere, living together, 
eating and drinking together), the guest at any meal, or the 
invited person ; Convivator (convivari, to hold a banquet), 
the host who gives a feast, banquet ; Convictor^ one who 
lives and has intercourse with another, eats and drinks with 


138 276. Copia, 278. Corhis. 

him: SoUti sunt in epulis canere convivtB de clarorum 
hominum virtutihis. Cic. Ccma hospitis met, sciti convi» 
vatoris, Liv. Me Capitolinus convictore usus amico» 
que a puero est. Hor. — Conviviumy a social meal, with 
social conversation : Majores accuhitionem epularem amico' 
rum^ quia vita conjunctionem haberet^ convivium nomina^ 
runt, Cic. Ego propter sermonis delectationem tempesti' 
vis conviviis delector^ nee cum cequalibus solum^ sed cum 
vestra etiam cBtate, Id., such meals as began at the proper 
time of the day, i. e. at sunset, but also too soon {de die)^ by 
daylight, and sometimes lasted longer than usual, as at 
ftimily festivals. Intempestiva convma is to be ascribed 
to defective readings only. Epulum, the sumptuous dinner; 
the characteristics consist in costly and abundant dishes and 
expensive serving up, as the public dinners at public games, 
triumphs: Quum epulum Q. Maximus populo Romano da- 
ret, Cic. -EpwZ^K, properly choice and costly dishes, hence 
a magnificent, large banquet: Epula regum. Hor. Ita 
Ulud epulum est funebre^ ut munus sit funeris^ epula 
quidem ipsa, dignitatis. Cic, like Dapes. 

276. CopiA, Abttndantia, Ubektas. Copia, stores, 
quantity and sufficiency of any thing for use, opp. inopia : 
Rerum copia verhorum copiam gignit. Cic. Abundan* 
tia (see 10.), abundance, if there is more than necessary: 
drcumfiuere omnibus copiis atque in omnium rerum abun^ 
dantia vivere, Cic. Ubertas, plenty, the plentiful exist- 
ence of any thing, without reference to its use : Rami bacco" 
rum ubertate incurviscunt, Cic, luxuriancy^ 

277. CoQTTERE, ToREERE, Frigere ; Elixus, Asstts. 
Coquere, cooking, e. g. dbaria, ccenam; in general sein- 
ing by heat and preparing for use : panem, lateres (baking, 
burning) ; aurum, plumbum, ferrum, melting; dbum conco» 
quere, to digest. Torrere, to dry a juicy or moist body 
by heat, to toast, to bake, as fruits : igni fruges ; terram so* 
lis ardore; caro tost a, roast meat. Frigere, to roast 
dry bodies, make them less tough, fit to eat, e. g. hordeum, 
'deer ; frictcE nuces, roasted chestnuts. — Elixus, boiled in 
water: Allium coctum utilius est crudo, elixumque tosto, 
Plin. Assus, stewed, done in its own juice : Camemprimo 
ass am, secundo elixam, tertio e jure homines uii caepisse 
natura docet, Varr. 

278. CoRBis, Piscina, Fiscella, Sporta, Qualus, Qua- 
siLLns, Canistrum, Calathus. Corbis,9i basket in gen- 

279. Corona. 282. Cortex. 13B 

eral, e. g. messoria. Fiscina (Jiscus^ 43, XI, 1., 5.), a bas* 
ket for fruits, also as form of the cheese ; smaller than this 
is the Fiscella: Fi&cina ficorum. Cic. Fiscellam 
texit hibisco. Virg. Sporta^ a light basket, hand-basket : 
Ecce redU sport a piscator inani. Martial. Qualus^ a 
pointed basket for filtering oil, must, under the press, also 
used for other purposes: Saligneus qualus^ inverses meta 
Hmilis^ ohsettro loco suspenditur : in eum congeruntur favi. 
Coliim. If the little work-basket of women is meant, quO' 
stilus is used more frequently : Chraviora rependit iniquis 
pensa quasillis. Propert. Canistrum^ a basket, to be 
placed upon the table with bread, flowers, fruits : Cereremque 
canistris expediunt famuli. Virg. Calathus, a small 
basket for wool or flowers, in form of a lily, used by the Ro- 
man ladies; it also signifies similarly formed vessels for 
drinking: Vos lanam trahitis calathisque per acta refertis 
vellera. Juvenal. 

279. GoRONA, Sertttm. Corona^ wreath, crown, inas- 
much as it is a round body and surrounds the upper part of 
another round body: Cor on am imponere victori. Cic. 
Sertum<i& wreath of flowers, a garland, inasmuch as flowers 
and leaves are attached to one another, and placed in some 
order: Velentur Palatia sertis. Ovid. 

280. GoBBiGERE, Emendare. Corrigcrc, orig. to make 
straight what is crooked (con-rigere, regere, rectus) y correct, 
improve what is deficient: Ea, qua corrigere vult^mihi 
depraxare videtur. Cic. Emendare^ take off or out faults, 
improve that which is faulty: Facillime corriguntur in 
discendo^ quorum vitia imitantur emendandi causa magis- 
tri. Cic. 

281. CoRRiTMPEBE, Depravare, Vitiare. Corrumpe- 
re, spoiling, rendering unserviceable, according to its inter- 
nal quality: Conclusa aqua facile corrumpitur. Cic. De- 
pravare, giving a crooked, wrong direction, and thus 
disfiguring: Depravata crura corrigere, Varr. Nihil 
est, quin m^le narrando possit depravarier, Ter., that 
which cannot be represented in a wrong way. Mores cantus 
duhedine corruptelaque depravati. Cic. Vitiare, 
to bring faults into something faultless, spoil something par- 
tially, make faulty, vitiate, adulterate: Lues vitiaverat 
auras. Ovid. Senatus consulta arbitrio consulum supprvme- 
hantur vitiahanturque. Liv. 

282. Cortex, Liber, Crusttjm. Cortex, bark, also the 

140 283. Coxa. 285. Crater. 

outer, hard covering of some animals; Liher^ the inner, 
more delicate rind or integument: Inviridi cortice fagi 
carmina descripsi. Virg. Obducuniur lihro out cortice 
trunci quo sint a frigoribus et a calorihus tutiores. Cic. 
Cr us turn and Crust a^ the crust, a hard, dry rind of soft 
bodies, e. g. panisrustid: Cortice ohducuntur testudines^ 
ostrecB, concJuB : crust is locusta. Plin. 

283. Coxa, Coxendix, Femur. Coxendix^ hip, the ex- 
ternal, elevated part with men and animals, under the weak 
part of the flank, which elevation is formed by the Co a? a, or the 
hip bone, in the lower cavity of which (acetabulum)^ the glob- 
ular part of the thigh bone turns ; Femur (obsolete Femen^ 
Gren. Feminis, more common than Femoris)^ the upper part 
of the upper thi^h, and the whole upper thigh : Augustus 
coxendice, et femore^et crure (lower thigh) sinistro non 
valehat, ut s<xpe inde claudicaret. Suet. 

284. Crassus, Densus, Sfissus. Crassus^ thick, used 
of too large an accumulation of parts, and disproportionate 
circumference compared to length, hence fat, heavy in move- 
ment, heavy, e. g. restis^ sura, toga; Crassus et concretus 
aer^ qui est terra proximus. Cic. Dens us, dense, if the 
parts of a body are accumulated and occupy a comparatively 
narrow space, e. g. silva, c<Bsaries ; Aer dens us. Hor., of 
fog. Spissus, densely pressed to and above one another, 
so that it is difficult to penetrate: Spissa coma. Hor., in 
close layers above one another. Spissum theatrum. Id., 
crowded. Crassus ager is a fat, jfertile soil; densus, a 
compact, sound sort of soil ; spissus ager, a tough sort of 
soil, in which the plough works heavily. 

285. Crater, Cyathus, Poculum, Calix, Scyphtts, Pa- 
tera, Cantharus. Crater, a. large vessel to mix the wine 
with water, from which, with the Cyathus, a small vessel 
containing not quite two ounces, serving as ladle, the cups 
were filled: Novem miscentur cifathis pocula. Hor. Ves- 
sels for drinking are: Poculum, a vessel for drinking in 
general, cup; CaZi a;, a chalice, goblet, beaker; Scyphus, 
a larger vessel for drinking, without foot or handle, generally 
used by the pair: Scyphorum paria complura Verri data. 
Cic. Patera, Si shallow bowl or cup, for drinking, gener- 
ally of costly material or workmanship : Patera poculum 
planum ac patens est. Macrob. Cantharus, & large drink- 
ing vessel, with ears and a body much bending out, a can, 
tankard: Et gravis attrita, pendehat cantharus ansa. 

286. Creare. 141 

Virg. Scyphus Herculis poculum est^ ut Idberi patris 
cantharus, Macrob. 

286. Creare, Facere, Legere, Eligere, Deligerb, 
Capere, Dicere, Prodere, Cooptare, SuFFiCERE, Desig- 
NARE, Declarare, Nuncupare. Creare, to make a choice, 
elect, designates lawful election and appointment, and author^ 
ization for an office as result of free voting or deliberation : 
Patricii coiere et interregem creavere. Liv. Romulus 
centum ere at senatores. Id. Facere, making, Fieri^ 
being made, the investment with some dignity or authority 
without reference to choice or election: Te, Ser, Cornelia 
prcBsidem hujus publici consilii, custodem religionum, comitu 
orum, legum, collegcB facimus. Liv. Tribuni plehis^ {Bdi» 
les, qtujBstores, nulli erant: institutum est, ut fierent. Id. 
Legere, 178, to select (for one's self) with reference to the 
qualities requisite for an office and the like : Pontificis Max» 
imi arbitratu virgines e populo viginti leguntur, Gell. Cen^ 
sores senatum perlegerunt: princeps in senatu lectus 
est P, Scipio. Liv. Eligere, electing from among a 
number of eligible persons; Diligere, with reference to 
the destination : Ex malis eligere minima, Cic. Catilina 
ad certas res conficiendas certos homines delectos hahehat. 
Id. Especial designations of elections are: Capere, 172, 
taking, without reference to the agreeing or readiness of the 
selected individual : Prater virgines Vestales Flamines quo- 
que Diales, item Pontijices et Augures capi dicebantur. Gell. 
Dicere, nominating, when one elector designates, nominates 
the chosen one, pronouncing one to be such or such officer : 
Consul Postumium dictator em dixit ; ab eo L, Julius magis» 
ter equitum est dictus, Liv. Camillas creatus consul coU 
legam App. Claudium dixit. Id., he voted for him first 
Prodere, appointing, interregem, fiaminem: Nos Patres 
sine suffragio populi auspicato interregem prodimus. Liv. 
Co opt are, to elect as colleague and receive him as such, 
if one or a collegium (which see) elected a colleague or new 
member: Ciceronem nostrum in vestrum collegium cooptO' 
ri volo, Cic. scil, Pontijicum, Sufficere, appointing a 
person in a place of another, who had died before the expira- 
tion of his official term : C. Julius censor decessit ; in ejus 
locum M, Cornelius suffectus, Liv. — Designare, pro* 
nouncing an individual, who has been already elected for the 
respective office, a person elect: Consul designatus,waB 
the person already elected and proclaimed {renuntiatus) 

142 287. Crepusadum. 288. Crescere. 

until he actually entered upon office, the consul elect. De- 
clarare^ declaring publicly one who has been elected, 
which was done by the presiding person, sometimes also by 
the electing meeting, upon which the respective individual 
was proclaimed (renuniiabatur) by the prcRco : Me una voce 
universus popilus Romanus consulem declaraviL Cic, 
by acclaim. xYwncwjs are, naming, designating by name 
the elected citizen : Te consulem designavi, et declara- 
V t, et priorem nun cup av i, Auson. 

287. Ceepusculum, Vesper, Nox concubia, intempes- 
TA, DiLucuLUM, Mane. Crepusculum^ twilight of the 
evening: Inducunt ohscura crepuscula noctem. Ovid. 
Vesper^ Ace. Fesperwm, Abl. Vespere and Vesperi; rarer, 
Vespera^ the evening star (for which, Hesperus) ; the di- 
rection toward evening, i. e. west, and the time of evening 
(as in German, for instance, evening is likewise used for the 
particular time of day, and the cardinal point where the sun 
sets, west) : Usque ad vesper um pugnatum est^ Gees. Epis^ 
tolam de node dedi^ nam earn vesperi scripseram. Gic. 
Nox concubia, the time of night, when one has laid down 
to sleep, hence the name ; Nox intempesta, the late night, 
inasmuch as it is a time unfit for business (properly, untimely 
night): Concubia nocte visum est in somnis. Gic. Re» 
pente, nocte inte mp est a, servorum armatorum Jit concur- 
sus, Gic. Diluculum, tlie time when it becomes light, day- 
break: Quum ante lucem surrexissem, veni diluculo ad 
pontem Tirenum, Gic. Mane, morning, the whole time of 
morning ; as adverbium, early : Jam clarum mane fenestras 
intrat. Pers. 

288. Grescere, Augescere, Gliscere, Grebrescere. 
Crescere, growing, used of a continuous augmentation from 
within: Ostrea cum luna pariter crescunt, pariterque de- 
crescunt, Gic. Augescere, to increase from without, in cir- 
cumference, number, measure, or strength, or increasing, inas- 
much as the outer increase only is considered : Uva et succo 
terrcB et calore solis augescens, Gic. Mihi quotidie de 
filio cBgritudo augescit. Ter. Gliscere, gaiumg strength 
imperceptibly, like glimmermg fire, extending, imperceptibly 
taking a wider and wider range : Nee ultra bellum Latimtm, 
gliscens jam per aliquot annos, dilatum, Li v. Cr eh res- 
cere (see 194), becoming more and more frequent, more 
and more strong: Crebrescunt optatce aura. Virg. Fa- 
ma crebrescit, Tac. 

289. Crimen. 143 

289. Crimen, Culpa, (Dolus, Noxia, Noxa,) Delic- 
tum, Peccatum; Crimini, Vitio dare, Criminari, Cul- 
PARE, Vituperare, Reprehendere, Increpare, Objurgare, 
Op — ExPROBRARE. Crimen^ crime, inasmuch as we charge 
some one with it, the charge, imputation of a crime : Ha 
liter (E fidem Persei criminihus fecerunt, Liv. Accusa- 
tions, charges which Perseus made against his brother, De- 
metrius. Culpa^ the obligation of restitution or paying 
damages, or the liability to punishment, both arising out of 
an accountable offence : Cavendum est^ ne major pcma^ quam 
culpa sit, Cic. With jurists, culpa is an offensive action 
inadvertently done, an offence unintentionally committed ; 
Dolus, 166, offence intentionally committed, with malice 
prepense; Noxia, the obligation and accountability on 
account of injury done; Noxa, the punishment for the 
same. DcZtc^wm, properly, unlawful omission; the crime, 
as punishable deviation from (omission of) established law 
and right: Quo delictum majus est, eo pcena est tardier. 
Cic. Peccatum, an offence from thoughtlessness, folly, 
inadvertence, a sin or offence of transgression, opp. recte 
factum : Zeno recte facta sola in bonis actionibus ponebat ; 
prave, id esty peccata,in malis. Cic. — Vitio dare,ver' 
tere, taking something badly, accounting it as fault, offence, 
interpreting something unfavorably : Vitio mihi dant, quod 
mortem hominis necessarii graviter fero. Cic. Crimini 
dare, reproaching with, considering and charging as crime, 
used of the accuser: Sciebat, siH crimini datum iri^ 
pecuniam accepisse a piraiis. Id. Both these terms may be 
used of actions entirely innocent in themselves; but Crimi- 
nari is charging some one with something criminal in itself, 
though this charge may be entirely unfounded : Marius Q. 
Metellum apud populum Romanum criminatus est, bellum 
ilium ducere, Cic. Culpare, placing the guilt on some- 
thing, and therefore blaming it: Arbor nunc aqiuxs culpat^ 
nunc torrentia agros sidera, nunc Hemes iniquas. Hor. Vi' 
tup e rare {vitium, XIX, 3.), blaming something as faulty, 
deficient: Cervus crurum nimiam tenuitatem vituperat, 
Phsedr. Reprehendere, ipToperly, to touch behind; find- 
ing fault with some one for something, striving to prevent 
him, by blaming, from similar offences or false steps, and to 
correct him : CcBsar temeritatem cupiditatemque militum re- 
prehendit. Cses. Increpare, reproaching loudly, to 
attack one with loud words (hence the word), scolding: CcUo 

144 290. Cruciatus. 292. Cuhare. 

quum Pompeii in me perfidiam increparet^ cmditus est 
magno silentio malevolorum, Gic. Ohjurgare^ making re- 
proaches on account of a fault, rebuking, reproving, chiding : 
Jurgare est^ quum quis jure litigai: a quo ohjurgat is^ 
qui id fadt juste. Varr. Ohjurgavit Coelium de incort" 
tinentia intemperantiaque. Cic. OpjsroJr are, reproaching 
one strongly with something, to dishonor him, in the sense of 
placing opposite to him, e. g. impudicitiam ; more frequently 
is Exprohrare used, iji the sense of selecting something 
for this purpose : Egone id exprobrem, qui mihimet cupio 
id opprobrarierJ Plaut. Istcec commemoraiio quasi eX' 
prohraiio est immemoris beneficii, Ter. 

290. Cruciatus, Cruciamentum, Tormentttm, Suppli- 
ciUM, Carnificina. Cruciatus^ the pang, extreme pain, 
as that which is suffered; Cruciamentum, pang, as afiecting 
the sufferer^ operating upon him; Tormentum, an instru- 
ment (to distort the limbs) for the purpose of eliciting a con- 
fession, torture: Confectus cruciatu maximorum dolorum, 
Cic. Non graviora sunt camificum iormenta, quam inierdum 
cruciamenia morborum. Id. Supplicium, the severe 
bodily infliction of pain, corporal punishment, and painful* 
or violent capital punishment: Dabitur mihi supplicium 
de tergo vestro. Plaut. Undecimviris ad supplicium pub' 
lice damnati tradi solent, Nep. Carnificina, the cham- 
ber where the torture was applied, and the torment or tortur- 
ing which the executioner applied to malefactors : Ductum se 
ab creditor e in ergastulum et carnificinam esse, Liv. 

291. Crux, Furca, Patibulum. Crwa?, a cross in form 
of a T, or of a crutch ; Furca, the fork, and an instrument 
in form of a V or Y, which was applied to the neck of male- 
factors, whose arms were tied to the thighs ; criminals were 
also crucified on it, with their airms extended ; Pdttbulum, 
is the generic name for such an instrument of torture (made 
of wood) : In crucem tolli. Cic. In campo Martio cru* 
cem ad civium supplicium defigi et constitui jubes. Id. Com- 
perit, nudi hominis cervicem inseri furca, corpus virgis 
ad necem ccedi. Suet. Patibulum ferat, deinde affigat 
cruci, Plaut. 

292. CuBARE, Jacere, Situm esse. Cub are, lying, 
supported upon something, resting in a lying posture, opp, 
moveri: Catella collo {domini) nixa cub at, capitque som^ 
nos. Martial. Jacere, lying, low, from fatigue and weak- 
ness, opp. stare: Diu ad pedes jacuit stratus, obsecrana. 

293. Cubiitis. 296. Culmus. 145 

Cic. Locus jacet inter Apenninum et Alpes, Id., of the 
low situation. Si turn esse {sinere)^ properly, having been 
left behind, lying, being buried ; of places, being situated : 
Mneas situs est super Numicium flumen. Liv. Urbes 
GrcBcm in or a sit a sunt Asia, Nep. 

293. Cubitus, Ulna. Cubitus^ the elbow, with the 
lower arm down to the knuckle, inasmuch as it serves for 
pushing, lifting, supporting (cumber e), also the lower, stronger 
bone of the elbow ; signifying the bend at the elbow, or a 
measure, it is cubitum with later writers: Cubitis depul- 
sare de via, Plaut. Ter sese attollens cub it o que adnixa 
levavit, Virg. Gladii longi quaterna cubit a. Liv. Ulna^ 
the elbow, inner side, with the lower arm as far as the outer- 
most point of .the finger, and the ell (which is derived froxn 
ulna)^ as measure, yard (though not meaning exactly the 
same as the English yard), generally in the plural: JJlnis 
amplecti ; fovere in ulnis. Prop. Bis ter ulnarum to- 
ga. Hor. 

294. CuLciTA, PuLviNus, PuLviNAR. Culcita, armal- 
tress stufied with wool, feathers, or other light stuff: Colloce- 
mus in culcita plumea. Cic. Pulvtnus, o. pillow, bolster, 
couch : Adcubans in convivio epistolam sub pulvinum sub- 
jecit. Nep. Pulvinar, sofas or ottomans (or any thing for 
lying down) covered with couches and costly covers on them, 
as they were prepared in temples for the gods at festivals for 
supplication and thanksgiving {supplicationes)^ in which case 
they were called Lectisternia: Lectistemium per triduum 
habitum. Sex pulvinaria in conspectu fuere: Jovi ac 
Junoni unum^ 4^c. Liv. 

295. CuLEus, Uter, Saccus. CuZeM^, a large sack, of 
leather: Parricidas major es nostri insui voluerunt in cule- 
um vivos atque ita infumen dejici. Cic. Smaller was the 
Uteres, skin for containing liquids: Aquam utribus casneli 
devexerant. Curt. Saccus^ a sack for grain, money, of 
coarse linen, also made of willow branches: Effundere sac- 
cos nummorum. Hor. Tenui vimine rarius contextus sac- 
cus, inversce met<E similis, qualis est^ quo vinum liquatur. 

296. CuLMUs, Calamus, Stipula ; Arundo, Canna. CuU 
mus, the green, fresh blade of grain and other gramina, in 
the sense of the stem which bears the grain, the fruit : Ne 
gravidis procumbat culmus aristis. Virg. Rarer is the 
use of Calamus for the same, the blade of grain as a tub^ • 


146 297. Cultus. 298. Cum. 

Calamus altior frumento^ quam hordeo. Plin. Stipula, 
stubble, the part of the blade which remains after mowing : 
Peragitur messis stipula nunquam cubitali. Plin. — CaU 
amus, properly, the thin, slender blade of the reed: Et 
Zephyri^ cava per calamorum, sihila prinvwm agrestes do' 
cuere cavas injlare cicutas, Lucret. Arundo^ the reed 
plant, and the thicker reed blade: Spes capiat ar undine 
pisces, Tibull. Canna, small reed, rush: RadiculcR de^ 
generis arundinis^ quamvulgvs cannam vocat, Colum. 

297. Cultus, Victus ; Ornatus, Munditia. Cultus^ 
the tending of our living, life, by which our life receives 
charm, in externals, or by the omission of which it loses in 
agreeableness, hence ornamenting, magnificence, comforts, 
tasteful arrangements, and the contrary of all this : Victus^ 
the manner of living in physical respects, designates not only 
the sustenance and establishment requisite for physical ex- 
istence, but also the enjoyment of life in social intercourse : 
Delectant etiam magnifici apparatus vitcsque cultus cum 
elegantia et copia, Cic. Viden' tu puerum hunc, quem tam 
humili cultu educamusJ Liv., the poor attention to a slave. 
Parvo contentos tenuis victus cultus que delectat. Cic, 
slender cooking and expense. — Cultus^ therefore, com- 
prises every thing by which the whole exterior of the body 
receives a finer or worse appearance, the dress, clothing, 
from the meanest, poorest, to the most magnificent : Codrus^ 
deposita veste regia^ cultum pastor alem induit. Veil., shep- 
herd's dress. Ccesarem etiam cultu notdbilem ferunt. Suet., 
by dress and ornament. Ornatus^ the ornament which by 
splendor and costliness beautifies: Purpura Cyri or n at us- 
que Persieus multo nuro multisque gemmis, Cic. Mu nditia 
and Mundities^ tidyness, neatness, which consists in a 
careful removal or prevention of every thing that may soil, 
stain, or injure the appearance of the dress ; in plural, the 
neat, tidy dress as a whole : Munditia placeant: sit bene 
conveniens, et sine lahe toga, Ovid. 

298. Cum, Simul, Una, Conjuncte, Conjunctim, Pa- 
EiTER. Cum, with, together, one thing and the other, as 
preposition, designates a coexistence, existing by one another, 
opp. sine; Simul, at the same time; Una, expresses the 
being together, in each other's presence or company, in the 
same place, and participation in the same action ; Conjunc- 
te, jointly, designates the mode in which one acts with 
another; Conjunctim, cpnjointly, in community, expresses 

299. CuruE. 301. Cupere. 147 

the social relation, opp. separatim ; Pariter^ equally, in the 
same way, relation : Nihil est turpiusy quam cum eo helium 
gerere^ qui cum familiariter vixeris, Cic. Duos res simul 
nunc agere decretum est mihi. Plant. Philosophari una 
cum all quo. Cic. Mulieres in Formiano esse volui^ et 
una Cicerones. Id. Sulpicius cum Pompeio conjunctiS' 
sime et amantissime vimL Id. ViH Galhrum pecunias 
ex suis bonis cum uxorum dotihus communicant, Hujus omnis 
pecunicB conjunctim ratio hahetur^ Jructusque servaniur. 
Caes. Caritate non par iter omnes egemus, Cic. 

299. CuN^, CuNABULA, INCUNABULA. Cun<B^ cradlo (for 
infants) ; Cunabula^ the children's beds, pillows, &c. in it; 
Incunabula^ napkins and bandages of wool or linen, in 
which children were laced : Cunarum fueras motor et pue» 
ri custos. Mart. Aves^ quce cunabula in terra faciunt. 
Plin. Puerum nemo colligare quivit incunabulis. Plant. 

300. CuNCTARi, Hjesitare, Morari. Cunctari^ en- 
deavouring to obtain a clear idea of something, inquiring, 
either of others or asking one's self, reflecting upon some- 
thing, in order to find out that which is right, especially to 
tarry, delay from irresoluteness, doubting and hesitating : 
Vos cunctamini etiam nunc^ quid intra momia deprehenais 
hostibus facialis 7 Liv. Cunctari diutius in vita, Cic, 
hesitating, thinking yet a long while whether one ought to 
die. HcBsitare^ sticking fast, e. g. in luto, being "bogged" 
in the mire, hence to stop repeatedly, to be embigirrassed on 
account of insufficiency of strength, capacity: Non hcesi- 
tans respondebo. Cic, hesitating. Morari^ delaying, tar- 
rying, being retarded by circumstances causing loss of time : 
Dum in his locis Ccesar navium parandarum causa mora» 
tur. Caes. 


TAs, AviDiTAs, Desiderium, Libido, Appetitus, Appeten- 
TiA. Cupere^ desiring, simply with reference to the inclina- 
tion of our soul to obtain a certain thing; Concupiscere^ 
is stronger, desiring much : Nitimur in vetitum semper ctt- 
pimusque negata, Ovid . Divitias infinite concupiscere. 
Cic Avere^ having a desire for a thing inasmuch as it 
pleases, interests : Vcdde aveo scire, quid agas. Cic, I should 
like very much to know. Destder are, longing for some- 
thing, missing something ; it expresses the want felt (the Ger- 
man sich sehnen), e. g. milites in prcdio : Desiderarunt 

148 303. Curt 

te oculi mei^ quum iu esses Cyrenis, Cic. Optare^ choosing 
something as good and advisable, wishing : Tlieseo quum tres 
optationes Neptunus dedisset, optat^it interitum Hippo- 
lytifiUi, Cic. Velle^ willing a thing, used only of manifesta- 
tion of our will (in German wollen) : Cupio omnia^ quce vis. 
Hot. Appetere^ striving for something, taking pains to ob- 
tain it, expressing endeavour; Expetere^ striving for some- 
thing especially ^ peculiarly, hence striving more ardently : 
AH en OS agros cupide appetere, Cic. Quod optdbile est^ 
id esUexpetendum, Id. Gestire^ manifesting by gestures 
and lively or violent signs one's desire : Quemadmodum volu- 
cres^ sic nostri animi, urhano opere defessi^ gestiunt ac 
volitare cupiunt^ vacui cura et lahore. Cic. — Cupid o^ 
desire, as more violent passion, rather poetical ; Cupiditas, 
desire, as quality: Opum Juriosa cup i do, Ovid. Inest in 
mentibus nostris insatiahilis quadam cupiditas veri vi' 
dendi, Cic* Cupiditas ex homine, cupido ex stulto mm" 
quam toltitur : quod cupiditas pars qucBdum sit temperatior 
defiuens ex cupidine, Lucil. Aviditas^ desire , as pass- 
ing violent manifestation of our faculty of desiring an object : 
Smectus mihi scrmonis aviditatem auxit, Cic. Beside- 
rium^ the longing (in Grerman, Sehnsucht) : Hortensius 
exstinctus prudenticB suce triste nobis desiderium reliquit, 
Cic. Libido^ obsolete Lubido^ pleasure, that is, desire, 
desire connected with voluptuousness ; in plural, unrestrained, 
ungovemed sensual desire, lust: Res libidine^ non rdtione 
gesserat. Cic. Libido est cupiditas effrenata. Id. Domi- 
tas habere libidines, coercere omnes cupiditates. Id. 
Appetitus, the longing, as state of our soul, the feeling of 
a want, appetite : Dissimulare appetitum voluptatis prop- 
ter verecundiam, Cic. App etentia^ihe desire which strives 
to obtain something: Lactucce cibi appetentiam fadunt. 
Plin., appetite for eating. 

302. Cur? Quare ? Cur non .^ Quid ni ? Cur 7 (for 
ctti rei 7) why, inquires for the cause of an action ; Quare? 
(qua re?) on what account ? how ? through what ? requires 
explanation respecting something, through which or on ac- 
count of which something has been done : Senex quum it 
dormitum^ follem sibi obstringit ob gulam, — Cur? — Ne 
quid animcB forte amittat dormiens. Plant. JEschinus alienus 
est ab nostra familia, — Quare? — Amare occepit aliam, 
Ter. — Cur non? why Hot.? inquires for the reason or 
object, why something has not befen done; Quid ni? why 

303. Cura, 304. CuHosus, 149 

not? with the conjunctive mood, expresses surprise that 
another does not see the reason, and an answer, therefore, is 
not expected: Sed cur non domum uxorem arcessis? — 
Cupio : verum hoc mihi morce est tibidna^ et hymencBum qui 
cantenU Ter. NostirC porticum apud macellum hoc deoT' 
sum! — Quidni noveriml Id. 

303. CuRA, SoLLiciTUDO ; Curator, Procurator ; Tutor. 
Cura^ the care, if our mind is directed with anxious expec- 
tation to a possible mishap, and if we either fear this or try 
to prevent it; Sollicitudo^ internal disquiet on account of 
a possible evil, expecting it witlif anxious solicitude. Omnis^ 
qucB me angehat^ de re puhlica curu consedit, Cic. Qiub- 
nam sollicitudo vexaret improhos^ suhlaio suppliciorum 
rn^tu? Id. — Curator,, he who is charged with the execu- 
tion of a thing, or the superintendence over its administration, 
superintendent; Procurator^ representative of the cura- 
tor^ or who executes something by way of commission : 
Sunto (Bdiles curatores urHs^ annoncB, ludorumque soUm^ 
nium. Cic. Procurator dicitur alieni juris vicdrius. Id. 
Nihil interest, utrum per procuratores agas, an per te 
ipsum. Id. Curator bonorum, is the guardian, appointed 
by the praetor, over the property of an orphan of age (puher) 
to his twenty-fifth year, of an insane person or spendthrift ; 
Tutor, the guardian over persons under age {impubes) to 
their fourteenth year. 

304. Curiosus, Diligens, Attentus, Sedulus, Studio- 
sus, Officiosus. Curiosus, careful in inquiry: ad inoeS' 
tigandum; in omni historia, Diligens, he who takes 
every thing accurately, especially in domestic economy, opp. 
negligens : Homo frugi ac diligens, qui sua servare veU 
let . Cic. Assidua ac diligens scriptura. Id. Attentus, 
attentive, especially as to increase of property : ad decoris 
observationem : Paterfamilias et prudens et attentus. Cic. 
Sedulus, who gives himself much to do, and performs even 
trifling affairs with the greatest possible care, sedulous ; e. g. 
apis, hospes : Sanctique pudoris assideat custos sedula sem" 
per anus, Tibull. Studiosus, one who zealously favors 
something or another, is useful to him, promotes him, e. g. 
nobilitatis ; especially, zealously devoted to the study of 
something: Venandi aut pilce studios i. Cic. Officio- 
sus, ready to serve or assist, kindly disposed, obliging: Of- 
ficiosissima natio candidatorum, Cic. [Oflicious, as 
now generally used, namely, of proffeiing importunely one's 


160 305, Currere. 307. Curvus. 

service, or of busying one's seif in matters that do not be- 
long to ns, with a view of rendering ourselves important, is 
given in Latin by importunuSy mohstus^ odiosus^ gravis^ or 
fifce words. Formerly the word officious was more frequently 
used in the sense of the Latin qfficwsus,] 

305. Currere, Ruere, Vola&e; Curriculum, Stadium. 
Currere^ running, used of feet, wheels, vessels, rivers, ex- 
pressing a motion in a line, not necessarily swifl, as we say 
the wheels run very slow: Qui stadium currit, eniti et con- 
tender e debet, tU vincat. Cic, also cur r it atas^ or alio. 
Ruere^ 156, running swiftl}', downward or on a plain, with 
violence: Ccesarem ruere nuntiant, et jam jamque adesse^ 
tit Jugam Pompeii interdudat, Cic. At Nisus ruit in me- 
dios, Virg. Vol are, flying, used of very rapid motion: 
ArUonii celeritas non contemnenda est: volasse eum^non 
iter fecisse dicas. Cic. —- Cwrr tew Zwrn, the race-ground 
for running and the chariots, such ground of any dimensicm, 
orbit; Stadium, Si distance of one hundred and twenty- five 
steps, and a Greek race-ground of this distance : Athletm se 
exercent in curriculo, Cic. Currif^ulum solis et luna. 
Id. In stadio cursores exdamant, qv^am maxima possunL 

306. CuRTus, MuTiLus, Teuncus^ Mancus, Claudus. 
Curtus, too short, designates want of requisite magnitude : 
tegula, vas, supellex; Mutilus, disfigured and worn off by 
too much use, wanting in completeness of some parts, e. g. 
finger, toe : Aloes mutila sunt cor nvbvs, Caes. Tr uncus, 
mutilated, if whole extremities of the body are wantmg, e. g. 
nose, ears, hands, arms : Cyn<Bgirus Atheniensis non duahus 
manibus amissis victus, tr uncus ad postremum, denUlms 
d^micavit, Justin. Mancus, deficient in respect of the use- 
fulness of single parts ; especially of the lame right hand ; 
Qui imhedllitate dextrce validius sinistra tUitur^ is non scee- 
tfa, sed mancus est. 'Ulpian. Claudus, lame in one of 
the two feet. 

307. CuRVus, In — Recurvus, Uncus, Ad — Reduncus, 
Pandus, Repandus, Simus, Sinuatus, Falcatus. Cur- 
^us, curved, crooked, bent in a circular or similar curve, 
e.g. areas; Incurvus, curved in, bent in, from above 
down ; Recurvus, bent in a backward curve : Curv <b faU 
ces conjlantur in ensem, Virg. lAtuus est incurvum et 
leniter a summo inflexum hacillum. Cic. Hadorum mater 
eomibus in sua terga re curv is. Ovid. Uncus, bent like 

308. Custodia. 309. Cutis. 161 

•a hook, hooked, e. g. kamus^ ancora; Aduncus^ bent to- 
wards a thing, a httle inward ; Reduncus, bent back : Vo- 
lucria ad uncos ungues habentia came vescuntur, Plm. 
Virgo a dun CO naso. Ter., with a Roman, curved nose. 
Avis rostro redunco, Ovid. Bestiis comuaaliis adunca^ 
aliis re dune a. Plin., some bent forward, some backward. 
Pandus^ stretched out, bent out, used of opposite curves, 
which above recede far from one another; Repandus^ 
having a wide curvature from above down, high arched: 
Panda comua juvencce, Ovid . Landbus p and is reddimus 
exta, Virg. Delpkini dorsum repandum, rostrum si mum. 
Plin. Simus^ bent up, pug-nosed, fiat-nosed: Simce capel" 
l(B. Virg. Sinti a ^ MS, of the inner curvature of the pandus^ 
like a sinus; Falcatus^ bent like a sickle, the same curva- 
ture at the outer side : Luna sinuata in orhem. Plin. Dum 
servat Juno sinuatam comibus lo. Ovid. F ale at a nO' 
vissima cauda delphini. Id. 

308. CusTODiA, Carcer (Carceres), Ergastttlttm. CuS' 
todia^ watch, e. g. eanum; the place where the object is 
watched and kept: Emitti e eustodia et levari vinclis. 
Cic. Career^ prison, a public prison, and every place in 
which one is kept prisoner: Careerem vindicem nefario' 
rum ac manifestorum scelerum majores esse voluerunt. Cic. 
Quum carceribus sese effudere quadriga. Virg., arched 
places, fenced in, at the entrance of the circus^ in which the 
race-teams were kept until the sign of starting was given. 
Ergastulum, the workhouse or prison on a farm, in which 
the slaves were kept while working: Servum in Tuscaet* 
gas tula mittas. Juvenal. 

309. Cutis, Membrana, Pellis, Corium, Tergtts, Altt- 
TA. Cutis^ skin, the outer tegument of flesh with men and 
brutes: Ranaintendit cut em. Phsedr. JWem 5 ran a, mem- 
brane, the delicate tegument of inner parts : Natura oculoB 
membranis tenuissimis vesiivit. Cic. Pellis^ the soft 
skin, full of folds, as it appears after flaying : Rana rugosam 
injlavit pell em. Phsedr. Britanni pellibus sunt vestiti. 
Caes. Corium J the thick, firm skin, coat of animals, and as 
prepared leather: Corium elephanti, bovis. Canis a cjorio 
nunquam absterrebitur undo. Hor. Tergus, the skin of 
the back, and the body part: Ter g or a deripiunt costis et 
viscera nudant. Virg. Aluta^ soft and flexible leather, 
prepared with alum (hence the name) and gall apples: 
Cocdna non Icesum cingit aluta pedem. Martial. These 




152 310. Damnum. 312. Dare. 

words are likewise used of plants : Putamine clauduntur nu" 
CM, corio castanecB. Crusta teguntur glandes^ cute uvcb^ 
corio et membrana Punica. Plin. 


310. Damnum, Detrimenttjm, Inteetrimentum, Jactu- 
EA, Incommodujji. Damnum^ fine paid in court, the injury, 
loss one suffers in a thing : Exercitum Ccesar^ duarum cohor- 
Hum damno, redudt. Gees. Damnum dare, causing in- 
jury, damage ; facere, ferre, suffering it. Detrimentum, 
loss caused by use; Intertrimentum, loss on both sides: 
Acceptum detrimentum sarcire. Cses. , to replenish, supply 
the loss (of soldiers) : Carthaginienses, quia pars quarta de- 
cocta erat, pecunia Roma mutua sumta, inter trimentum 
argenti suppleverunt. Liv. Jactura, the loss, voluntarily 
suffered (thrown away) to avoid a greater one, or to obtain a 
greater advantage: Si in amicitia jactura rei familiaris 
erunt faciundcR. Cic. Incommodum, loss brought about 
by misfortune, vexations: Incommoda in vita sapientes 
commodorum compensatione leniunt. Cic. 

311. Daps, Feecxjlum, Obsonium, Bellaeia, Cupedia. 
Daps, rich, i. e. selected, delicate, and plentiful food; plural, 
Dapes^Bi feast: Non Siculce dapes dulcem eldborahunt sa- 
porem, Hor. Ferculum^a dish carried {ferre) on the table : 
Augustus comam temis ferculis prcebebat. Suet, course. 
Obsonium, food eaten with something else (German Zm- 
kost), eaten with the bread, meat, fish, vegetables: Omnia 
coemens obsonia. Hor. Bell aria, every thmg which 
tastes well {belle), though our appetite is satisfied, dessert, as 
nuts, fruits, confectionary (the idea is " something nice ") : 
Bell aria mellita. Varr. Cupedia, delicacies: Cupes 
et Cupedia aniiqui lautiores cibos nominabanU Fest. 

312. Daee, Dedeee, Tradeee ; Pe-ebeee, Teibuere ; 
DiCABE, Voveee, Devoveee ; Donaee, Labgiri, Condo- 
NAEE, Geatificari. Giving, i. e. putting another in posses- 
sion of something of which we may dispose, is designated, 
a. hy Dare, giving, respecting the origin, the author who 
gives; by Dedere, respecting the object of the action, or 
him who is to have that which is given ; hy Trad ere, hand- 
ing over, respecting the transition of the thing from the giver 

312. Dare. 153 

to the receiver : Dominus dat servum in ptstrinum^ he gives 
to him a different place of dwelling; dedit in pistrinum^ 
there alone, and in no other place, he shall remain and work; 
tradit, he hands him over to the overseer, that the latter 
may dispose of him. Dare se victori^ volwptatilms^ doo 
trincB, surrendering one's self as voluntary sacrifice \ se de^ 
dere^ surrender as entire property, and with perfect resigna- 
tion of free will; se tradere^ to surrender one's self, give 
one's self up : Totum hominem tihi trado de manu, ut aiunt^ 
in manum tuam, Ter. Trad ere se lacrymis et tristitia; 
se totum volupiatibus. Cic, designates the transition from one 
state into another, from virtue to voluptuousness. — b, Dare^ 
giving, from a free, unrestrained resolution; Prahere^ fur- 
nish, afford, willingly satisfy the want and desire of another ; 
Tribuere^ communicating something, awarding, with the 
express will that henceforth it be his property: Dare ope^ 
ram rei publiccBydowg actual service to the state ; prcBbere^ 
allowing one's self to be used for that purpose; tribuere^ 
giving our whole service exclusively to the state. Dare 
alicui aures^ lending our ears to some one, being patient and 
obliging to him : prcBbere aures, silentium^ lending our ear 
with longer patience, designates a longer duration; ^r lett- 
er e silentium orationi, with lasting silence and attention. 
Dare alicui suspicionem^ giving suspicion to some one, be- 
coming suspicious to him; prcebere, causing suspicion, 
giving cause of suspicion to another. — c. Dare, placing 
some one in possession, even though momentary; Die are, 
dedicate, consecrate, solemnly declare, that something shall 
belong exclusively and lastingly to another; Foi? ere, vow- 
ing, solemnly promising something on condition that one's 
desire be fulfilled; Devovere, consecrating something as 
atonement to death: Atticus libellum mihi dedit, ut da- 
rem CcBsari. Cic. Sabinus Tiro librum McBcenati dicavit. 
Plin. Dare studium agricolationi, Colum. MecB laudi, 
vel prope saluti iuum studium dices, Cic. Cygni Apollini 
dicati sunt. Id. Attius Navius vovisse dicitur, si suem 
amissam recuperavisset, uvam se deo daturum. Id. Aga^ 
memnon qvum devovisset DiancB, quod in suo regno puU 
cherrimum natum esset Ulo anno, immolavit Iphigeniam. Id.— 
d. Dare, giving; Don are, making a present, i. e. giving 
something of value, renouncing all restitution or the returning 
of an equivalent; Largiri, properly, to empty itself or 
one's self; giving away or distributing on a large scale 

154 313. De. 

(German spenden), making vast presents, most frequently 
from interest and political views, making large distributions 
among the people; Condonare^ remitting, cancelling a 
debt or punishment, as a favor to some one ; Gratificari, 
making one's self agreeable and obtaining favor by oblig- 
ing services or presents : Milo munus magnificum dederat, 
Cic, he had given a public gladiatorial game to the people. 
Munera ista, quibus es delectatus^ vel civibus iuis vel diis 
immortalibits dona. Id. Hortensio summam facultatem di- 
cendi natura largita est. Id. Cupidi splendoris et gloricB 
eripiunt aliis^ quod aliis largiantur. Id. Meam animad- 
versionem et supplidum^ qito usurus eram in eum, quern cepis- 
sem^ remitto tihi et condono. Id. Parvi de eo, quod ipsis 
super at ^ aliis gratificari volunt. Id. 

313. De, Dis, Se, in compounds. De, down, off, 1 ; 
Dis, dis, as in so many English words derived from the 
Latin or Saxon, or in compounds not to be found in Latin, 
although the .root of the word be of Latin origin (dismantle, 
discountenance, disagree ; in many English words, however, 
dis stands for the original de, as discharge). The Latin dis 
answers the German prefix zer, designating asunder, from 
one another. Se, by the side, off to the side : Deducere^ 
leading away, and leadmg to another place, see 1; Didu- 
cere^ drag from one another, lead off from ohe another; 
Seducere^ lead off from the way, to the side, separate from 
others, withdraw; hence seductus, remote; Diducere co- 
pias. Cses. Me kodie seduxit senex solum^ seorsum ab 
(Bdihus, Plant. — Decolor^ having lost its or one's color, 
of indifferent appearance, e. g. sanguis^ species oris argen- 
tine. Plin. Discolor^ o£ different color : Evolat admissis 
discolor agmen equis. Ovid. — Delabi^ sliding down, 
falling down, e. g. equo<, de cgbIo ; Dilahi, to tumble to 
pieces, to flow into various directions and thus to cease : 
Navis vetustate dilahens. Liv. — Deminuere^ making 
smaller, lessen by removing parts; Diminuere, making 
smaller by dividmg into pieces: De mina una deminui 
quinque nummos. Plant. JDiminuam ego caput tuum. Ter, 
— Demovere^ removing something from its place; Dimo- 
were, removing from one another and to different places, to 
remove from one's presence, separating: Senatus censuit, 
MessalincR nomen et effigies puhlicis et privatis lods demO' 
vend as. Tac. Dimovit Atilius Regulus ohstantes pro* 
pinquos et populum morantem. Hor. 

314. Dehere, 315. DeUlis. 155 

314. Debere, Oportere, Opus, Usus, Necesse est. 
Debere^ owing something to another, and hence being mor- 
ally or legally obliged to return it, owing a debt, being 
obliged by duty (German sollen): D eh eh at nullum num,' 
mum neminL Cic. PrcBsiitimus patrice non minus certe^ 
quam dehuimus. Id. Oportere, expresses a strong obli- 
gation founded upon duty, conscience, or moral decorum,, 
propriety : Op or t ere perfectionem declarat officii^ quo et 
semper utendum est^ et omnibus, Cic. Est aliquid, quod non 
oporteat^ etiam si licet; quidquid vero non licet, certe non 
oportet. Id. Mendacem memorem esse oportet. Quinctil. 
Opus est, it is wanted, it is necessary, because a want, as 
requisite or indispensable for the obtaining of some end or 
object: Nihil istac opus est arte ad hanc rem, quam para, 
Ter. Usus es^, it is requisite for the furtherance of some 
object: An cuiquam est usus homini, se ut cruciet? Ter. 
Necesse est, it is absolutely necessary, of unchangeable 
necessity founded in natural causes, something which cannot 
possibly be avoided : CcBsar castra vallo muniri vetuit, quod 
eminere et procul videri necesse erat. Cses. Emas, non 
quod opus est, sed quod necesse est, Cato. 

315. Debilis, ' Imbecillus (is), Invalidus, Infirmus, 
Imbellis, Enervis. Dehilis,\ie who has lost the use of 
some organ by old age, disease, or a misfortune, unfit for use : 
Mustela annis et senecta d eh His, Phsedr. Dehilem fa- 
cito manu, pede, coxa. Senec. - Memoria d eh His erat Oc' 
tavius. Cic. Imbecillus, later Imbecillis, weak, he 
who suffers from natural weakness : Marius et valetudine est 
et nafura imbecillior. Cic. Si gladium imbecillo seni 
aut deb Hi dederis,ipse impetusuo nemini noceat. Id. Earn 
superstilionem imbecilli animi atque dnilis putant. Id. 
Invalidus, is he who had at some other time strength (t?a- 
lidus), but who is deficient in it just now, when he wants it, 
incapacitated (also of insufficient strength, as a military post) : 
Camillus, jam ad munera corporis senecta invalidus. Liv. 
Infirmus, see 265, without firmness and proper inner sup- 
port, weakly, infirm, e. g. caput: Erant infirmi ad resis- 
tendum propter paucitatem hominum. Csbs. Ccesar infir- 
mitatem Gallorum veritus, quod sunt in consiliis capiendis 
mobiles et novis plerumque rebus student. Id., without charac- 
ter, without moral firmness, changeableness of mind. Im^ 
hell is, unwarlike, unfit for fight: Femince puerique et alia 
imbellis turba, Liv. Vicimus imhelles hostes. Id., 

156 316. BeceU 317. Deciders 

coward, Enervis, enervated, lax, as consequence of in- 
dolence and dissipation: Fracti enervi corpore gressus, 

316. Decet, Convenit; Decentia, Decus, Decor, De- 
COEUM, HoNESTUM, HoNESTAS. Dccet, it is proper, meet, 
becoming, handsome, of free actions, which have their reason 
in the nature of the actor and in circumstances, why they 
ought to be thus and not difierent; Convenit, 249, it be- 
hoves, used of something which has every necessary quality 
in relation to something else: Decere est quasi aptum esse 
consentaneumque iempori et personcB ; quod cum in faciis see- 
pissime, turn in dictis valet^ in vultu denique et gestu et in- 
cessu; contraque item dedecere, Cic. Ista decent humeros 
gestamina nostras. Ovid. Conveniet quum in dando mu- 
nijlcum esse, turn in exigendo non acerbum, Cic. — Decentia, 
is the quality of that which is proper; proper behaviour, 
address, tEe quality and consequent appearance of him who 
acts according to decorum : In formis venustatem atque or- 
dinem et, ut ita dicam, decentiam ocuLi judicant. Cic. 
Decus, that which gives fine appearance, ornament : Monu- 
menta imperatorum, decora atque omamenta fanorum, Cic. 
In omamsntum we express that which is added by way of 
ornament; in decus, that ornament which, in the opinion of 
the speaker, befits, as such, the object to which it is applied, 
or elevates its character by beautifying. Decor, beauty, 
decorousness, in as far as it is perceived, appears : in habitu 
ac vultu. Decorum, that which is befitting, proper for the 
well-behaving, and that by which man appears in his dignity 
as a reasonable being: Id decorum volunt esse, quod ita 
naturce consentaneum sit, ut in eo moderatio et temperantia 
appareat cum specie qvudam liberali. Cic. Decorum id 
est, quod consentaneum sit hominis excellentim in eo, in quo 
natura ejus a reliquis animantibus differ at. Id. Honestum, 
that which is morally good, in the abstract, and Honestas, 
the moral goodness, purity, virtue, of which the Decorum, 
as the external appearance, is the effect : Quidquid est, quod 
deceat, id turn apparet, quum antegressa est honestas. Cic. 

317. Decidere, Decernere, Statuere, Tra;«sigere 
Pacisci, Depacisci. Decidere, finishing a question or dis- 
puted matter by cutting it, i. e. by a shortening of the trans- 
action, or only one-sidedly (as we say, somewhat similarly, 
to cut the matter short), finishing a case quite short, summa- 
rily: Res ad Verrem defertur^ et istius more deciditur. 

318. Decipere. 157 

Cic. Decernere, 269, deciding according to certain rea- 
sons in consequence of reflection, deliberation (with others), 
concluding: Rem consules de consilii senientia deer eve- 
runt. Cic. Statuere^ establishing, settling, after previous 
scruples and considerations, as a lasting resolution, from 
which no departure shall be made : Decidis statuisqucy 
quid Scapulis ad denarium solver etur. Cic. Transigere^ 
settling a disputed case, a business, so that nothing unsettled 
or requiring alteration remains, terminating : Qui de sua 
parte decidit^ reliquis integram relinquit actionem; qui 
pro sociis transigit, satisdat^ neminem eorum postea peti- 
turum, Cic. Pacisci^ making an agreement, contract, com- 
pact: Scopas Simonidi dixit^ se dimidium ejus ei, quod 
pact us esset^ pro illo carmine daturum. Cic. DepaciS' 
ci and Depecisci^ to enter uppn a contract, to accept of 
it : Eques Romanus non ante dimissus^ quam ad condition^ 
Apronii dep actus est Cic. 

318. Decipere, Deludere, Fallere, Fraudabe, -Frits- 


SCRIBERE. Decipere^ ,1'72, catching unawares by false 
appearance, deceiving the incautious : Ita decipiemus fo- 
vea Lycum, Plaut. Deludere^ to make fun of another, to 
banter, the fool or credulous person, what we familiarly ex- 
press by bamboozling, it is deluding by easy means, or the 
easily deluded: Sopitos deludunt somnia sensus. Virg. 
Fraudare^ cheating, with violation of honesty and faithful- 
ness, obtaining property from another, defrauding : jPr a w- 
dare creditores. Cic. Fallere^ deceiving, leading another 
into error, without his perceiving it : Nocte silenti fall ere 
custodes, Ovid. Fr ustrari^ deceive in expectation : CIcils- 
sem Dolahella comparavit^ ut^ si Syria. spes eum frustrata 
esset^ Italiam petereL Cic. Imponere alicui imposing 
upon another, so that the deceived person appears as a sim- 
pleton : Eumenes simulata deditione prcefectis Antigoni im- 
pa suit. Nep. Verba dare, outwitting, depriving another 
entirely of his advantage, in spite of his cunning and watch- 
fulness : Hannibal clavsus locorum angustiis, noctu sine utlo 
detrimento exercity^ se expedivit ; Fabio^ callidissimo impe- 
raiori^ verba dedit. Nep. Circw/wvent re, circumvent- 
ing, depriving one cunningly of something, catching, by 
intrigue : Ajax judicio iniquo circumventus. Cic. Cir- 
cumscribere, cheating by distortion of law, tricks, and fal- 
sifications: Emtiones JaUas aperta circumscriptior^e 


158 319. Declamare, 321. Decreium, 

fedsti, Cic. Testamenta subjiciunt^ adolescentulos circuni' 
scribunt. Id. 

319. Declamare, Pronuntiare, Recitare. Decla- 
mare, delivering something with a loud voice, in effect, or 
by way of rhetorical practice, with reference to strength and 
modulation of voice : In qicemvis impune declamari non 
licet, Cic. In Phalerico ad Jluctum declamavit Demos- 
thenes, ut fremitum assuesceret voce vincere. Pronunti- 
are, pronouncing, uttering words clearly, distinctly, and 
audibly, as in public annunciations : Pr odium pronuntiare 
in posterum diem. Liv. Pfonuntiatio est^ ex rerum et 
verhorum dignitate, vocis et corporis moderation Cic, of ora- 
torical expression. Recitare, reciting, delivering a certain 
discourse or composition with a loud voice, reading aloud : 
Pansa tuas literas recitavit. Cic. Nero declamavit 
scBpius puhlice: recitavit et carmina domi et in theatro. 

320. Decoquere, Heluari, Abligurire. Decoquere, 
to boil down, spend one's fortune: Heluari, to swallow it 
down, i. e. to ruin it by dissipation; Abligurire, to get 
through with it by dainty things, paying high prices for choice 
things : Tenesne memoria, prcetextatum te decoxissel Cic. 
Tu meo periculo, gurges ac vorago patrimonii, heluabare. 
Id. Homo patria abligurierat bona. Ter. 

321. Decretum, Consultum, Edictum, Scitum, Jussum. 
Decrc^MTW, decree as decisive and unchangeable result of 
a deliberation on reasons and counter-reasons on a subject ; 
Consultum, the measure, conclusion, which proceeds as 
opinion from a deliberation, also the order, if it contains at 
the same time the opinion of the collegium: Consult a om- 
nia et deer eta regis rescindere. Sail. Majores miseriti 
plebis Roman<B de^retis suis inopicB opitulati sunt. Id. — 
Decretum, the resolution which, as containing or express- 
ing the opinion of a higher authority, demands attention and 
must be followed; Edictum, the formally published order 
of a superior authority, which informs the inferior of its will 
and desire, and deprives the latter of the excuse of not know- 
ing it : Flaccus Prator sanxit e die to, ne aurum ex Asia 
exportari liceret. Cic. Nego me ex decreto Prcetoris in 
fundum restitutum esse. Id. — Senatus Decretum, also 
Consultum, a resolution or act of the senate which author- 
ized magistrates to perform importEuit acts, and gave to reso- 
lutions of the people the authority of law. Such a popular 

322. Dediscere. 324. Deficere, 159 

resolve was called Populi scitum^if passed by the whole 
people, the entire people (of course by majority), but PlC' 
hiscitumif passed by the plebs, in contradistinction to the 
senate, after the charge by the presiding magistrate ; JuS' 
sum^ inasmuch as the people, as a whole, in virtue of its 
majesty, i. e. sovereignty, proclaimed or expressed its will : 
Rhodii societatem ah Romanis ita valebant peti^ ut nullum de 
ea re scitum populi fieret, Liv. Scitum plebis est 
factum^ rogantibus tribunis. Id. Pontius accepit sen at us 
decretum^ ut^ comitiis curiatis reoocatus de exsilio, jussu 
populi Camillus dictator extemplo dicer etur. Id. 

322. Dediscere, Oblivisci. Dediscere^io unlearn that 
;ivhich we had learned, from want of practice; Oblivisci^ 
to forget, if we cannot any longer remember a thing : Milites 
disciplinam populi Romani dedidicerant. Csbs. Si vete^ 
ris contumelicB oblivisci vellet: num. etiam recentium injU' 
riarum memoriam deponere posse 7 Id. 

323. Deducere, Derivare. Deducere^ leading off 
water from a place ; Derivare^ leading to a place : Quum 
pluere incipiet^ aqu^m oportet deducere in vias, Cato. 
Deductum nomen ab Anco. Ovid. Fossam aqua ex Jlumine 
derivata complevit, Cses. Suam culpam derivare in 
aliquem. Cic, shift it upon some one, make him appear 

324. Deficere, Desciscere, Rebellare ; Defectio, Se- 
DiTio, Secessio, Factio, Partes. Deficere^ 3., ab ali' 
quo^ separating from a country, ally, severing from an ally, 
and withdrawing one's assistance (in German abfallen^ falling 
off) : Duce colonics Latince ad Auruncos deficiunt. Liv. 
Desciscere^ severing allegiance or submission to some one, 
and becoming his enemy ; Deficere designates faithlessness 
in this action ; Desciscere^ unstableness, inconsistency : 
Propugnatores rei publicce qui esse voluerunt^ si leviores sunt^ 
desciscunt; si timidiores^ desunt, Cic. Nunquam isti 
populi^ nisi quum deerit^ ad quern desciscant^ a nobis non 
d efi cient, Liv. A me ipse d efe c t, I have abandoned my 
own principles, have become faithless to them; desciviyl 
have acted directly contrary to my principles. Rebellare^ 
beginning war again, rebeginning it: Volsci^ fortior ad re- 
bellandum^ quam ad bellandum^ gens, Liv., hence to rebel, 
i. e. to begin war again after having been subdued. — De- 
y*cc^to, defection : Rebellio facta post deditionem ; de- 
fectio datis obsidibus, Cses. Seditio, dissension of a 

160 825. Deformis. 327. Ddn, 

society^ riot, sedition, when the citizens, in parties, oppose 
one another, or, by unlawful acts and violence, the lawful 
authorities: Domestica se ditto, Li v. Ea dissensio civium, 
quod seorsum eunt alii ad alios, seditio diciiur. Cic. Se- 
cessio, the formal separation of one, the malecontent party 
in a state, from the other, rebellion : CiMum secessio in 
Sacrum montem facta. Li v. F actio, a seditious party, regu- 
larly organized under a leader or head, for the purpose of 
bbtaining supreme power: Consul Patavinorum in Venetia 
seditionem comprimeret, quos certamine fa ctionum ad 
intestinum helium exarsisse legati attulerant, Liv. Partes, 
party, as a union of several members having the same opinion, 
and thereby standing opposite and opposed to another of a 
different opinion : Cinnano tumultu alii Sullanis, alii Cinna- 
nis favehant partibus. Nep. 

^5. Deformis, Turpis, Fosdus. Deformis, deformed, 
i. e. having an irregular and unpleasant form, displeasing by 
want of beauty and perfection or completeness, opp. Formo- 
stis; Turpis, ugly, scandafous, disgraceful, by dishonoring 
and disgracing deformity, i. e. deviation from what it ought 
to be; F CB d u s, ahominahle, that which excites disgust and 
horror: Jumenta prava atque deformia. Csbs. Turpe 
pecus mutilum ; turpe est sine gr amine campus; et sine 
fronde frutex, et sine crine caput. Ovid. Caput impexa 
fcedum porrigine. Hor. huxuria quum omni cetaii tur- 
pis, turn senectuti fcedissima est. Cic. 

326. Dejicere, Deturbare, Prjecipitare. Dejicere, 
chasing, throwing down from a position, to maintain which is 
important, with violence : aliquem de ponte in Tiherim, Si 
qui meam familiam de meo fundo dejecerit, ex eo me loco 
dejecerit: si qui me in m£um fundum introire prokibuerit, 
non ex eo, sed ah eo loco me dejecerit. Cic. Deturhare, 
driving down, from the possession away, expel, push out with 
great violence : Cceliu^s, impetu in prcetorem facto, eum de 
trihunali deturhavit. Cses. Pracipitare, precipitating, 
fall with violence head-foremost, used of a precipitous fall : 
Multitudo de turre sese pracipitahat, Liv. Nilus prat- 
dpi tat ex altissimis montilms. Cic. 

327. Dein, Deinde, Deinceps, Dehinc, Exinde, Tum, 
Post, Postea. Detw, properly, from thence, after; Dein- 
de, thereupon, after this, points to a near object upon which 
the one in question is to follow; Deinceps, immediately 
after ; Dehinc, from hence, to begin here, expresses locality, 

328. Delectare, 329. Delectum habere. 161 

and from now, expresses time : NumidcR pro tempore in' 
structi: d e in pradium incipitur. Sail. Tres fratres video 
deinceps tribunos plebis per triennium fore. Cic, after 
one another. Interior a Gedrosi, dekinc Persce habitant 
Mela. Ex in, Exinde, from that place, of locality, and 
upon that, after that, of time, and of a consequence of some 
fact: Mare terram appetit: exin mari Jinitimtis aj&r sublime 
fertur. Cic. Turn, then, points at a fact in the past or the 
future in relation to now, without reference to any thing that 
may follow : Quum inimici nostri venire dicentur, turn in 
Epirum ibo, Cic. Post, after, behind; Postea, there- 
upon, thereafter, designates the following after another ac- 
cording to order or time : CcBdere incipiunt Milonis servos^ 
qui post erant, Cic. — In enumerations, Deinde and Tu m, 
if repeated, designate every idea or sentence that follows 
after them as equally important in its relation to the previous 
part or to the whole of the sentence. Deinde distinguishes 
such ideas according to their order and successiveness ; Tum^ 
as belonging to various periods : lllud erat philosophi totius 
augurii primum naturam ipsam videre, deinde inventionem^ 
deinde constantiam. Cic. Stellce errantes turn occultan» 
tur, turn rursus aperiuntur, turn adeunt, turn recedunt. Id. 

328. Delectare, Oblectare; Delectamentum, Deli- 
ciJE, VoLUPTAs. Delectare, alluring by agreeable things, 
delighting ; Oblectare, acting against disagreeable impres» 
sions by delighting, entertaining, amusing : Musa me a prima 
adolescentia delectarunt, Cic, they attracted me. Ah 
delectatione omni negotiis impedimur ; ludis tamen oh' 
lectamur et ducimur. Id. — Delectamentum, the means 
of delight, that which is capable of furnishing or procuring 
it; Delicice, the things themselves which attract by their 
charms, which delight, and on which we dwell with pleasur- 
able sensation ; Voluptas, the pleasurable sensation which 
is created by a high degree of pleasure through the senses, 
voluptuousness: Amores ac delicice tuce, Rosdus, Cic. 
Verbo voluptatis dtuis res subjiciunt, latitiam in animo^ 
commotionem suavem jucunditatis in corpore. Id. 

329. Delectum habere, Conscribere, Legere milites. 
Delectum habere, levying troops with reference to proper 
age, health, and strength, as in Rome, originally in the Cam- 
pus Martins, at a later period in all the provinces ; Conscri' 
bere milites, aX the delectus, the entering of the names of 

the men capable of bearing arms, whose names had been 


162 330. Delere, 331. Delitare. 

called in the 'roll, enrolling the men (yet without the addi- 
tional meaning which the word has in the United States or 
England); Legere milites^ lev)ring from among those 
that can bear arms, selecting : Delectum consules hahent. 
Ad duo simul hella exercitus scrihitur, Liv. Delectus hot» 
hetur ; nee junior es modo conscripti^ sed senior es etiam 
coacti nomina dare. Id. Legionem Fausto conscriptam, 
in Siciliam sihi placere a consule dud^ scripserat Pompeius 
ad consules. Cic, the words of Pompey were : Lcdio man- 
darami, ut alter vestrum cum its militihus^ quos Faustus 
legit^ projlcisceretur, 


mrcERE. Delere^ erase that which had been engraved in 
the wax of the tablet, with the flat end of the stylus^ erase : 
Ruheo: sed jam scripseram; del ere nolui. Cic. Del ere 
maculam, urhem^ to erase. -4 Jo Ze re, causing something to 
vanish, perish, destroying, e. g. monumenta, imagines : Cor- 
ptis non igni aboliium. Tac. Ohliterare^ properly, 
crossing writing with other writing ; causing something to be 
forgotten: Res vetu^tate ohliterata; Ohliterata memO" 
ria superioris belli, Liv. Exstinguere^ properly, remov- 
ing by pointed instruittents, to annihilate, extinguish, to deprive 
of active existence, of activity and influence : AqucB multitu- 
diHe vis JlammcB opprimttur ; sua sponte autem consumtus 
i^ls exstinguitur, Cic, see 417. Inducere^ cover 
something with something, e. g: super lateres carta ; postes 
inducti pice; making plain again the Wax on which some- 
thihg had been written, covering it over again, as it were ; 
hence cashieritig : Nomina jam facta sunt : sed vel induct, 
tel 'mutari possunt. Cic. Inducendi senatus con^ltimd- 
twritaJs hofidum est. Id. 

331. Delirare, Desipere, InsanirIe, Fxtrere; Insania, 
FtitoR, Rabies. Delirare, properly, deviating from the 
«rtraight furrow (lira) ; being out of senses: Projecto deli- 
ramus interdum senes, Plaut. Desipere, giving bne's 
self up to folly, being over gay : Ohjurgdbar, quod nimio 
gaudio pene desiperem, Cic. Insanire, not having a 
soilind mind, being crazy : Homo audacissimus, et quod inter 
omnes constat, nisi inter eos, qui ipsi quoque insaniunt, 
insanissimus, Cic. Fur ere, raving, raging, being furious 
and wild : Scspe iracundia graviore, vel timore, vel dolore 
movetur mAis : quo genere Athamantem, Ajacem, Oresiem 
furere dicimus, Cic. — Insania, nonsense, crazinew. 

d32. Demum, 333. Denuo. 163 

insanity, as quality : Insania Uhidinum, Cic. Fu ror^ the 
state of fury, of the person that rages: Insaniam majores 
stuliitiam censuerunt^ consiantia^ id est, sanitate vacatUemf 
fur or em autem esse rati sunt mentis ad omnia ccedtatem* 
Cic. Rabies, the madness, when the fury of passion rises 
to a privation of consciousness, and knows, in its frantic it* 
ruptions, of no limits : Canum rabies, Ovid. 

332. Demum, Denique, Postremo, Tandem. Demum^ 
only, signifies that the preceding demonstrative {nunc, post^ 
turn, igitur, is, ibi) must be taken in the highest degree of ltd 
meaning: Nunc demum rescribo his Uteris, quas mihi mi" 
sisti, Cic. Idem velle atque idem, nolle, ea demum Jlrma 
amicitia est. Sail. Denique (for demumque), at lengthy 
only, attaches the idea which has been strengthened by d e- 
^wm to that which precedes : Tum denique homines nostra 
intelligimus bona, quum quce in potestate habuimus, ea amisi^ 
mus, Plaut., then and then only. Hence in enumerations, 
when iat the end of the series the highest or lowest or some- 
thing is mentioned, which comprises the whole preceding 
series ; at the highest, at least, in short, or, even : Decemviri 
provincias, civitates liber as, socios, amicos, reges denique 
eschauriunt. Cic. Hostes deditione facta, nostros prcesidia 
4educiuros, aut denique indiligentius servaturos credide' 
rant. Caes., or at least. Negant id Syracusani per religion^ 
sacrorum ullo modo fieri posse : fas denique negant esse, 
Cic, in short, in general. Postremo, sc. loco, at length, 
finally, designates only the last place according to order : 
Omnes urbes, agri-, regna denique, postremo etiam vee* 
tigalia vestra venierint. Cic. Tandem, at last, at last after 
all, at length, of time, when long expectation is to be ex- 
pressed: Redditce mihi tandem sunt a Ccesare litercR. Cic. 

333. Denuo, Ab — De — Ex integro, Iterum, Rursus 
— UM. Denuo, literally, from anew, desigiiates the repe- 
tition (renovation, as it were) of a state of things, according 
to the time after its existence had ceased for a time ', Ab-^ 
De — Ex integro, anew, with reference to the thing itself, 
its essence, i. e. so, as the previous state was from the begin- 
ning, immediately after its origin, afresh ; designates the 
mode, entirely so, as it existed before ; Iterum, again, des- 
ignates the mode, quite so, as it was .before ; Rursum^ 
Rursus, again, an additional time, of the kind, of mere 
repetition : Dixi equidem : sed si parum intellexti, dicam 
denuo. Plaut. Parietes ruunt: adificantur cedes totce de- 

164 334. Depeculari. 335. Descrihere, 

nuo. Id., merely of building, in which also old yet sound and 
good materials may be used : Columnam efficere ah integro 
novam nullo lapide redivivo, Cic, from the bottom anew, of 
new hewn stones. Faciei de integro comcedias» Ter., in- 
vented by himself, not derived from the Greeks. Te prcetore 
Sicilia censa denuo est; poster o anno Metellus mentionem 
tui census fieri vetat: censores dicit de integro sibicreari 
placere. Cic. Every fifth year censors were elected anew ; 
in this case, the election was annulled a year after it had 
taken place, and others were elected afresh, fresh ones. Li- 
viancB fahulcB^ non satis dignce^ qucB iter urn legantur, Cic. 
Facis^ ut rursus plebes in Aventinum sevocanda esse vide- 
atur. Id. 

334. Depeculari, Spoliare, Prjedari. Depeculari^ 
abstracting property which does not belong to us, especially 
public property, robbmg by embezzling: cBrarium^ fana; 
Spoliare,, robbing in the sense of undressing, pulling off 
what one wears, dress or armour, uncovering, denudating : 
Consules spoliari hominem et virgas expediri juhent, Liv., 
undressing. Monumenta spoliavit nudavitque omnia. Cic. 
Prcedari, making booty, plundering, robbing, in the sense 
of carrying off as prize : Pecoris vis ingens in saltum avium 
compulsa perpulit consulem, ut prcB datum eo expeditcB dU' 
cerentur legiones. Liv. 

335. Describere, Exprimere, Definire; Designare, 


scribere^ copying, describing, refers to the intention of a 
clear perception; Exprimere, expressing, representing, 
properly of plastic works, giving a more vivid and visible 
representation, as it were ; Definire^ defining, giving the 
precise limits of a thing, giving a distinctly delineated^ cir- 
cumscribed presentation or idea of a subject ; if we give just 
as many marks of distinction as an object has or ought to 
have, to be such as we mean: Descriptio rerum conse- 
quentium continet perspicuam et dilucidam cum gravitate ex- 
positionem. Ad Herenn. Orator hominum sermones mores- 
que describat, Cic. Hanc speciem Pasiteles ccdavit 
argento^ et noster expressit Archias versibus. Id. Or a- 
tione^ verbis exprimere mores^ animorum sensus, Defi- 
nitio est earum rerum^ qucB sunt ejus rei propria^ quam 
definire volumus^ irevis et circumscripta explicatio. Id. — 
Describere, giving a clear representation of the form of 
things by a sketch, drawing {pingere, delineare) ; hence, 

336. Deses, 16^ 

directing how something is to be, ordering, designating thej 
order; Designare^ designate, distinguishing by making a 
sign upon it: Non potuit pietor rectius descrihere homi* 
nis formam. Plaut. Servius Tullitis classes centuriasque ex 
censu descripsit, Liv. JSneas urbem de si gnat aralTQ, 
Virg. — Descrihere^ enumerating, dividing, directing, by 
writing, the parts of a whole. Inasmuch as the writing or 
directing is unimportant, and only the placing of the different 
parts is considered, the same is called Distrihuere^ dis- 
tributing, to distinct and respective individuals ;> Dispertire^ 
giving away by dividing into parts, used of the thing, the 
whole, which is divided {dividere) ; Dispensare, weighing 
out to different individuals, distributing proportionately, ac- 
cording to proportions ; Diriher e^io distribute according to 
order, even : Mdiles curules frumenfum quaternis ceris vicct^ 
tint populo descripserunt, Liv. Numa in duodecim men' 
ses describit annum. Id. Distrihuisti partes Italia^ 
Catilina: statuisti^ quo quemque proficisci placeret. Cic 
Archipirata cequahiliter prcedam dispertit. Id. llle tef' 
rarum victor^ qui gentes et regna dirihet. Plin. 
' 336. Deses, Reses ; Desidia, Ignavia, Pioritia, Iner- 
tia, Segnities, Socordia, Otium. DeseSj he who sits 
firmly on a place, idle, inactive; Reses, he who does not 
move from his seat, who does not move, stir, quiet, unoccu- 
pied : Sedemus desides domiy mulierum ritu inter nos 
altercantes. Liv. Casei molles, in corpore non resides» 
Varr. Clamor em pugnantium exaudimus, resides ipsi ae 
segnes, tamquam nee manu^ nee arma habeamus. Liv. — De- 
sidia, inclination to sit upon one place, the sitting idle, put- 
ting one's hands in one's lap : Legi frumentarice repugnabant 
bbniy quod ab industria plebem ad desidiam avocari puta^ 
bant. Cic. Ignavia, indolence, when impulse and desire 
of activity are wanting ; hence, also, cowardice ; opp. activ^- 
ity, industry, thriftiness, alacrity : Non Jit ex ignavo strenu- 
us, neque fortis ex timido. Sail. In quem cadunt timor et 
infractio qucedam animi et demissio, recipiat idem n^cesse est 
tarditatem et ignaviam, Cic. Pigritia, crossness, if one 
goes crossly and reluctantly to a \xork, opp. cheerfulness, 
alacrity: Pigritia est metus consequentis laboris, Cic, 
laziness. Noli putare, pigritia me facer e, qv^d non mea 
manu scribam. Id. Inertia (iners, without energy, strength, 
life, motion, and hence unfit for its purpose or destination, 
e. g. sal, stomackus), enduring inactivity, inclination to idle- 

166 337. Desperare, 338. Despicere. 

ness, to faineantise^ as the French express it: Vita humana 
prope uti ferrum est: si nihil exerceas^ inertia atque ior- 
pedo plus detrimenti facit^ quam exercitio. Cato. Res aspera 
est: sed inertia et mollitia animi, alius alium exspectantes 
cunctamini^ Dis immortalibus confisi. Sail. Desemntur of' 
ficia defensionis negligentia^ pigritia^ inertia. Cic, 
' from inclination to ease and comfort (indolence), or from in- 
capacity. Segnities, slowness, sleepiness, drowsiness in 
acting, dulness of mind : Hortantur consulem, ut ca^tigaret 
segnitiem populi, Liv., the people, tired of eternal war, 
were slow in entering into a new war with Macedonia. So- 
cordia, thoughtlessness, want of attention and energy ; 
hence, also, dulness : Nisi animum advertitis omnes^ nisi 
somnum socordiam que ex pectore oculisque amovetis. Plant. 
Pcmus ah extremis orhis terrarum terminis nostra cunctatione 
et socordia jam hue progressus, Liv. Otium^ leisure, 
the time which remains unoccupied by professional employ- 
ment; it may be well or badly made use of; ease, opp. ne- 
gotium: Nostrum otium negotii inopia^ non requiescendi 
studio constitutum est. Cic. 

337. Desperare, Diffidere. Desperare {de-spes)^ 
giving up hope, despairing, if all grounds of expecting that 
which we wish to be fulfilled are gone; Diffidere^ dis- 
trusting, if but few or weak grounds to expect this realization 
are left : Gallic nisi perfregerint munitiones^ de omni salute 
desperant, Csbs. Ita graviter cegrum Eudemum jmsse^ ut 
omnes medici diffiderenU Cic. 

338. Despicere, Spernere, Aspernari, Temnere, Con- 
temnere, Fastidire, Negligere. Despicere^ looking 
down upon a thing as below one's self, considering something 
far below ourselves: Omnes despicit^ hominem prce se ne- 
minem putat^ se solum potentem putat, Cic. Spernere^ hold- 
ing far off from one's self, disdaining, slighting, not wanting 
it in the least; Aspernari^ spurning, not wishing to have 
any thing to do with it, involving disdain, contempt : llle sper- 
nit segregatque db se omnes. Plant. Qui habet^ ultro appeti- 
tur : qui est pauper^ aspernatur. Cic. -Te mnere, poetical, 
more commonly Contemnere^ contemning, holding value- 
less, worthless, unworthy of attention : Jejunum raro stomachus 
vulgaria tern nit, Hor. Nemo potest id, quod malum esse 
decreverit, non curare idque contemnere. Cic. Contem» 
sit Siculos ; nonduxit homines. Id. Fastidire, disdaining 
proudly or as unfit for us, not good, not delicate enough for us : 

339. Destruere, 341. Detinere, 167 

Swperhas aures hahemus^ si quum domini servorum nop, faS' 
tidiant preces, nos rogari ah honestis feminis indignO' 
mur. Liv. Negligere^ neglecting, not paying attention to 
soniething or some one : alicujus imperium. Omnes^ quilms 
res sunt minus secundcB, propter suam impotentiam se semper 
credunt negligi. Ter. 

339. Destruere, Demoliri, Diritere, Excidere, Eveb- 
TERE, Delere. Speaking of buildings, Destruere^ literally 
unbuilding (see 39), pulling down by layers: Naijem^ cedi" 
Jicium idem destruit facillime^ qui constrtudt. Cic. Dc- 
moliri^ pulling down high fabrics, with exertion; also 
statuas, see 51: Augures jusserunt demoliri ea, quorum 
altitudo qfficeret auspiciis, Cic. Diruere^ pull asunder, in 
various parts, demolish (dis-rwere, see 39) : Legiones ducta 
ad diYuendam urbem, Liv. Excidere, hewing out, as 
it were, demolish from the bottom, entirely, to the very bot- 
tom : Monumenta publica, cedes sacras, domos inimicorum 
suorum oppugnavit, excidit\ incendit. Cic, razing to the 
ground. Evertere, upsetting, turning the bottom up, de- 
stroying, in a way of turning every thing topsy-turvy : Urbem 
nondum excisam et eversam, sed jam captam atque op' 
pressam vidimus, Cic. Delere, annihilate: Scipio alter 
Africanvs duas urbes huic imperio irtfestissimas, Carthaginem 
Numantiamque, delevit. Cic. 

340. Deterior, Pejor. Beterior, less good, worse, 
in the sense of deterioration, growing worse, comparatively 
to that which is better; Pejor, worse, more evil, more 
wicked, in the sense of augmenting evil, or that which is 
bad: In mundo si quis corrigere aliquid volet, deterius 
faciet. Cic. De male GrcBcis Latine scripta deterius. Id., 
worse, i. e. further from what it ought to be. Consules 
ordbant tribunos, ne pessimum facinus pejore exemplo ad' 
mitterent judices. Liv. Neminem pejus oderunt. Cic. 

341. De — DisTiNERE, Distringere, Occupare, Morari, 
Tardare. Detinere, keeping a person in a place, or at a 
thing, so that he occupies himself solely with it; Distinere^ 
keeping from one another, distant from a thing, off from 
something, so that he cannot occupy himself with it so much, 
detaining: Me detinuit morbus. Ter. Qucb facilius prO' 
veniebant, quia Parthi Hyrcano bello distinebantur. 
Tac. Distringere, pull in different directions, occupy 
one's self with more than one thing : Hannibalem mittendum 
in Africam esse ad distringendos Romanos. Liv., to 

Ji68 342. Detrectare. 343. Devertere. 

make a '^ diversion.'' Sulla multis negotiis distent us est 
Cic. Numqtiam a causis et judiciis districtior fui. Id. , 
when attention is divided among several. Occupare, 
properly, mastering a subject; occupy one's self: Populus 
in funambulo animum occuparat, Ter. QuaTnvis o ecu- 
pat us sis^ otii tamen plus hahes, Cic. Morari^ 300, de- 
tain, make tarry, used as verb active : Legatio belli celerita- 
tern morahitur, Cic. Tardare^ properly making slow; 
retarding, interfering with the progress, opp. accelerare : Mea 
dubitatio aut impedire profectionem meam videhatur^ aut certe 
tar dare, Cic. Res scepe tentata impetus Casaris consilia- 
que tardahat Cses. 

943. Detrectare, Obtrectare. Detrectare, properly, 
endeavouring lo carry off; declining a thing or a performance, 
militiam ; taking off from others, i. e. merits, detracting, plac- 
ing them in the shade, Ingenium magni detrectat 
Livor Homeri. Ovid. Obtrectare^ opposing a person on 
account of his merits from envy or jealousy, endeavourmg to 
impede the effects of his meritorious qualities : Cessatum a 
milite^ ac de industrial ut ohtrectaretur laudibus dv^is^ 
impedita victoria est, Liv. 

343. De — DivERTERE, Deversari; Deversorium, Hos- 
piTiuM, De — Diverticulum, De — Divortium. Dever- 
tere^ turning off the road and turning in, alighting (precisely 
the German einkehren) ; Divertere and Diverti, turning 
from one another into different directions, taking a road lead- 
ing in a different direction; Devers art, stopping, tarrying 
where we have alighted : Quum duo quidam iter facerent et 
Megaram venissent^ alter ad cauponem devertit^ ad hospi- 
tem alter, Cic. Projiciscenti Consuli causa in Pamphyliam 
divertendi oblata est, Liv. Omnes ad earn domum^ in 
qua iste deversabatur^ profecti sunt, Cic.—^Deverso- 
rium^ the place where we enter, turn in from the road; 
Hospitium^ the inn which receives the "stranger" hospi- 
tably, which is a comfort to him : In aliquo peropportuno 
deversorio requiescere, Cic. Te in Arpinati videbimus 
et hospitio agresti accipienms. Id. Deverticulum^ 
branch way, which leads off from the road; Diverticu- 
lum, road leading in a diverging direction: Hcec d evert i- 
cula et anfr actus suffugia sunt infirmitatis, Quinctil. Ubi 
ad ipsum venio diverticulum, constiti, Ter., also: Gla- 
dii abditi ex omnibus locis deverticuli protrahebanlur, 
Liv., of the corner, for deversorii, Devortiumy^e place 

344. Deus. 348. Diferre. 169 

where a road leads off from the main road; Divortium, 
the place where a road or river divides into two different di- 
rections: Devortia itinerum indicebantur, ut civitates a 
proximis hibernis in avia frumentum referrent. Tac. Prope 
divortium itinerum castra posituri erant. Liv. 

344. Deus, Divus, Numen. Deus^B. certain god ; Dt- 
vus, divine, a god in general, in solemn expression, and a 
deiified emperor ; Nu men, the deity, inasmuch as it shows 
effectually its majesty and power: Deum, Deo natum, sal- 
vere Romulum jubent. Liv. Ad divos adeunto caste, Cic. 
Omnes natures numini divino parent. Id. O numen 
aquarum, Neptune ! Ovid. 

345. DiADEMA, Infula, Mitra. Diadem a, the wide, 
white head-band of kings; Infula, the white woollen band 
over the forehead of the priests : PhoM Triviceque sacerdos, 
infula cui sacra redimibat tempora vitta, Virg. Mitra, 
a sort of cap with flaps covering the cheeks, to be tied under 
the chin : tile Paris, Maonia mentum mitra crinemque ma* 
dentem subnixus, Virg. 

346. DiCTio, Stilus. Dictio, properly, the oral deliv- 
ery ; diction, the peculiar manner of presenting the thoughts 
for and by oral delivery, calculated upon and according to 
the effect which it will produce with the hearer ; for genus 
dicendi: Fuit in Crasso popularis dictio excellens : An* 
tonii genus dicendi multo- aptius judiciis, quam condonihus, 
Cic. Stilus, style, the mode of presenting thoughts by 
words and writing, which pays regard to the connexion and 
distribution of words: Stilus optimus dicendi effector et 
magisier, Cic. 

347. Dies festi, peofesti, fasti, nefasti, comitiales, 
iNTEBCENSi. Dics fcsti, foast days, days of rejoicing, 
when all labor and business were suspended, and every one 
gave himself up to pleasure of some sort; profesti, non- 
feast days, among these were Dies fasti, court days, ne- 
fasti, when the holding court was prohibited ; comitiales, 
when comitia, but not sessions of the senate were held; ink- 
ier censi or intercisi, days when a few hours at the 
middle of the day, about noon, were spent in holding court, 
the morning and evening hours, however, in sacrificing. 

348. Differre, Proferre, Prolatare, Procrastinare, 
DiFFiNDERE. Diffcrrc, deferring something to a more 
convenient time; Proferre, extending (pushing further 
out), delaying on account of an obstacle : In crastinum dif^ 


170 S49. Dijicilis. 351. Dignitas. 

fero res severas, Nep. Si coheredes laxius volent pro- 
ferre diem auctionis^ poterunt vel hiduum^ vel iriduum^ vel 
ut videhitur. Cic. Prolatare^ making wider forward, ap- 
point something for a more distant time, e. g. comitia : Id 
malum opprimi sustentando ac prolatando nullo modo 
potest. Cic. Procrastinare^ always delaying to tomor- 
row^ from one day to another, procrastinating : Primo rem 
differre quotidie ac procrastinare coeperunt, Cic. Dif' 
find ere, interrupting a law case, and adjourning it to some 
other day : Papirio legem curiatam de imperio ferenti triste 
omen diem diffidiU Liv. 

349. DiFFiciLis, Laboriosus, Operosus ; Morosus. Bif- 
ficilisy difficult, the execution of which opposes many ob- 
stacles even to great powers and means; Lahoriosus, 
laborious, toilsome, the bringing about of which is connected 
with great labor, trouble; Operosus, the completion of 
which requires manifold labor, much work, many hands we 
could not well give it ; vast, applied to work, undertaking, 
expresses somewhat, and in certain cases, the Latin operosus 
(German miihsam): Erat difficile eodem tempore rapi' 
dissimo flumine opera perficere et tela vitare. Cic. Operum 
fuit omnium laboriosissimum cuniculus in arcem hos' 
tium agi cceptus, Liv. Lahorioscs exerdtationes. Cic, 
fatiguing. Sepulcrum operosius, quam quod decem homv- 
nes effecerint triduo. Id. — Difficilis, difficult to be 
treated , obstinate, hard , stubborn : Avunculus d iffi oil lima 
natura, cujus asperitatem nem^ ferre potest, Nep. Moro' 
sus, cross, morose, to whose satisfaction nothing can be 
done, grumbling, e. g. senex. 

350. DiGERERE, Ordinare, Disponere. Digerere, dis- 
tributing properly, so that that which belongs together be 
placed together, and each group be properly separated from 
the rest: Carmina digerere in numerum, Virg. Primum 
omnejus civile in genera dig erat; deinde eorum generum 
quasi qucedam membra dispertiat, Cic. Ordinare, placing 
in order, giving to each individual thing or being its proper 
place in a series, e. g. partes orationis, Cic. Ars perpetuis 
prcBceptis ordinata, Liv. Disponere, disposing, plac- 
ing, according to a plan, in various places : Vigilias dispo' 
nere per urhem, Liv. 

351. DiGNiTAs, HoNESTAs, ExisTiMATio. Dignitos, 
dignity, which, on account of personal or political advantages 
or privileges, gives claim to esteem and acknowledgment ; 

352. Dilapidare* 354. IHscipUna. 171 

HonestaSj properly, the quality of being honored or having 
honor, i. e. feeling of «honor ; moral dignity, which gives a 
claim to general esteem and honor, on account of his rational 
actions, and the honor itself, thus obtained ; Existimatio^ 
45, 93, the judgment, opinion of others, founded upon the 
above quality, honor, civil honor, reputation : Dignitas est 
alicujus honesta^ et cultu et honore et verecundia digna aucto^ 
ritas, Cic. In officio colendo sita vitcB est honestas omniSy 
et in negligendo turpitudo. Id. 

352. DiLAPiDARE, DissiPARE. DHapidare^ properly, 
to pull down, pull asunder a heap of stones ; spending one's 
fortune by dissipation, down to nothing : Conveniundus Phor- 
mio est^ priusquam dilapidet nostras triginta minas^ut 
auferamus, Ter. Dissipare, strewing about that which 
belongs together, diffusing: Statuam istius deturbant, com» 
minuunt, dissipant. Cic. Ignis totis se passim dissipa» 
vit castris. Li v. Dissipare fortunes alicujiis, Cic. 

353. DiscERNERE, Internoscere, Distinguere, Secer- 
NERE. BiscernerCy seeing two or more things as different 
things, distinguishing, so that we do not take the one for the 
other, e. g. alba et atra: Discernit, quid sit ejusdem gene» 
ris, quid alterius, Cic. Jn^erno 5 cere, knowing one from 
among others, knowing him by known marks of distinction, 
and distinguishing him thus from others : Mater geminos in- 
ternoscit consuetudine oculorum, Cic. Distinguere^^ 
distinguishing something by accurate delineation from other 
things : Numerum in cadentibus gutiis^ quod intervallis diS' 
tinguuntur, notare possumus, Cic, also effecting that 
something be much distinguished from something else, easily 
known. Pocula ex auro gemmis erant distincta. Id., or- 
namented. Secernere^ separating by sifting: Bestice se* 
cernunt pestifera a salutaribus, Cic. 

354. DisciPLiNA, DocTRiNA, Prjeceptum. Discipline^ 
that which is learned, inasmuch as it occupies the disciple^ 
the learner ; instruction, and the whole education which he 
receives, and the instruction or system, in as far as it teaches 
methodically the branch of a science : Ad Druidas magnus 
adolescentium numsrus disciplines causa concurrit. Mag- 
num ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur: itaque annas 
nonnulli vicenos in disciplina permanent. Cses. Mago- 
rum disciplina scientiaque. Cic. Doctrina, the instruc- 
tion which a teacher gives, and the knowledge requisite for 
this ; also every science : Doctrines pretium triste magister 

172 355. Discrimen. 356. Disertus, 

hahet Ovid. Homo disertissimus et omni doctrina oma' 
tissimus. Cic. Praceptum^ 262, the instruction given as 
precept, rule: Prcecepta dicendi^ vivendi^ dare^ tra- 
der e, Cic. 

355. Discrimen, Differentia, Discrepantia, Diversi- 
TAs; Periculum, Dimicatio. Dt 5 crimen, that Which dis- 
tinguishes two things from each other, makes the difference 
between them, by which they are discriminated : Duo maria 
perienui discrimine separantur. Cic, i. e. Isthmo, The 
difference of two things, if they have such qualities that they 
can be distinguished from one another, is expressed by Dif- 
ferentia^ if the two things are thereby kept from one an- 
other, are different things ; by Discrepantia^ want of har- 
mony, disagreement, if they do not harmonize (sound, chime) 
together, hence the name; Diversitas^ diversity, if they 
deviate from one another, have, as it were, a different direc- 
tion, are diverging: Differentia honesti et decori. Cic. 
Oculi in homine numerosissinuz varietatis atque differen- 
tia: grandiores^ modici^ parvi, prominentes, conditL Plin. 
Discrepantia scripti et voluntatis, Cic, want of agree- 
ment or harmony. Sua cuique vox^ sicut fades . Hinc ilia 
gentium totque linguarum toto orbe diversitas. Plin. — 
Discrimen, the distinguishing point, that which gives the de- 
cision, on which it turns ; Periculum, the attempt, by which 
we obtain experience while we are thereby exposed to danger, 
the trial, the danger itself, the risk ; Dimicatio, 253, strug- 
gle against a great danger, when something important is at 
stake : Totius belli in unius viri vita positum est discri- 
men. Cic Siculi volunt mece fidei diligenticeque pericu- 
lum facere, qui innocentice ahstinenticeque fecerunt. Id. 
Publicum periculum erat a vi tempestatis in iis, qua por- 
tarentur ad exercitus. Liv. In tanta dimicatione capitis^ 
famce, fortunarumque omnium ab Jove pacempeto. Cic 

356. Disertus, Eloquens, Facundus. Disertus, of 
ready speech, one who is able to deliver something in good 
order, clearly and perspicuously ; Eloquen *, eloquent, well- 
speaking, used of the completely trained orator, according to 
art; Facundus, speaking fluently, he who finds it easy to 
speak, and who is not wanting in words, used of natural 
eloquence, perhaps expressed by our well-spoken : Eum sta- 
tuebam disertum, qui posset satis acute atque dilucide^ 
apud mediocres homines, ex communi quadam opinione Jionii- 
num dicere; eloquentem vero, qui mirabilius et magnifi' 

357. Dispar. 360. IHu. 173 

eentius augere posset atque ornare, qucB vellet^ omnesque om» 
nium rerum, qucB ad dicendum pertinerent^fontes animo atque 
memoria contineret, Cic. Caligula eloquentice pluHmum 
attendit^ quantumvis facundus et promtus. Suet. 

357. DisPAK, Impar, Disparilis, Dissimilis. Dispar^ 
•not entirely equal, uneven, that which does not make a pair 
with another thing on account of disproportion; Impar, un- 
even (as of a number), unequal, which does not make a pair 
on account of total absence of the requisite qualities; Dispa- 
rilis, that which with difficulty, on account of frequent and 
rapid change, can be made equal : Disparibus septem 
compacta cicutis fistula, Virg. Erant trigemini fratres, nee 
(Btate nee viribus dispar es, Liv. Stellarum numerus par 
an impar sit, neseitur, Cic. Hannibali par audada JRo- 
manus, consilio et viribus impar, Liv. Ccdi varietas et 
disparilis a^piratio terrarum, Cic. , alternating. Dissi- 
mil is, dissimilar, designates quality : Dispares mores 
disparia studia sequuntur, quorum dissimilitudo die- 
sociat amicitias, Cic. 

358. DissENSio, DissiDiuM, DisciDiuM, DiscoRDiA. Dis- 
8 en si o, disagreement in opinion and disposition, e. g. de 
jure: Animorum disjunctio dissensionem facit, Cic. 
Dissidium, dissension, discord, if two persons on, account 
of discord keep themselves far from one another ; Quod una 
nan estis, nan dissensione ac dissidio vestro, sed vo- 
luntate ac judicio tu^ factum est, Cic. Discidium, forci- 
ble separation: Manet memoria, etiam in discidio publi- 
corum fcederum, privati juris, Liv. Nero exturbat Octaviam 
— civilis discidii specie, Tac, of divorce. Discordia^ 
discord, as the result of striving for different aims : Duas ex 
una civitate discordia fecerat, Liv. 

359. DiSTANTiA, Inter VALLUM, Spatium. Distantia^ 
distance of one thing from another : Tanta est inter bonos et 
improbos, quanta maxima potest esse, morum studiorumque 
distantia. Cic. JwieruaZZwrn, space between two things: 
Trabes paribus intervallis distantes inter se binos pedes ^ 
in solo collocantur : ea inter valla saocis effarciuntur, Caes. 
Spatium, the space into which something may be received, 
in which something can be done : Inter duas acies tantum erat 
relictum spatii,ut satis esset ad concursum utriusque exer- 
citus, Caes. 

360. Diu, DuDUM, Pridem. Diu, long, a long time, in 
general: llle vult diu vivere ; hie diu vixit ; — sverat 


174 361. Diversus. 863. Dividere. 

adolescens^ diu se victurum, Cic. Dudum (diu-dum), 
already a long time, this long while, connects the length of 
time with now, to express the weariness and tediousness of 
this duration of time : Vide, qtuim dudum hie adsto et pul' 
to I Plant. Antoniumjam dudum Cotta et Sulpicius ex» 
spectant, Cic, already a long time. P rid em, a long time 
ago, of things which belong to a time having passed away 
long before the one we speak in : Sermo hue evasit, quam 
pridem m% pater et mcUer mortui essent: dico, jam diu. 
Ter. Ad te jam pridem de testamenio scripsi. Cic. 

361. Diversus, Varius. Diversus, different, not the 
same, that which may be distinguished by marks peculiar to 
it; Varius, variegated, party-colored, changing, change- 
able, that which by many changes distinguishes itself from 
the others of its class: Diver s4 dissipatique in omnes par* 
tes fugiunt, Cses., in different directions. Difficile est, ea, 
qua commodis, utilitate et prope natura divers a sunt,vo» 
Juntate conjungere. Cic. Varietas proprie quidem in dis* 
paribus coloribus dicitur: sed transfer tur in multa disparia; 
varium poema, varia oratio, varii mores, v aria for» 
tuna; voluptas etiam varia did solet, quum percipitur 
e multis dissimUihus rebus dissimiliter efficientibus volup' 
totes. Id. 

862. Dives, Fortitnatus, Locuples, Opulentits. Di- 
ves, rich, he who has an abundance of all sorts of goods, 
generally temporal or earthly ones: Dives est, cui tanta 
possessio est, ut ad liber aliter vivendum facile contentus sit. 
— Animus hominis dives, nan area appellari solet, Cic. 
Fortunatus, fortunate, favored by fortune, possessed of 
goods: Ecquis me hodie vivit fortunatiorl Ter. Quid 
vos hanc tenuem sectamini prcedam, quibus licet jam esse for- 
tunatissimis? Caes. LocujoZas, rich in real estate, and 
he who has every thing in plenty : A locorum possessionibus 
locupletes vocabantur. Cic. Copiis rei familiaris locuf 
pletes. Id. Testis locuples. Id., creditable, of full value. 
Opulentus, riph in means, gold and goods, power and in- 
fluence, rich, powerful: Crcesus, rex Asice opulentissi' 
m u s, Cic . Op ulentior f actio tenuit urbem, Liv. 

363. Dividere, Partiri, Separare, Dirimere, Diribere. 
Dividere, separating from one another, disuniting a whole 
into its component parts; Par tire, dividing, making di- 
visions so that the separated parts stand in a certain proportion 
to each other 1 Omne corpus secari ac dividi potest, Cic. 

364. Divortium. 367. Docere, 175 

In circo loca divisa Patrihus Equitibusque. LIt., parti- 
tioned off. Cum liheris vivi bona nostra partimur. Cic. 
Separare^ separating, so that something comes out of all 
connexion with another thing: Privati ac separati agri 
apud Suevos nihil est, Cses. Dtrtmerey not allowing a 
union or connexion to take place, enemies not to come to an 
issue: Hispania, ah Africa angusto diremta freto. Liv. 
Dirimere cert amen, proelium^ connuhium, pacem, Diri' 
mere suffragia, tabellas, selecting and counting out the 
votes (tablets) in comitia or courts ; but Diribere tabellas^ 
335, distributing these tablets among the people or judges : 
lAcinius Macer, repetundarum reus, dum sententice dirihC' 
rentur, in Menianum conscendit, Val. Max. Indicant ta- 
bula publiccB, vos rogatores, vos diribitores^ vos custodes 
fuisse tabellarum, Cic. 

364. Divortium, Diffarreatio, Repitdium. Divorti" 
urn, lawful divorce, when, upon the motion of the husband, 
the separation from the lawful (connubio, 260) uxor was form- 
ally confirmed by a family court: Tunc repudiatam tu 
credis uxorem, quum res suas sibi habere jussa est, quum egre^ 
di domx), Quinctil. Declam. Diffarreatio — genus erat 
sacrificii, quo inter virum et mulierem fiebat dissolutio, dicta 
diffarreatio, quia fiebat farreo libo adhibito, Festus. 
But, since a marriage concluded by the confarreatio was to 
be indissoluble, it would appear that diffarreatio was only the 
postponement of the sacrifice on account of some bad omen : 
Confarreationes tonitru dirimit, Serv. ad V. Mn, 4, 374. 

365. DiuRNUs, QuoTiDiANUs. Diurnus, daily, that 
which belongs to the day-time, and returns every day, opp. 
nocturnus: Quod est iempus, quo illi non cantent, vel diur» 
num, vel noctumuml Cic. Labor es diurni noctumique 
domi militicBque. Id. Quotidianus, daily, which day by 
day is repeated : Homines spes prcedandi ab agricultura et 
quotidiano labore revocabat, Cses., the same work, which 
is daily performed. Quotidiani maadme fiebant sum^ 
tus, Nep. 

366. DiuTiNus, DiUTURNus. i) iMi I ntts, wearisome, that 
which lasts longer than we wish : Desiderium libertatis odi- 
umque diutince servitutis. Cic. X>iw<Mr»M«, lasting long, 
respecting the long space of time only: Macedonia vix se 
potest diuturna pace recreare. Cic. 

367. DocERE, Erudire, Imbuere; Docttts, Eruditus, 
Peritus, Gnarus; Doctor, Magister, Prjeceptor, P^da- 

176 368. Dolium. 

ing, in order to increase the knowledge of another; Eru- 
dire, properly, to un-rude him, instruct, to free him from 
ignorance; Imbuere, properly, immerging, imparting doc- 
trines, knowledge, opinions, sentiments, skill, by times, so 
that they enter tieeply and are not forgotten again : Non per^ 
fectus Uteris y sed imbutus. Suet., of elementary instruction. 
Cicero per legates cuncta edoctus. Sail., thoroughly in- 
formed. Orator em erudire in jure civilL Cic. PareU' 
iium prcBceptis imbuti ad eorum consuetudinem moremque 
dedudmur. Id. Pueri animum tenerum bonis opinionibtts 
imbue re. Id. — Doctus^he who is scientifically educated, 
he who knows thoroughly and systematically what he knows, 
who is master of his science ; Erudiius {he who has been 
freed of rudeness), he that is rich in, well-stored with knowl- 
edge, learning, originally he that has been raised out of the 
rude, untaught state into knowledge ; Perttus, experienced, 
who by experience and practice has obtained knowledge ; 
Gnarus^ versed, expert, having perfect knowledge of a sub- 
ject: Memmius fuit doctus ex disciplina Stoicorum. Cic. 
Epicurus non satis politus est iis artibus, quas qui tenent^ 
eruditi appellantur. Id. Ad ea eligenda, quce dubitationem 
afferunt, adhibere doctos homines^ vel etiam peritos, 
— Sisenna^ doctus mr, gnarus rei pvMicce, Id. — DoC' 
tor, teacher, as the person fully versed in a branch, and 
giving thorough instruction in it; Magister, teacher, as 
master of a science, and directing an institution as principal ; 
PrcBceptor, inasmuch as he gives direction for the applica- 
tion and practice of his science or art; Pcedagogus, the 
superintendent over children, who taught good manners, the 
rudiments of knowledge, and a pure pronunciation; Lite' 
rat us and Literator, expounder of poets, a scholar of 
languages; Professor, a public teacher of a specific sci- 
ence or art; these latter designations are used by later 
writers only : Considerare oportet, quos quis habuerit artium 
liber alium magistros, quos vivendi prcBceptores, Cic. 
Pcedagogi jure vetusiatis plurimum benevolenticR postula' 
bant. Id. 

368. DoLiuM, (Cupa), Seria, Orca, Amphora, Cadus, 
Urceus, Lagena. Lying vessels for liquids: Dolium, a 
larger barrel of clay, at a later period of wood, differing from 
the Cup a, wine-tub, which was, at the upper end, open and 
wider &an below; Seria, a barrel, longer than the other 

369. Dohr. 371. Dominus, 177 

vessels: Relevi dolia omnia^ omnes serias, Ter. Orcaf 
a still smaller barrel, similar in form to the dolium and seria^ 
keg: Orc<B fervore musti ruptcB, Varr. Vessels standing 
up : A mp hora, a vessel of clay, entirely round, provided 
with two handles at the upper end, and a narrow mouth, for 
the preservation of wine, after it had gone through the requi- 
site fermentation in the dolia; Cadus, larger, of the same 
kind, without handles, containing two amphorcB and a half: 
Hie dies festus corticem adstrictum pice demovehit ampho* 
rcB fumum bibere institutes, Hor. TJrceus^ a pitcher of 
clay, with a handle, to draw liquids, to obtain them out of 
another vessel, well, &c. ; Lag en a^ a flask of clay, with 
narrow neck and handles, in which the wine was carried on 
the table: Mater nostra la gen as etiam inanes ohsigna^ 
hat, Cic. 

369. Dolor, Mceror, Mcestitia, Tristitia, LxrcTirs. 
Dolor, pain, that acute sensation which is caused by a great 
loss, or any other disagreeable occurrence, especially when 
this sensation or feeling is fresh, lately caused : Huic nihil 
possit offensionis accedere sine acerhissimo animi sensu ac 
dolore? Cic. Mce ror, grief, affliction, the deep but silent, 
dumb pain at the misfortune or loss of a beloved object, which 
has obtained a hold of our soul, so much so that it becomes 
visible: Magnum dolorem, vel mcerorem potius ex crw- 
deli et miserdbili morte C, Trehonii dccepimus. Cic. ifcfoB- 
stitia, protracted melancholy, in consequence of deep 
affliction, as quality; Trts^i/ia, affliction, inasmuch as it 
manifests itself by gestures and expression of the face : La- 
crimis ac tristitics te tradidisti. Cic. Lwc^ms, mourn- 
ing and mournfulness, within, and inasmuch as it is mani- 
fested by the appearance both of the man himself and his 
dress: In luctu et squalore sum. Cic, (see Squalor e,) 


breaking, overcoming, violently making one's self master of 
something, and depriving it of its forces of resistance : leones^ 
equos, gentes feras ; d omit as habere libidines, Cic. Sub' 
igere, subjugate, forcing to something; properly, driving 
down to something : Subigitque fateri commissa piacula, 
Virg. Nulla gens est, qu<B non aut ita sub act a sit, ut vix 
exstetf aut ita domita,ut quiescat, Cic. Condoc efa cere^ 
drilling, breaking for a certain purpose : Feris beluis utimur 
domitis et condocefactis, ut elephantis, Cic. 

371. DoMmns, Heeus. Dominus, he who possesses 

178 372. Domus. 

something as property, and has free power over it, master, as 
proprietor: Adolescens harum est do minus adium, Ter. 
Her us (German JEferr, connected with AeAr, elevated), mas- 
ter, in as far as he is elevated above something, as the master 
of slaves, the father of the house : Sed iis, qui vi oppresses 
imperio coercent, sit sane adhibenda scevitia^ ut her is in 
famulos. Cic. Thus Domina^ Hera. 

372. DoMUS, Insula, Tectum, Habitatio, Mansio, Do- 
MiciLiUM, Sedes; Familia. Domus^ 38, dwellinghouse of 
the family, with its out-houses; Insula, a single, insulated 
dwellinghouse, without out-buildings, on an open space ; also 
a number, cluster, or row of such houses in a separate place, 
which belong to one owner, and in which lodgers (inquilini) 
live: Clodii insula est venalis, cujus hie {Ccdius) in cedi' 
culis habitai. Cic. Prceter immensum numerum insularum^ 
domus priscorum ducum arserunt. Suet Tectum^ a, house, 
inasmuch as we are there under a roof: Quoniam jam nox 
est, in vestra tecta discedite. Cic. Habitatio, a room, 
inasmuch as we live in it, and a house, as dwelling-place, 
habitation, the lodging, of a lodger, i. e. a hired lodging: Vil» 
licojuxtajanuamjiai habitatio, Colum. Mercedes habu 
tationum annuas conductoribus donavit, Cses. Mansio, 
the place where one stops, night's lodging : Ad primam sta* 
tim mansionem febrim nactus est. Suet. — Domus, home, 
inasmuch as it indicates a place, hence only domi, domum, 
domo : Do mo Carthaginienses sunt, Plaut. Domicilium, 
home, as place of dwelling, where we are at home, domi- 
cile; Sedes, seat, where we settle down, settle domes- 
tically: Quum Archias domicilium RomcB multos jam 
annos haberet, Cic. Cerebrum, cor, pulmonis, jecur sunt 
do mi cilia vitce. Id. Advenis locum ac sedes par are, 
Cses. — Domus, the house, i. e. the father of the house, with 
all the family, i. e. those that live with him, also a race, with 
its founder, as we use house when we say the house of Aus- 
tria: Domus te nostra tota salutat, Cic. Quod genus et 
proavos et regia nomina jactas, clara satis domus hcBC no- 
Mlitate sua est, Ovid. Familia, b\\ the servants of a man, 
his children and servants, also his clients, his people, and the 
direct line of some founder, bearing his name: Familia, 
qucR constat ex servis pluribus, Cic. Orgetorix ad judicium 
omnem suam familiam, ad hominum millia decem, undique 
coegit, Cees. Honestce familice plebeice et proavus et ax>u8 
prcBtores faerunt, Cic. 

373. Donum. 376. Ducere, 179 

373. DoNUM, MuNus, Pr^emium ; Donarium, Strena. 
Donum, gift freely given ; Munus^ a present, to give which 
the giver feels himself obliged in some sort or other: Do- 
www hoc divinum rationis et consilii hominibus impertitum, 
Cic. Quod munus rei publicce afferre majus possumus^ 
quam si docemus atque erudimus juventutem ?Id. PrcBinium^ 
prize for exertions, honorable reward for merit : Casar his^ 
qui primi murum adscendissent, pr cBmia proposuit, Caes. — 
Donum^ gift in general, any thing given, e. g. militare; do- 
nation: Latini coronam auream Jovi do num. in Capitolium 
mittunt, Liv. Donarium, a votive gift, something given 
from respect to the gods, to propitiate them, &c., and the 
place in the temple where they were preserved : Templum 
donariis ornare, Aur. Vict. Strena, a festival gift, such 
as were given on a new-year's day: Tiberius strenarum 
commercium prohibuit, ne ultra Kalendas Januarias exercC' 
retur. Suet. 

374. DoRMiRE, Stertere, Dormitare, Sopire. Dor' 
mt re, sleeping: Jacet corpus dormientis^ut m^ortuL Cic. 
Stertere, snoring whilst sleeping: Ita stertebat,ut ego 
vicinus audirem. Cic. Dormitare, being sleepy, and lying 
in a fast sleep: Te dormitare aiebas; cubitum hinc abii» 
mus. Plaut. Arte et graviter dormitare. Cic. Sopire, 
making to fall asleep, lull into fast sleep : Tiburtini tibicines 
invitant, et vino oneratos sopiunt. Liv. [Falling asleep is 

375. Dorsum, Tergum, Tergus. Dorsum, back, as 
elevated part of the animal body from the neck to the hind- 
quarters: Aselhis graviv>s dor so subiit onus, Hor. Jugum 
montis in angustum dorsum cuneatum. Liv. Tergum, 
back, as the side which is turned off, reverse : Manus post 
tergum revincire. Virg. Terga vertere, Csbs. Tergus, 
oris, the skin of the back, see 309. Durissimum dor so 
tergus elephantorum, Plin. 

376. Ducere, Ductare, Trahere ; Habere, Perhibere. 
Ducere, drawing after one's self, leaning ; Ductare, lead- 
ing about, mocking, making fun of some one : Duxit honeS' 
tissimi viri Jiliam, Cic, marrying (leading to a home). 
Nisi feres argentum, frustra me ductare non potes, Plaut. 
Exercitum ductare, instead of ducere, in Sallustius, has 
found no imitators. Trahere, pulling, dragging, is more 
forcible than ducere: Spe duci; Aliquem trahere ad 
supplicium. Ducunt volentem fata, nolentem trahuht. 

180 377. Dulcis. 378. Dum. 

Senec. Trahimur omnes lattdis studio ^ et optimus quisque 
maxime gloria ducitur, Cic. Due ere helium^ dragging 
on the war, intentionally prolonging it; trahere^ prolong- 
ing it beyond what one might or ought to have done, from 
want of energy. — Dueere^ holding something to be such or 
such, in the sense of dratoing conclusions (raiionem ducere) : 
Priore se consilio^ quod optimum due ere t^ cum potentissim^ 
populo per ingens henejicium perpetuam firmare pacem ami- 
citiamque, Liv. Habere^ holding to be, if we have ended 
the drawing conclusions {ducere), and act accordingly, though 
it be only according to reasons of probability ; hence, Orant^ 
ne se in hostium numero duceret. Gees., 6, 32. Reductos 
in hostium numero habuit. Id., 1, 28. 6,6. Perhibere, 
considering, holding to be, with conviction and in fact : Bene 
qui conjiciet^ vatem hunc perhibebo optimum. Cic. 

377. DuLcis, SuAvis, Jucundus, Gratus, Amoenus. Duh 
cis, sweet, that which produces the highest degree of pleas- 
urable sensation, e. g. mel^ pomum^ nectar ^ sonus^ epistola, 
Omne animal sentit et dulcia et amara. Cic. Suavis^ 
sweet, lovely, agreeable, designates the sensation which the 
dulce produces: Aquce potu suavissimcB. Plin. Radix 
suavissimi gustus et odoris. Id. Suave rvhens hyacin- 
thus, Virg. Jucundus^ delightful, joyfuV, that which de- 
lights at the same time llie inner sense ; Juvare in uiroque 
(et corpore et animo) dicitur^ ex eoque jucundum. Cic. 
Commune patrium solum dulce est atque jucundum. Id. 
Gratus, grateful, that which produces pleasurable sensation, 
and on that account is welcome, liked by us: Gratior et 
pulchro veniens in corpore virtus. Virg. Fuit mihi hmdis 
nostra gratulatio tua jucunda, et timoris consolatio gra* 
ta. Cic. AmcBnus, fine, pleasing, especially of scenery 
which has a cheerful, serene appearance ; later writers use it 
also of objects of taste : Ita me Venus amcena amet. Plaut. 
Ego laudo ruris amceni rivos, Hor. Seneca fuit ingeni- 
um amcenum. Tac. 

378. Dum, Donec, Quoad. Dum, during, whilst, points 
at something within the present time, and something near, or 
which was present at the time we speak of; Donec (obso- 
lete Donicum, i.e. dum -cum), so long until, until, desig- 
nates the idea expressed by while, more accurately ; Quoad, 
as long as, so long as, stands as a relative which refers to a 
demonstrative in the next sentence, though this demonstrative 
be but imagined: Homines, dum doceni, discunt.B&aec. 

379. DumtaxaL 381. Duplex. 181 

Donee eris felix, multos numerabis amicos, Ovid. Luna 
quum defecisset, clamor ululatusque in castris Maeedonum 
fuit, donee luna in suam lucem emersit, Liv. Epaminondas 
exercebatur luctando ad eum Jlnem^ quoad stans complecti 
posset adversarium, Nep. 

379. DuMTAXAT, Solum, Tantum, MoDo, Solum — ^Tan- 
TUMMODO, NoNNisi. Dumtttxat^ in the mean time only, 
limits to a definite duration : Coluntur amidtice simulations 
dumtaxat ad tempus. Cic. Solum, only, alone, excluding 
all the rest: Nos nuntiationem solum habemus, consules et 
reliqui magistraius etiam speciioiiem, Cic. Tantum, only, 
according to the degree of quantity, in contradistinction to the 
negation: Nomen tantum virtutis usurpas: quid ipsa v a' 
leat, ignoras. Cic. Mo d o, only, in the sense of moderating, 
restricting : Omnes, qui ea mediocriter mo do consideranU 
Cic, and strengthening the sense : TJnam solummodo Ze- 
nonis statuam vendidit Cato, Plin. Torquatu^ suppressa 
voce dixit, ianiummodo ut vos exaudire possetis, Cic. 
Nonnisi, only, makes an exception after a negation : Dru- 
sus, nullo tum alio hoste, non nisi apud Germanias adsequi 
nomen imperatorium et deportare lauream poterat, Tac. 

380. DuMus, Vepres, Sentes, Rubus. Dumus, a clus- 
ter of tough, wildly-entwined vines, which rather impede than 
wound: Animadverti columellam e dumis eminentem. Cic. 
Vepres, plural, vines with thorns : Ovibus hirsuti secuerunt 
corpora vepres. Virg. Sentes, plural, thorn-bushes, with 
sharp, pointed thorns, e. g. hawthorn : Hamatis prcBCordia 
sentibus implet. Ovid. Rubus, blackberry: Rubus et 
sentes tantummodo Icedere natce. Ovid. 

381. Duplex, Duplus, Geminus, Gemellus. Duplex^ 
twofold, twice, indicates the multiple, how many times a 
thing, single or by another, exists; Duplus, double, indi- 
cates, as proportional number, how often one magnitude is' to 
be taken, in order to express the measure of another, so that 
this may also stand for the other, e. g. duplex stipendium, 
Caes., but not vice versa : Duplices tendens ad sidera pah 
mas. Virg. Pecuniam sacram sublatam conquiri, d up lam- 
que in thesauros reponi jussit. Liv. Geminus, double, 
according to birth, twin ; hence also of two things essentially 
agreeing according to their destination: Fratres gemini, 
Amphion atque Zethus. Plant. Par est avaritia, similis im' 
probitas, eadem impudentia, gemina audacia. Cic, twin 
sister. Gemellus, belonging to one another like twins, 


182 382. Duritia. 385. Edere. 

poetical: Prolem gemellam pignora Lucina Mna favente 
dedi, Ovid. Poma coJuBrentia et gem ell a. Plin., which 
hang by one stem. 

382. Duritia — es, Duritas, Rigor, Severitas. Du- 
rifia, hardness, as essential external property; Durities^ 
as internal: Serpens defensus duritia pellis. Ovid. Pa- 
tientiam imitatur duritia immanis. Cic. Calculi in joci- 
nerihus duritie lapillis similes, Plin. Duritas,, as the 
quality ; the repulsive manner, unfriendliness, opp. comitas : 
Aliqui duritatem et severitatem quandam verbis sequun^ 
tur. Cic. Rigor^ the being stiff, impliability, rigor, which 
does not yield, e. g, ferri^ animi: Saxa ponere duritiem 
cospere^ suumque rigor em. Ovid. Severitas^ severity, 
gravity, which is strict and punctual: Id supplicium hujus 
imperii severitas postulahat, Cic. 


383. Ebrietas, Crapula, Ebriositas, Temulentia, Vi- 
NOLENTiA. Ebrietas^ intoxication, as quality of the intox- 
icated person, drunkenness : Ebrietas operta recludit, Hor. 
Crapula^ intoxication, as the state of the intoxicated man, 
in which he finds himself, as the word excitement is now 
sometimes delicately used ; the state of privation of senses, 
dizziness, brought on by drinking (the German Rausch ; the 
Germans therefore say, he has a Rausch) : Edormi crapU' 
lam. Cic. Ebriositas^ inclination to intoxication, intem- 
perance, mania of drinking; Temulentia^ that degree of 
drunkenness when the head is gone entirely (in Grerman, 
Taumel, the state in which the person vacillates from one side 
to another): Alexander amicos in temulentia interemit. 
Plin. Vinolentia, inclination to immoderate wine-drink- 
ing : Quid furiosam vinolentiam tuam prof er am ? Cic. 

384. EccE, En. En^ look! see! points at something 
present ; EccCy lo ! see here 1 points at something to be re- 
marked, deserving attention: En quatuoraras; ecce duos 
tibi, Daphni, duas, altaria, Ph(zbo. Virg. 

385. Edere, Comedere, Mandere, Manducare, Gtjs- 
TARE, VoRARE ; Pasci, Vesci, Pabulari ; Edax, Gulosus, 
VoRAX. Edere^ eating, i. e. in biting, taking in nutriment; 
Comedere, eating up, consuming: Hodie te istic musccB 

386. Educere. 388. Ejulare. 183 

comedissenL Cic. Mandere^ chewing, masticating, 
crushing the food: Dentihus manditur atque ah his ex- 
iemtatur et molitur dims, Cic. Jlf a weZw care, playing, act- 
ing the chewer {manducus)^ performing visibly the act of 
chewing, grotesquely : Pidlos columhinos m an due at o can» 
dido farciunt pane. Varr. Negant recte dici^ piscem vd 
aliud tenerum quid manduco^ sed potius edo. Ma ndu- 
catur autem^ quod denti reluciatur. Diomed. It is chewing 
hard. Gustare^ tasting, eating moderately, and so that we 
perceive accurately the taste of the food, eating with gastro* 
nomic attention : Nos in essedo panem et palmulas gustavi* 
mus. Suet. Vorare^ devouring, gulping down without 
previous mastication : Animalia alia carpunt^ alia vorant^ 
alia mandunt, Cic. Pasci^ feeding, with pleasure and 
for momentary want, of animals, e. g. Sues pascuntur 
glande; tropically of men: llli malejicio et scelere pascun- 
tur, Cic. , delighting in. Vesci^ to nourish one's self, taking as 
nourishment: Penus est omne^ quo vescuntur homines. Cic. 
Pahulari^ feeding on the pasture (German weiden), eating 
fodder, procuring fodder, foraging : Capra placide ac lente 
pahuletur, Colum. Pahulandi frumenlandique causa 
progredi, Cses. — Edax^ one who eats much, e. g. para- 
situs ; ignis^ cur a, Gulosus, who has too large a throat, 
who makes the gula (English gullet) his most important part, 
hence gourmand, French^ and dainty (gourmet); Vorax, 
greedy and devouring in quantity (German Fresser)^ e. g. 
CJiaryhdis, voracious. 

386. Educeke, Educare, Tolleke. Educere, rear- 
ing, has reference to care and preservation; Educare, 
bringing up, educating, education and formation of body and 
mind; To II ere, according to Roman custom, the taking up, 
as father, the infant from the ground, and thus undertaking 
its care and education : Parentis est, quern procrearit et 
eduxerit, eum vestire, Cic. E due at nuirix, instituit pcB' 
dagogus, Varr. Quod erit natiim, tollito. Plant. 

387. Egregius, Eximius. Egregius, choice, excel- 
lent, not equal with the common herd; Eximius, distin- 
guished by peculiar advantages, worthy of making an excep- 
tion : Gens hello egregia. Virg. Eximium ingenium svm» 
maque virtus, Cic. 

388. Ejulare, Ululare, Vagire, QuiRiTARE. Ejulare, 
lamentably howling, screaming from pain : Philoctetes Her» 
culem vidit in (Eta magnitudine dolorum ejulantem, Cic. 

184 389. Elegans, 392. Emere. 

Vlulare, exciting horror, by howling, &;c. : ViscBque canes 
ululare per umbram. Virg. Galli suo more victoriam cou' 
clamant atque ululatum iollunt. Csbs. Vagire^ is the 
crying of infants : Si repuerascam et in cunis vagi am, Cic. 
Quiritare, screaming miserably for assistance: Quiri' 
tare dicitur is, qui Quiritium fidem damans implorat. Varr. 
ProR ululatihus nulla vox quiritantium inter ccedes ex^ 
tmdiri poterat, Liv. 

389. Elegans, Ornatus. Elegans^ properly, one for 
whom nothing is good enough, who is exceedingly particular 
in choosing ; he who in dress, furniture, dishes, unites with 
the greatest simplicity fine choice, tasteful, see 245. Ele- 
gans dictus antiquity^, qui nimis lecto amomoqus cultu vie- 
tuque esset. Postea elegans reprehendi quidem desiit ; sed 
laude nulla dignabatur^ nisi cujus elegantia erat modera- 
tissima, Gell. In epularum apparatus a magnificentia rece- 
dens, non se parcum solum, sed etiam elegantem videri 
volet, Cic. OrnatuSy ornamented, embellished with rich 
embellishments, richly furnished : Domicilia regis, omnibus 
rebus or n at a atque referta. Cic. Oratio or n at a, et arti- 
jicio quodam et expolitione distincta. Id. 

390. Elidere, SuFFocAEE, Strangulare. Elidere{e — 
ladere), injuring deeply (from the bottom), entirely, e. g. 
oculos, caput saxo; elidere fauces, pressing the throat most 
violently, strangling ; Suffocare, suffocating by closing the 
organs of respiration : Acerbum est, in melle situm suffo- 
cari. Lucret. Strangulare, throttle, strangulate, by 
drawing together the throat: Agrippina nonlaqueo stran- 
gulata. Tac. 

391. Emancipare, Manumittere. Emancipare, re- 
signing the right of ownership over something formally, 
especially dismissing a son from the paternal power and 
authority: Vident omnes, adoptatum emancipari statim, 
ne sit ejus JiliuSj qui adoptavit, Cic. Manu mitt ere, 
manumitting a slave, making him free : Sunt servi illi de 
cognatorum senteniia manumissi. Cic. 

392. Emere, Coemere, Mercari, Nundinari. Emere, 
buying, obtaining by buying : domum ; aliquem donis, Liv. 
Coemere, buying several things together: Sulla omnia bona 
coemit. Cic. Mercari, trading, selling and buying, when 
this is connected with transactions, and on both sides the ob- 
ject is rather gain than lasting possession : Sordidi putandi, 
qui mercantur a mercatoribus, quod statim vendant, CiOt 

393. Enodare. 395. Equus. 185 

Nundinari, carrying on open trade, properly on markets : 
Una in domo omnes, quorum intereratj totum imperium populi 
Romani nundinal antur, Cic. 

393. Enodare, Enucleare. Enodare (un-knotting), 
disentangling something difficult, explaining, clearing up, (the 
German entwickeln is precisely the same); Enucleare 
(properly shelling out, or rather un-kernelling), bringing 
something from its obscurity to light, elucidating, presenting 
lucidly: Aristoteles veterum prcecepta artis enodata dili- 
genter exposuit. Cic. Nee quidquam in amplificatione nimis 
enucleandum est: minuta est enim omnis diligentia. Id. 

394. Epistola, Literjs (Litera, Elementum), Ltbelli, 
CoDiciLLi. Epistola {imaxoh])^ epistle, letter, inasmuch 
as it is sent from one to another: Hoc est epistola pro» 
prium^ ut is^ ad quern scribitur^ de iis rebus^ quas ignorat, 
certior fiat. Cic. Liter cb, a letter, as something written : 
Venio nunc ad tuas literas^ quas pluribus epistolis aC' 
cepi, dum sum in Arpinati. Cic. (Properly, letters, some- 
thing written, from Litera, the letter in the alphabet: Sus 
rostro si humi A liter am impresserit. Cic, differs from 
Elementum, the fundamental sound: Litera est nota 
elementi, et velut imago quadam vocis literatce. Ele- 
ment a proprie dicuntur ipsce pronuntiationes : notce autem 
earum Uteres. Abusive tamen et elementa pro Uteris et 
litera pro elementis vocantur. Priscian. Philippus rex 
Alexandro filio suo prima literarum elementa tradi db 
Aristotele voluit. Quinctil. ) Lib e Hi, unsealed short letters, 
notes; they were differently folded from the epistola. Co- 
die ill i, 218, a writing for persons in the neighbourhood, 
also a petition, imperial order: Qucesivi e Balbo per codi- 
cillos, quid esset in lege. Cic. Sej antes composuit ad Cce- 
sarem codicillos. moris quippe tum erat, quamquam pfce- 
seniem, scripto adire. Tac. 

395. Equus, Caballus, Mannus, Canterius, Veredus. 
Equus, horse, name for the species; Caballus, a horse 
for common use and labor : Olitoris aget mercede cab ah 
lum. Hor. Mannus,^ horse from Gaul, shorter, and, on 
account of quickness, used by the wealthy : Currit, agens 
mannos, ad villam pracipitanter. Luc ret. Canterius, or 
Cantherius {xav&i^Xiog), a horse as beast of burden, bag- 
gage horse : In viis habere malunt placidos (equos). itaque 
institutum, ut castrentur equi. ii canterii appellantur. Varr. 
Veredus,^ light messenger's-horse : Vel celerem m-annum 


186 396. Errare. 397. Et. 

vel ruptum terga veredum conscendas, propere dummodo 
jam venias. Auson. 

396. Errare, Vagari, Palari ; Erraticus, Vagus, Er- 
RO. Errare^ erring, from want of knowledge of the coun- 
try, place, &c. : Excuiimur cursu et cacis erramus in undis. 
Virg. Vagari, pursuing one's way in various directions, 
without object, in order not to remain in one settled place ; 
Quodam tempore homines fusi per agros ac dispersi vaga- 
hantur. Cic. Palari,, walking in all directions, of a herd 
which separates, and the individuals of which err singly 
about: Pal antes oves solce libere grassantur ; ne halant 
quidem, quum a pecu cetero ahsunt, Plaut. Hostes vagi per 
agros palantur, Liv. — Erraticus, erring about, accord- 
ing to its nature, erratic: Stella erratic a, Varr., a planet. 
Nigidius called them errones. Vitis serpens multiplici lapsu 
et erratico. Cic. Vagus, unsettled, unsteady: Vagus 
et exsul errabat undique exclusus. Cic. Erro, a vagrant, 
one who errs about in a country, without definite, legitimate 

397. Et, Que, Ac, Atque ; Etiam, Quoque, Idem. 
Notions, ideas, and sentences are connected by Et, and, 
sirpply and externally, as belonging together in a certain re- 
spect; Que, and, expresses the same by way of addition; 
Atque and its contraction A c, and, unites things as placed 
equal to one another according to internal connexion or agree- 
ment: Quid interest, motu animi suhlato, inter hominem et 
saxuml — In luncB cursu est et brumes qucBdam et solstitii 
similitudo, multaque ab ea manant et fiuunt, quibus animan- 
tes alantur augescantque. Cic, et — et, as well as, for 
two parts taken as equal. — Si forte queer eretur, quis esset 
imperator : Epaminondam atque Hannibalem, atque ejus 
generis homines nominarem. — Quis esset tantus Jructus in 
prosperis rebus, nisi haberes, qui illis ceque ac tu ipse gau- 
deret 7 Cic. — An addition of an idea yet to be added to the 
preceding one, or a sentence of this sort, is added with et, 
also, and thus also, and at the same time, too, without further 
modification; £ Ham, also, even, and still, and yet; Quo- 
que, just so, in the same Way, manner, also, something which 
stands with the preceding in the same relation ; Idem^ also, at 
the same time, if the same subject is repeated : Pueri certe in 
Formiano videntur hiematuri : num et ego, nescio, Cic. 
Victor ex Volscis in Mquos transiit, et ipsos bellum moli- 
entes, Liv. Qui omnibus Druidibus prcesit^ suffragio Drui" 

398. Etsi. l&t 

dum deligitur^ nonnunquam etiam de principatu armis con-» 
tendunt, Cses. Per se jus est expetendum eU colendum, quod 
si jus: etiam justitia, sic reliquce quo que virtutes per se 
colendce sunt, Cic. Quidquid honestum est^ idem est utile. 
Id. Balhus eo utebatur cibo^ qui et suavissimus esset, et 
idem facillimv^ ad concoquendum. Id. 

398. Etsi, Etiamsi, Tametsi, Licet, Ut, Ne, Quam- 
VIS, QuAMQUAM. In concessive sentences, which stand to 
the minor position in the relation of a condition to a conse- 
quence contrary or opposed to the expected one, the minor 
position contains a direct affirmation, a positive statement ; 
the antecedent, however, contains, a. the assertion that the 
fulfilment of the condition has no influence upon the opposite 
assertion of the minor position, — non-consideration of the 
condition ; — this is given by Etsi, even if, also if, although ; 
strengthened, Etiamsi, even though, allowing something 
very important ; Tame t si, also Tarn en etsi, notwithstand- 
ing, opposes the taking place of the antecedent to the minor 
position with additional weight: Etsi summa difficultas fa^ 
ciundi pontis proponebatur, iamen id sibi contendendum, aut 
aliter non transducendum exercitum, existimabat. Cses. IZa- 
bet res deliberationem ; etsi ex parte magna tibi assentior. 
Cic. Ista Veritas etiam si jucunda non est, mihi tamen 
grata est. Id. Ego bonos viros sequar, etiamsi ruent. Id. 
Tua vero nobilitas, Ser. Sulpici, t am etsi, summa est, taynen 
hominibus literatis est notior, populo vero obscurior. Id. 
Tamen etsi antea scripsi, quce eodstimavi scribi oportere: 
tamen hoc tempore breviter te commonendum putavi. Id. — 
b. or the declaration that the taking place of that condition is 
allowed to rest on its own merits, is given with Licet, may 
it be, be it so ; tha mode is designated by Ut, supposed ; 
negatively, by Ne, supposed that not; the degree of the 
notion by Quamvis, how much soever, though ever so 
much, although; and making the notion general by Quam* 
quam, how much so ever, although; TJtut, howsoever, in 
whatever mode or manner: Quoniam semel suscepi hanc 
causam, licet undique omnes in me terrores periculaque im- 
pendeant omnia, succurram atque subibo. Cic. Ut omnia 
contingant, qucB volo, levari non possum. Id. Ne sit sane 
summum malum dolor ; malum certe est. Id. Quamvis non 
fueris suasor et impulsor profectionis mecR, approbator certe 
Juisti. Id. Quam quam omnis virtus nos ad se allicit, ta- 
men justitia et liberalitas id maxime efficit. Id. Id quoque 

188 399. Exsententia. 402. Excedere. 

possum ferre, quamquam injurium est, Ter., limiting, re- 
stricting or correcting the minor position. 

399. Ex SENTENTIA, De sententia, In sententiam. Ex 
«en ten Ha, according to desire : Ut reliqtui ex sententia 
succedant. Cic. Quod ex animi tui sententia juraris^ 
sicut verbis concipitur more nostro^ id non facere perjurium 
est. Id., according to true conviction and feeling. De sen- 
tentia, according to your opinion, desire, counsel: Nihil 
facturus sum, nisi de sententia iua. Cic. In senten- 
tiam, entering into some one's opinion, agreeing with it: 
Plura in earn sententiam ah eisdem contra verecundiam 
disputantur. Cic. Factum est senatu^ consultum in me am 
sententiam. Id., as I had voted. 

400. ExAMiNARE, Ponderare, Librare, Exigere. Ex- 
aminare, making something in the balance equal to a cer- 
tain weight, weighing accurately according to it: Britanni 
utuntur annulis ferreis ad certum pondus examinatis pro 
nummo, Cses. Maleverum examinat corruptu^s judex, Hor. 
Ponderare, inquire intb, whether something have the proper 
weight: Semper amatorum ponderat ilia sinu^s. Propert. 
Non est ex fortuna fides ponder an da, Cic. Lihrare, 
making level, keeping in equilibrium : Terra lihrata pon- 
derihus, Cic. Telum missile lihro, Virg., swinging, Ex- 
igere, examining according to the plumb-line, measure, or 
weight: ad perpendiculum columnas, Cic. Margaritarum 
pondus sua manu ex e git. Suet. 

401. Exanimus — IS, Inanimus. Exanimus and Ex- 
animis, deprived of life, that from which the soul has fled 
or been taken, exanimate (in German, entseelt ; literally, un- 
souled, dis-souled) : Exanimumque auro corpus {Hectoris) 
vendebat Achilles. Virg. Inanimus, inanimate (lifeless), 
that which has never lived, e. g. aurunt, lapis: Inter inan- 
imum et animal hoc interest, quod animal agit aliquid, Cic. 

402. Excedere, Effugere, Evadere, Erumpere. Ex- 
cedere, marching out, off, quietly departing from some 
place : Exercitum ab Janiculo deduxit Porsena et agro Ro- 
mano excessit, Liv. Effugere, to fly from, out of a 
place, escaping, hastening away from pending danger : Rex 
e manibus effugit, Cic. Effugere celeritate periculum. 
Caes. Invidiam vulgi, Nep. Evadere, escaping from 
watches and danger, escaping with celerity and cunning, 
and obtaining the end : e manilms hostium. Liv. Jamque 
pedem refer ens casxis evaserat omnes, Virg. Er u mp e r e» 

403. Excudere, 405. Exemplum, 189 

breaking forth with violence, as is the case in a sally from a 
besieged town: Occasione rursus e rump am data, Phsedr., 
of the stag in the stable. Catilina. abiit, excessit, evasit^ 
erupiL Cic. Abiit, is removing from out our sphere of 
vision (what in vulgar English would be indicated by clearing 
out) ; excessit, removing beyond the limit ; evasit^ escaping 
from danger ; erupit^ violently breaking forth, and breaking 
his path to the certain aim. 

403. Excudere, Excutere, Extundere, Excudere, 
beating out by repeated blows : silici scintillam. Virg., beat- 
ing forth; Itbrum. Cic, welding, i. e. writing. Excutere^ 
with one blow, and crushing: Tibi hoc cyatho oculum excu^ 
tiam. Plaut. Extundere^ pushing out: Qiium labor eX' 
tuderit fastidia. Hor., driving away. Ut varia^ usus me- 
ditando extunderet artes, Virg., bringing forth, i. e. 

404. Excusare, Purgare. Excusare, excusing, i. e. 
removing guilt by bringing forth reasons, or diminishing 
guilt: Atticce velim me ita excuses, ut omnem culpam in te 
transfer as, Cic. Purgare, clearing one's self of guilt, ex- 
culpating, proving one's innocence, justifying one's self: 
Brutus per liter as pur gat Ccesarem de interitu Marcelli, 

405. Exemplum, Exemplar, Documentum, Argumen- 
TUM. Exemplum, properly, something selected from vari- 
ous objects, for the representation of qualities common to all ; 
a thing fashioned after something else, destined for imitation, 
a pattern, model, example, an example for illustration, for 
proof of something similar: Ccesaris literarum exemplum 
tibi misi, Cic. Ille vir, exemplum innocentice. Id. Ex- 
emplo demonstratur id, quod dicimits, cujusmodi sit. Ad 
Herenn. Exemplar, that which may serve as example, 
may take the place of the original, according to its kind : 
Idem liber, in exemplaria transscriptu^, Plin. Copies. 
M. CatOy quo omnes quasi exemplari ad industriam vir- 
tutemque ducimur, Cic. Exemplum, is the model, of itself, 
inasmuch as it faithfully represents the original ; exemplar, 
with reference to him who is to make use of it. DocumeU" 
tum, an example for instruction, warning, proof, evidencing 
a position : Perseus documentum hwnanorum casuum fuit, 
Liv. Document a damus, qua simus origins nati, Ovid. 
Argumentum, the mark of distinction, proof from facts, 
from which we may learn the truth, and by which we may 

190 406. Exhihere. 407. Exilis. 

convince others: Argumenta atque indicia sceleris, Cic, 

406. ExHiBERE, Offeree, Porrigeee ; Ostendere, Os- 


hihere^ handing out, giving up, after resistance: Exhihe- 
mus servum^ quern hahemus, Equitem Romanum, procla- 
mantem: heres mens es! exhihere testamenti tabulas coegit. 
Sueton. Offer re, offering, bringing toward one, giving to 
one in bringing it, and offering for acceptance, e. g. se pro 
patria ad mortem, Cic. Modestis etiam offer re, quod non 
petierunL Phaedr. Solus tu inventus es, qui cum accusatori' 
bus sederes, atque os tuum non modo ostenderes, sed etiam 
offer res, Cic. Porrigere, stretching out before one, 
proffer, laying before : Manum porrigere in mensam, Cic., 
in order to take away something. Dexteram hospes hospiti 
porrexisti. Id. A diis bona porrigentibus et danti- 
bus nolle sumere. Id. — Exhibere^ showing, proving by 
fact: Exhibuit junctam cum viribus artem. Ovid., the art 
of throwing the disk. Prcemium es pollicitus : exhibe vocis 
fidem, Phaedr. Ostendere, showing, exhibiting a thing in 
its true form or light, without concealing any essential part : 
Eis mores ostendi tuos, et collaudavi secundum facta el 
virtuies tuas, Ter. Ostentare, showing something in a 
manner that it may be seen very clearly, exposing a thing to 
perfect sight, shovnng off, showing it ostentatiously, bragging 
with it: Altera manu fert lapidem, panem o stent at edtera. 
Plant. Ut potiu^ amorem tibi ostenderem meum, quam 
ostentarem prudentiam, Cic. Mons^rare, showing, with 
instruction, directing, e. g. viam : Tu istic, si quid librarii 
mea manu non intelligent , monstrabis, Cic. Demon- 
strare, pointing at a subject with instruction, so that it can- 
not be mistaken for another ; proving, demonstrating : Hi qui 
hospites ad ea, qucB visenda sunt, ducere solent, et unumquid' 
que ostendere, ut ante demonstrabant, quid uMque 
esset : ita nunc, quid undique ablatum sit, ostendunt. Cic. 
Portendere, showing from a distance, indicating some- 
thing coming, pending, future, portending, indicating, fore- 
tokening : Victoria sese portendit fatis, ominibus, oraculis, 
Liv. Dii mihi auguriis auspiciisque omnia lata ac prospera 
portendunt. Id. 

407. Exilis, Tenuis, Gracilis, Macer, Vescus. Exh 
lis, small, weak, in proportion to the proper degree of the 
extensive or intensive magnitude of things of the same kind 

408. Expedire, 411. Explanare. 191 

(at times, puny), e. g. jecur exile^ opp. plenum; exiles 
arttis, emaciated : Cura oratorihus convenit, ne ad mulierum 
ei (Bgrorum exilitatem vox tenuetur. Quinctil. Tenuis^ 
thin, the parts of which are stretched out, opp. thick and 
dense, e. g. Jilum, aer : Oculi memhranis tenuissimis 
vestiti, Cic. Gracilis^ long and thin, lank, slender, and 
by its slenderness pleasing, gracile : Virgines^ quas matres 
student demissis humeris esse,vincto pectore^ ut graciles 
sint, Ter. Pini silvestres graciles, Macer {meagre)^ 
lean, opp. pinguis (which see): Ma era cavum repetes arc- 
turn, quern ma or a suMsti, Hor. Vescus, consuming, and 
consumed, i. e. dried out: Saxa vesco sale peresa, Lucret. 
VesccB salicum frondes, Virg. 

408. Expedire, ExTRicARE. JSar/jedt re, properly, get- 
ting the foot out of a fetter or trap ; disentangling, making 
loose, free : Ex laqueis se expedire. Cic. Expedire 
nomina, paying debts: se cura, Cic. Extricare, freeing 
from entangling disorder, extricating: Pugnat extricata 
densis cerva plagis, Hor. De Dionysio adhuc nihil extru 
CO, Cic, I cannot yet give any information. 


PERRECTUS. Expergefacere, wakening a sleeping one, 
stirring him: Italiam tumultus expergefecit terror e suM" 
to. Ad Herenn, Suscitare, causing that something or one 
rise, inciting to activity: Cinerem dimovit ei ignes susci» 
tat hesternos, Ovid. Themistocles Miliiadis tropc^is e som^ 
no suscitahatur, Cic. Suscitare testem, helium civile. 
Id. — Expergef actus, awakened from without; Expet' 
rectus, he who awakens of himself: Quum, somno repetito^ 
simul cum sole experrectus essem, Cic. 

410. ExPERiRi, Tentare, Periclitari. Experiri, ob- 
taining experience by a trial, experiment, trying, e. g. vim 
veneni in aliquo ; alicujus fidem virtutemque ; Una spes erat 
salutis, si eruptione facta extremum auxilium experiren* 
tur, Cses. Tentare, properly, endeavouring to learn the 
qualities of something by touching, which precedes the earpe- 
riri: Vadum fluminis tentahant, si iransire possent. Cses. 
Periclitari, making an attempt, trial, which is connected 
with danger, daring, risking : Homines in prceliis belli for» 
tunam periclitantur, Cic. 


Explanare, explaining, making clear and plain, if obscure 
and entangled notions are the cause of ambiguity or obscurity 

192 412. Explorare, 413. Expugnare, 

of sense; Explicare^ unfolding, developing, if want of 
proper exactness and copiousness and indistinctness are the 
cause; Interpretari^ interpreting, showing the meaning 
of some signs, translating, if things or words convey no 
meanipg to the studious; Exponere^ exposing, i. e. making 
an exposition with words, clearly and in proper order, pre- 
senting lucidly and in its parts: Rem non intelligo ; expla- 
nahis igitur. — Definire rem non presse et anguste^ sed 
explanatius et ad popular em intelligentiam accommoda" 
tius, — Crassus hac^ qua coarctavit in oratione sua, dilatet 
atque explicet, — Somnium magi Cyro inierpretati 
sunt. — Rem latentem explicare definitione, ohscuram e x» 
planar e interpretando, — Ah initio, res quemadmodum 
gesta sit, vobis expone mu s, Cic. 

412. Explorare, Ex — Requirere; Explorator, Spe- 
culator, Emissarius, ExcuRSOR. JEa?j9Zo rare, exploring, 
inquiring into, obtaining knowledge by persons sent for this 
purpose; of sharply seeing with strained attention: Ex qui' 
rere, seeking out, asking, questioning something out, looking 
and inquiring for something lost or missing, hunting for it : 
Explorare iter, locum castris idoneum ; hence Explo- 
ratus, that which, by inquiry, has been placed beyond 
doubt : Bene provisa et diligenter explorata principia po' 
nere. Cic. I intro, ex quire, sit ne ita, ut ego prcedico, 
Plaut., go in and see whether it is not just as I say. A te 
nihil dum certi exquiro, sed quid videatur. Cic. ConsUio 
cdnvocato, sentential exquirere ccBpit. Cses. Te re qui' 
sivi scepiv^, ut viderem, — Vectigalihus amissis, subsidia 
belli requiretis, Cic. — Explorator, a spy, one who 
on the spot endeavours to observe closely every thing which 
interests his party, and who, therefore, gives information to 
be depended upon : CcBsar per exploratores certior f ac- 
tus est. Cobs. Speculator, observer, spy, who from a dis- 
tance observes the enemy, scout: Ex speculatoribus 
cognitum, Jugurtham haud procul abesse. Sail. Emissa* 
r iw5, an emissary, one sent to espy or to get any information ; 
Excursor, one who takes another way, who runs far out in 
order to espy: Petit hereditatem Ncevius quidam^istius ex- 
cursor et emissarius, Cic. 

413. Expugnare, Debellare, Vincere, Superare. Ex- 
pugnare, conquering by storm : castellum, urbem munitam; 
alicujus pertinaciam; Debellare, beating down by war, 
making, by war, the enemy incapable of resistance, and thus 

414. Exsistere, 415. Exspectare, 193 

bringing the war to an end, warring down the enemy, if we 
could say so : Pugnare et ipsi mihi placet : neque priuSy 
quam dehellavero^ ahsistam, Li v. Aulius cum Ferentanis 
uno secundo prcelio debellavit. Id. Vine ere, overcom- 
ing, being victorious over, conquering, mastering obstacles 
and resistance: Jus esse belli, ut, qui vicissent^iis, quos 
vicissent, quemadmodumvellent,imperarent. Cses, Labor 
omnia vincit, Virg. Super are, getting beyond a thing, 
being an overmatch, excelling : Metellus Scaurum constantia 
et gravitate super avit, — In officio etiam si multi mecum 
contendent, tamsn omnes facile superabo, Cic. Vincere^ 
points at weakening resistance, and abasement of the oppo- 
nent; Super are, only represents the victor as the superior, 
the one overcome. 

414. Exsistere, Exstare, Emergere, Eminere, Promi- 
NERE ; Esse. Exsistere, properly, placing itself forth; 
stepping forth, becoming visible ; Exstare, standing out, i. e. 
being visible: Si exsistat ab inferis Lycurgu^, gaudeat 
ruinis murorum. Liv. Ineunte vere in vitibus ex sis tit 
gemma, Cic. Ex virtutibus vitabeata exsistit. Id., orig- 
inates, is the consequence of. Milites capite solo ex aqua 
exstabant. Cses. Exstat memoria, senatus consultum, 
Cic, there is extant, yet existing; Emergere, emerging, 
coming forth : Aves quadam se in mari mergunt atque emer» 
gunt, Cic. Emergere se ex malis, Ter. Scepe multorum 
improbitate depressa Veritas emergit, Cic. Eminere, 
reaching above and out of something ; used of the position 
of striving up, rising aloft, topping : Columella non multum e 
dumis eminens. — Globus terra eminens e mari, Cic. 
Prominere, projecting: Hostium cuneus, a cetera pro mi' 
nens acie, Liv. Elephanto denies prominent, Plin. — 
Exsistere, originating, showing itself, with the notion of 
activity; Esse, to be, merely indicates existence as a state: 
Nisi tlias ilia exsiitissety idem tumulus, qui corpus A chil- 
lis contexerat, nomen etiam obruisset, — In gloria bellica 
multi apud majores nostros exstiterunt, — Homo nequis- 
simus omnium, qui sunt, qui fuerunt, qui futuri sunt, 

415. Exspectare, PRiESTOLARi, Opperiri. Ex spec- 
tare, awaiting something that is to come : Sto exspectans, 
si quid mt imperent, Ter. Pr(BSt6lari,hQ\ng present to 
receive some one: Quern prcestolare, Parmeno, hie ante 
ostium 7 Ter. Opperiri, waiting until the expected effect, 


194 416. Exsul 418. Extra. 

waiting so long as something occurs (German ahwarten) : 
Parati atque intenti hostium adventum opperiebantur, 

416. Exsul, Extorris, Relegatus, Deportatus. Ex- 
8ul, the exile, he who is not alloived in the patria, as punish- 
ment and dishonor, with the loss of all places of honor and 
authority, yet without loss of Roman citizenship ; also, he 
who voluntarily expatriates himself to escape punishment : 
Hannibal Carthagine expulsus Ephesum ad Antiochum venit 
exsul. Cic. Extorris, homeless, he who misses his home- 
country, he who cannot remain in his father-land : Jugurtha 
me extorrem patria, domo, inopem et coopertum miseriis 
ejfecit, ut ubivis tutius, quant in regno meo essem. Sail. Re- 
legatus, 65, one who has been degradingly expelled from 
his city ; a milder punishment than the exile ; Octavianus M, 
Lepidum supplicem concessa vita Circeios in perpettmm rele- 
gavit. Suet. Edictum in pcence nomine lene fuit, Quippe 
relegatus, non exsul dicor in illo, Ovid. Deporta- 
tus, a criminal who was for ever banished to wild islands, 
losing with this his citizenship and property, which was not 
the effect of the relegatio. Both these punishments were 
introduced by Augustus : Vibius Serenus, de vi publica dam- 
natus, in insulam Amor gum deportatur, Tac. 

417. ExsTiNGUERE, OppRiMERE. Exstiuguere, extin- 
guishing, 330, designates a more cautious effacing, annulling ; 
Opprimere, pressing down, damping, a quicker, more for- 
cible overcoming and suppression : Danda opera est, si ami- 
corum dissidia fiant, ut exstinctcB potius amidticR, quam 
oppresses esse videantur. Cic. 

418. Extra, Extrinsecus ; Prater, Prjeterquam. Ex- 
tra, without, outside, of position or situation: Extra et in- 
tus hostem habere. Csbs. Non potui intelligere extra ostium, 
intus qucB inter sese ipsi egerint. Ter. Extra culpamj 
periculum, jocum. Cic. Extrinsecus {extrim, XX, 7.), 
from without, designating direction: Metus extrinsecus 
imminentis belli. Liv., from without. Columna extrinse- 
cus inaurata. Cic, on the surface. Extra, except, not 
included in the quantity or multitude: Neque noius neque 
cognatus extra unam aniculam quisquam aderat, Ter. Pra- 
ter, except, of things passed over : Frumentum omne, prater 
quod secum portaturi erant, comburunt. Cses. Omnino ego 
neminem video, prater istum. Cic. Prceterquam ex- 
cept, only as adverb: Ex hac sede Vestales nihil unquam, 
praterquam urbs capta, movit. Liv. 

419. Extremus. 420. Fdbrica. 195 

419. Extremus, Extimus, Ultimus, Postremus, Postu- 
Mus. The last \& Extremus^ the outermost of several outer 
(exterus) parts of a contiguous series, surface, meeting, in con- 
tradistinction of the parts within; Extimus^ the outermost, 
that which is on the outermost point, contradistinguished from 
the centre : Epistola^ in qua exirema scriptum erat, Cic^ 
Extremo anno pacts aliquid fait, Liv. Novem orldum vel 
potius glohorum unus est ccelestis^ extimus^ qui reliqu^s om- 
nes complectitur. Cic. Ultimus, the most distant, on the 
other side, in contradistinction to the nearest this side, ctti' 
mus ; the most remote on the other extreme end, beyond 
which nothing of the same kind exists : Luna ultima a ccdo^ 
citima terris^ luce lucet aliena, Cic. Hostis ah Oceano ter» 
rarumque ultimis oris helium ciehat, Liv. Ccesar, reducto 
exercitu, partem ultimam pontis^ quce ripas TIbiorum coU'- 
tingehat^ rescindit, atque in extremo ponte turrim constV" 
tuit, Caes., extremo, on the end this side. Postremus^ the 
hindmost of the other jpos/eri, or preceding ones (with regard 
to him) : Ut quisque in fuga postremus^ ita pericula priti' 
ceps erat; postremam enimquamque navem piratce primam 
adoriehantur. Cic. Posiumus^ the last in relation t6 the 
first, generally he who is the last born of the children, also 
born after the father's death, that which is born or produced 
late: Postuma spes, Appul. Posthuma proles non eum 
signijicat, qui patre mortuo, sed qui postremo loco natus 
est. Gell. 

420. Fabrica, Officina, Taberna ; Fabricator, Machi- 
NATOR. Fahricay the workshop of an artificer in hard 
metal (faher): Est in fahrica: ihi lectulos ilignis pedi- 
has faciundos dedit, Ter. Officina^ the workshop in 
which something is made and produced by way of mechan- 
ical trade, or some mechanical product, e. g. armjomm ; fal' 
sorum commentariorum et chirographorum, Cic. Tahernay 
a stall, a booth, in which ware of all sorts is offered for sale, 
and also such things are made as do not require a more sub- 
stantial building : Ta hern a sutrina, lihraria. — Fahrica* 
tor, the skilful artificer, maker, who with instruments, espe- 
cially with sharp ones, and with the hammer, produces fine 

196 421. Fabula. 422. Facere. 

work : Myrmecides, minutorum opusculorum fa bricator, 
Cic. Doli fabricator Epeus. Virg. Machinator, who 
invents or makes machines, that is, skilfully composed instru- 
ments or assemblages of such, in order to produce or facili- 
tate motion: Archimedes^ inventor ac machinator bellicO' 
rum tormentorum. Liv. Scelerum machinator. Cic, the 
leader, ringleader. 

421. Fabula, Apologus, Narratio. Fabula^ an in- 
vented tale, a nursery tale, a piece for theatrical perform- 
ance ; Fabula neque veras neque verisimiles continet resy 
ut hcB, qucR tragcediis traditcB sunt. Ad Herenn. Apologus^ 
an apologue, a fable with a moral and instructive object ; 
Narratioj narration, account, representation of an event J 
Exprimere et ponere ante oculos ea, qua videantur esse veri* 
similia^ est proprium narrationis. Ad ridiculi genus 
adscribamus narrationes apologorum. Cic. 

422. Facere, Agere, Gerere ; Reddere ; Operari ; 
Actio, Gestio, Actus, Gestus. a, Facere, making, des- 
ignates the result of activity; Agere, carrying on, acting, 
designates the activity itself; Gerere, properly, carrying 
something openly, that it may be seen, 440; a branch of 
business, profession, office with its duties, with reference to 
the deportment of thep invested person, or his execution of his 
calling: Facere pontem, classem, bellum, cadem, foBdus, in-- 
sidias, pactionem, bringing about, that which did not exist 
before ; facere argentariam, medicinam, pecuariam, sc, ar- 
tem, performing the respective arts or trades, acting (as) the 
broker, physician. Agere jumenta, navem, driving; nego- 
lium, diem festum, vitam, doing the business, celebrating the 
day, acting it out (German begehen). Fabulam facit poeta, 
agit actor. Quinctil., making and acting, i. e. acting out. 
Reum facere, making one the reus, bringing him before 
the court; agere, speaking against him as accuser. Ge- 
rere in capite galeam ; gerere et administrare magistra» 
tum, rem publicam, negotium, res bellicas ; se gerere pro 
cive, behave as citizen. There is always in gerere, in 
these cases, the idea of leading, as we have it in leading a 
life of a certain kind. Fad ere bellum alicui, beginning war 
with some one; agere bellum, carrying it on, causing that 
it be carried on, directing it^ gerere bellum, leading, it, 
performing hostilities. Facta, the things done; Acta, 
actions, according to a certain procedure or rule, political 
actions of an individual, and public transactions; Gesia, res 

423. Facerefidem. 197 

gestcB^ official performances, especially warlike performances, 
deeds, in connexion with one another: In judidis facta 
arguebantur^ dicta impune eranL Tac. Res urhanas actc^ 
que omnia ad te perferri arbitror, Cic. Habeham acta wr» 
bana usque ad Nonas Martias. Id. Thucydides res g est as 
et bella narrat. Id. b. Facer e, making, effecting a differ- 
ent state of a thing; Redder e^ making, transforming into a 
different state, changing the previous one : Ducem faciebat 
vulnus inutilem. Liv. Ut ex alienissimis sociis amicissimos^ 
ex injidelissimis firmissimos redderem, Cic. c. Facer e 
{sacra), sacrificing, bringing about a sacrifice; Operari 
sacriSy being occupied with sacrificing, performing a sacrifice : 
Nostri sacra pro civibus civem facer e voluerunt. Cic. 
Aliqua assiducB textis o per at a Minervce cantat. Tibull. — 
Actio, every civil, political action, transaction, e. g. de pace, 
suid the action in court: PrcRtor dat actionem^he allows 
it, grants the action; intendere actionem perduellionis, 
bringing it, attacking some one legally, by way of legal 
action; Gestio, the direction, and carrying along and out, 
e. g. negotii, — Actus, action, that is, activity, as state of 
the performer, agent : Ad ultimum vitcB fnem in actu eri- 
mus. Senec. Gestus, position, bearing of the body, the 
way of leading it, as it were, gesture : Vitium in gestu mo- 
tuque caveatur, Cic. 

423. Facere, Dare, Habere fidem; Agere, Habere, 
Facere concilium. Facere fidem, making belief, that is, 
creating belief, making credible : Argumentum est ratio, rei 
dubicefaciens fidem, Cic. Dare fidem, giving one's 
word, promise (pledging one's faith) : Fidem hosti dat am 
fallere, Cic. Habere fidem, being credible, creditable; 
alicui, having belief in what one says: Debebit habere 
fidem nostra prcedictio, Cic. Major em tibi fidem ha- 
bui, quam pene ipsi mihi. Id. — Agere concilium, con- 
ventum, holding a council, convention, &c., if we speak of 
their direction and transactions taking place there : Habere, 
cause them to be held, and presiding over them : Hostes 
concilia seer eta agunt. Liv. In oppidis SicilicB prcetores 
conventum agere solent. Cic. Consul ScodrcB, evocatis 
ex iota provincia principibus, conventum habuit, Liv. 
Facere, joining in a convention, meeting in, making, pro- 
ducing it, as it were : Ecetra Antiates cohni palam con* 
cilia faciunt. Liv., assembling, convening. 

198 424. Fades. 425. Facultas, 

424. Facies, Species, Forma; Vultus, Feons, Os. 
Fades, the whole front, front side or facing side of a thing, 
according to its formation, its form : Agesilaits et staturafuit 
humiliy el corpore exiguo, et claudus altera pede, Itaque ig' 
noti faciem ejus quum intuerentur^ contemnehant, Nep. 
Species^ appearance of a thing, as its exterior appears to 
the beholder, the looking of a thing: Natura speciem Ua 
formavit oris, ut in ea penitus reconditos mores effingereU 
Cic. PrcBclara classis in speciem, sed inops et infirma 
propter dimissionem propugnatorum. Id. Forma, the out- 
lines, by which a thing receives its definite shape, by which 
it may be distinguished from others: Mulier sibi pr ester 
for mam nihil ad similitudinem hominis reservavit. Cic. — 
Facies, face, as the whole prominent surface on the front 
side of the human head, according to its natural formation : 
Facies homini tantum; ceteris os, aut rostra. Piin. JPa- 
cies pulchra, honesta, decora. This is called FwZttts, inas- 
much as in its middle part, in its traits, and the rolling (volo, 
volvere) of the eyes, peculiar expressions and emotions are 
visible ; Frons, forehead, inasmuch as in it, the highest and 
most prominent part of the face, the same or similar things 
are expressed ; and Os, mouth, inasmuch as the play of its 
muscles express these inner movements peculiarly : Quemad* 
modum animo affecti sumus, vultus indicat. Cic. JDomina' 
tur maxime vultus. Hoc suppliees, lioc minaces, hoc hlandiy 
hoc tristes, hoc erecti, hoc summissi sumus. Sed in ipso 
vultu plurimum valent oculi, per quos maxima animus emi* 
net. Quinctil. Frons tranquilla et serena. Cic. Frons 
homini tristitice, hilaritatis, dementia, severitatis index. 
Plin. In speculo os contemplare suum. Plant., the face, ac- 
cording to its traits, mien, and accidental form. Licet or a 
ipsa cernere iratorum, aut eorum, qui aui metu commoti sunt 
aut voluptate nimia gestiunt: quorum omnium vultus mu- 
tantur. Cic. Pudibundaque frondihus ora protegit. Ovid. 
Nam qy^ rediho ore ad cam, quam contemseriml Ter., as 
the seat, expression of shame and shamelessness. 

425. Facultas, Facilitas. Facultas, expresses the 
possibility or capability of doing a thing on the part of the 
acting subject, hence the faculty, opportunity, possibility, with 
regard to action; Facilitas, the same on the part of the 
thing to be done, feasibility, of things that may easily be 
done, facility, and, applied to men, readiness, kindness, one 
who easily yields, who is facile : Hortensio summam cojnam 

426. F<zx, 428. Fama. 199 

facultatemquedicendi natura largita est, Cic. Reliquis 
fug<z fa cult as datur, Csbs. Germani agros inter se par» 
tiuntur : fa cilitatem partiendi camporum spatia pr<zstant, 
Tac. Meam fa cilitatem laudatote, quum vohis non gra» 
vote respondero, Cic. 

426. FiEX, Sentina. Fax^ drees, sediment of a liquid 
which has fermented : Cadi cum fee c e siccati. Hor. In* 
fima fcBx popvdi, Cic. Sentina^ the dirt on the very bot- 
tom in a vessel, bilge water: Sentinam exhaurire, Cic. 
Exhaurietur ex urbe pemiciosa sentina rei publicce. Id., 
the* dregs, the very offal of the state; properly, the sink, with 
what is in it. 

427. Falsus, Fallax, Pellax ; Falso, Perperam. FaU 
Stts, false, deceiving one's self, i. e. being wrong, and that 
which is not what it appears to be : Falsus es, Ter., you 
are ivrong^ you are mistaken. Poena est falsarum et cor- 
ruptarufn literarum, Cic. Fallax^ deceitful: Astrologi 
vani aique fall aces. Cic. Quod si est erratum spe falsa 
atque fa llaci, redeamus in viam. Id. Pellax { pellicere)^ 
seductive, delusive, the intriguer, who cunningly conceals his 
falseness, in order to lead others toward his own end : Pel- 
lax Ulysses, — Falso, falsely, wrongly, not according to the 
true state of things ; Perperam, incorrectly, not according to 
the cause and ground of things : Falson'* an vero laudent^ 
non fiocci faciunt, Plaut. Calceum perperam, ac sinis» 
trum pro dextro, inducere. Suet. TJtrum rede, an perpe- 
ram, judicatum est 7 Cic, wrongly. 

428. Fama, Rumor, Sermo; Famosus, Inpamis. Fa- 
ma, the saying, reputation, every thing which, as being re- 
markable, is told of a person either publicly or among the 
people, good or evil reputation, name : Ad Lahienum de vie» 
toria Ccesaris fama perfertur, Caes. Fama fuit, Themis^ 
toclem venenum sua sponte sumsisse. Nep. Fama inser- 
vire, Tac. Rumor, rumor, the talk of the people among 
themselves of contemporary events, uncertain whether it have 
any true foundation : Ex Asia nihil perfertur ad nos prater 
rumor es de oppresso Dolahella, satis illos quidem constan* 
t^s, sed adhuc sine auctore, Cic. Calamitas tanta fuit, ut 
earn ad aures Luculli non ex prodio nuntius, sed ex sermone 
rumor afferret. Id. Sermo, the talk of individuals of 
something, especially evil talk, gossip : In sermonem homi' 
num venire; Hominum malevolis de aliquo sermonihus 
credere, Cic, — Famosus^ he who stands in fama, that is. 

200 429. FaH. 

reputation, bad or good, of whom they talk a great deal. 
Fa mosa mors, Hor. Me ad fa mosas vetuit mater acce- 
dere, Cic. Infamis^ he who stands in evil repute, badly 
renowned, famous in a bad respect: Homines vitiis atque 
omni dedecore infames. Cic. Infamem annum pestilen' 
tia fecit, Liv. 

^9. Fari, Loqui, DicERE, Perhibere ; Die, Da, Cedo ; 
Effari, Edicere. Farit speaking, uttering articulated 
sounds, words; in the "golden age," it was used of the 
solemn, oracle-like utterance : Nescios fari pueros, Hor. 
Turn ad eos is deus^ qui omnia genuit, fatur : Hcbc vos^ijui 
'deorum satu orti estis, attendite, Cic. Loqui, speaking, 
i. e. expressing one's thoughts by language (German reden)^ 
of the common utterance of man, in contradistinction to the 
mute animal, e. g. pure et Latine : Magni interest^ quihus' 
cum quisque loquatur a puero^ quemadmodum patres^ pa- 
dagogi^ matres etiam loquantur. Cic. Dicer e^ properly, 
shoudng^ saying, indicates the form of representation of one's 
thoughts by language ; hence it is used of the orator, if the 
object is which sense the words ought to have: Dicam^ 
quod sentio, Cic. Qucb quum dixissem^ magis ut ilium 
provocarem^ quam ut ipse loquerer : tum Triarius, Quid 
Epicure^ inquity reliquisti^ nisi te, quoquo modo loquere' 
tur, intelligere, quid diceret? Id. Perhibere^ 376, 
saying, naming, calling, in the sense of believing, holding to 
be : Prohibiti estis in provincia vestra pedem ponere^ et pro- 
hihiti^ ut perhihetis, summa cum injuria, Cic. Bene qui 
conjiciet^ vatem hunc perhibeho optimum. Id. — JDic, say, 
demands implicit answer or declaration ; Z)a, tell me, men- 
tion, where, what ; Cedo, out tvith it, tell me, demands coiii- 
munication : Sed da mihi nunc, satisne prohas 7 Cic. (The 
German angehen, gieh an, is precisely the same.) Cedo 
tahulas ! Id. Si Galbam laudas ut oratorem, cedo, quceso, 
orationes, et die, hunc velle de ilia modo dicer e. Id. — Flf 
fari, speaking out, expressing with words, antiquated ; also, 
consecrating a sacred spot with certain formulas of consecra- 
tion: Celanda effari, Liv. Epicurus verum essexoncedat, 
quod ita effahimur: aut vivet eras Hermachus, aut non 
vivet, Cic. Effari templa dicuntur ah augurihus, Varr. 
Edicere, speaking out, stating that which was unknown, 
making known something as an order or direction for observ» 
ing it: Jv^sus est a consule, de conjuratione qucB sciret, edi- 
cere. Sail. Consul exercitui in Etruriam ad conveniendum 
diem edixerat, Liv. (Hence edictum, which see.) 

430. Fascia, 431. Fasti. 201 

430. Fascia, Vitta, Tjenia, Lemniscus. Fascia^ a 
larger band, for winding round something : Ociavius devinC' 
tus erat fasciis propter dolorem artuum. Cic. Fascia 
pectoralis. Martial., otherwise strophium. Fasciis opus 
est^ pulvinis, cunis, incunahulis, Plaut., swaddling-clothes. 
Vitta^di band to tie the hair, used by priests and women: 
Vitta coercuerat neglectos alba capillos {virginis), Ovid., 
also for animals destined for sacrifice, altars, and the hands 
of those that implored for protection : Effer aquam et molli 
cinge hcBc altaria vitta. Virg. Tihi me Fortuna precari et 
vitta comtos voluit prcetendere ramos. Id. TcBnia (taivla)^ 
a band, in the sense of extension : Puniceis evincti tempora 
tceniis. Virg. Lemniscus {Xrjfivlaxog)^ a narrow woollen 
band, originally of fine inner rind of linden tree, which was 
tied round wreaths, and the end of which used to hang down 
by way of ornament: Lemnisci^ fasciolcB coloria depeU' 
denies ex coronis, Festus. 

431. Fasti, Annales, Historia, Acta, Commentarii, 
Kalendarium. Fasti majores seu consulares, a record 
of consuls and dictators, with a brief indication of their deeds, 
and remarkable events, which record was engraven in mar- 
ble, as the TabulcB s. Fasti Capitolini, To these belong the 
Fasti triumphales^ containing the victories of Roman 
generals and their triumphs, with the year, month, and day 
when performed; Annales sc. libri^ annals, in which the 
events of a state, year af\er year, were commemorated \ HiS' 
tori a, properly, narration; history, as credible and well re- 
lated representation of remarkable events in their connexion 
with causes and consequences: Paginas in annalihus 
magistratuum fasti s que per currere licet consulum dictaio- 
rumque. Liv. Erat olim historia nihil aliud^ nisi an' 
nalium confectio, cujus rei memoricBque publiccB retinenda 
causa res omnes singulorum annorum mandabat Uteris ponti- 
fex maooimus ; ii^ qui etiam nunc annales maximi nomi' 
nantur, Cic. Historia^ testis temporum^ lux veritatis^ vita 
memoricB^ voce oratoris immortalitati commendatur. Id. The 
HistoricB of Livy may as well be called annales^ as the An» 
nales of Tacitus may be called histories^ on account of their 
historical manner, showing the connexion of causes and 
effects. Acta^ 422, public records of state transactions in 
important events, which, under the emperors, took the place 
of the annals, the latter having fallen into disuse: CcBsar 
primus instituit, ut acta Senatus et popvii diuma confice* 

202 432. Fateri. 

rentur. Suet. Jul. 20. Acta Senatus^ the senatorial proto- 
col, written by one of the senators ; the minutes of the senate, 
kept by a senator : Acta diurna populi Romania Acta pub- 
lica^ diurna, contained events relating to the people, or inter- 
esting in some way or other to them, buildings, births, mar- 
riages, deaths of celebrated persons, transactions in public 
courts, comiticB, &c. Commentarii, 34, memorable things 
which a person, without binding himself to any peculiar rule,, 
wrote down, in order to ^ave the knowledge of occurrences, 
even of not very important ones, from falling into oblivion ; 
nothing comes nearer than our memoirs, though this expresses 
not the precise thing; the German PenkwUrdigkeiten ex- 
presses it: Omnes suppUciorum acerbitates ex annalium 
monumentis atque ex regum commentariis conquisivit, 
Cic. Pontijlcum commentarii. Id. Conjiciam commen- 
tarios rerum mearum. Id. Fasti minor es s, Kalenda- 
res, Romani, urbani, described a whole year, according to 
months, with the indication of the dies fa^ti et nefasti, dies 
senatus et comitiales, of festivals, days of r^st, games, and 
extensive meals after sacrifices, and were under the superin- 
tendence of the pontifex maximiis, but were publicly made 
known by placards since the year 450, A. U. C, only. The 
Fasti rustici, only indicated the Kalendce, Nonce, Idus, 
NundincB, rural festivals and field-work, the twelve heavenly 
signs, and duration of the day, engraved on a marble block : 
Cw. Flavins, cedilis curuUs, civile jus, repositum in penetra- 
libus pontijicum, evulgavit ; fastosque circa forum in albo 
proposuit, ut, quando lege agi posset, sciretur. iiiv. Vide- 
mus lunam, accretione et deminutione luminis, quasi fa s'tO' 
rum notis signantem dies. Cic. Kalendarium, or Ca^ 
lendarium, the book of debts, in which capitalists entered 
their capitals and interests, which on the Calendce were lent 
and paid : Nemo beneficia in Kalendario scribit, Senec. 

432. Fateri, Con — Profiteri. Fateri, confessing, 
telling, in consequence of some inducement given from with- 
out, something which otherwise we should have preferred to 
pass over in silence or to deny : Fa teor non modo in socios 
sed etiam in cives nostros perscspe esse severe ac vehementer 
vindicaium. Cic. Confiteri, confessing, in consequence 
of strong action from without, if we allow something of which 
we are ashamed, or that we bear the guilt of something : 
Hdbes, Tuber 0, quod est accusatori maxime optandum^ con- 
fit en tern reum, Cic. Se victum c o nfi teri. Coes. FrO' 

433. Favere. 434. Faux, 203 

fiteri^ confessing openly and without evasion, not making 
a secret of a thing, of which we do not mean to be ashamed : 
Themistocles apud Lacedcemonios liberrime professus est^ 
AtheniensBs suo consilio urbem muris sepsisse. Nep. C on- 
fit eiur ita, ut non solum fateri, sed etiam profiteri 
videatur, Cic. 

433. Fa VERB, Studere, Secundare, Fovere ; Favora- 
BiLis, Propitius, Secundus, Faustus, Prosper. Favere^ 
properly, waving, hloioing : Ventis fa ventibus navigare. 
Ovid., blowing favorably, being favorably disposed, being 
inclined to aid one: Favebam et rei publicce, cui semper 
favi, et dignitati ac gloricB tuce. Cic. Favete Unguis, 
Hor., silence ! One's favor was evinced at sacrifices by 
reverential silence ; in the theatre, by attention, silence, and 
applause; at festivals, by congratulations. Studere, sup-' 
porting one by our favor, taking his part, feeling attached to 
something, diligently attending, studying a thing: Codius 
studuit CatiUn<E, consulatum petenti. Cic. Studere sa- 
crificiis, labori ac duriticR, agricuUurcB, Cses. Secundare^ 
favoring, making a thing happily succeed, aiding, poetical : 
Di nostra incepta secundent auguriumque tuum, Virg, 
As we say, divine aid. jPor ere, 470, fostering, with deli- 
cate treatment and careful removal or avoidance of every 
thing which might be disagreeable to the other, or render 
us disagreeable to him : Inimicum meum sic amplexaban- 
tur, sic in manibus habebant, sic fovebant, certe ut mihi 
stomachum facer e se arbitrarenfur, Cic. — Favorabilis, 
capable of obtaining favor, well-received : Tiberius fa vora- 
bili in speciem oratione vim imperii tenUit, Tac. Secun- 
dus, favoring, aiding, that which succeeds according to our 
wishes, e. g. prcdium, navigatio : Video navem secundis 
ventis cur sum tenentem suum. Cic. Qonon inconsideratior in 
secunda, quam in adversa erat fortuna. Nep. Faustus 
{favor, XIII, I.), of favorable portent, indication, lucky : 
O faustum et felicem diem! Ter. Prosper {pro-spes, 
VIII, 1.), corresponding to our hope, succeeding well, suc- 
cessful : Tenere navem prospero cursu ; Prospero flatu 
fortuncB uti : Nihil est prosperum, nisi voluptas, nihil 
asperum, nisi dolor. Cic. Propitius, gracious, well-dis- 
posed, of gods, opp. iratus : Huic homini pauci deos pro- 
pilios, plerique iratos putabunt. Cic. 

434. Faux, Gula, Guttur, Jugulum. Faux, 78, the 
upper, narrow part of the gullet, close by the entrance into 

204 436. Fax, 437. Fenas, 

the larynx : Os devoratum fauce quum hareret lupi, PheBdr. 
Gula^ gullet, the channel through which the food passes 
down, in the back part of the oral cavity : Lentulo vindices 
rerum capitalium laqueo gulam fregere. Sail. GuIcb pU' 
reus. Hor., a bibber, glutton. Guttur^ throat, the entrance 
into the channels of the throat, of the gullet and the larynx : 
llle {Cerberus) fame rabida tria guttura pandens, Virg. 
Et liquidum tenui gutture caniat avis, Ovid. Jugulum^ 
properly, the clavicle ; the throat, the hollow at the fore part 
of the neck between the two collar-bones: Da jugulum 
cultris^ hostia dira^ meis. Ovid. 

435. Fax, T^da, Funale, Candela, Cereus. Fax^ 
a torch of wood, covered with a thick combustible substance, 
especially such a one if burning : Spina^ nuptiarum facibus 
auspicatissima, PI in. Dolorum, invidice faces. Cic. Ta- 
da,B. torch of resinous wood, pine, &c. : Ardet ut ad magnos 
pinea tcBda Deos, Ovid. Funale^ a torch of oakum, or 
similar stuff, covered with combustible matter, a wax torch : 
Noctem flammis fu nalia v incunL Virg. Candela^ the 
taper made of pith covered with pitch or tallow : Scirpi pc^ 
lustres^ e quibiis detracto corfice candela luminibus et Ju* 
neribtis serviunt, Plin. Cereus^ a wax taper: Cereos 
Saturnalibus muneri ddbant humiliores potentioribus^ quia 
can delis pauperes, locupletes cereis utebantur. Festus. 

436. Fenestra, Transenna, Cancelli. Fenestra^ 
an opening in the wall, in oi*der to «dmit light, square or 
round, generally oblong ; they were shut with two shutters, 
right and left, curtains, or lattice-work ; under the emperors, 
with tables of lapis phengites^ specularis (isinglass) : Quan' 
tarn ei fenestram ad nequitiam patefeceris ? Ter. Tran- 
senna^ a net or lattice-work, a lattice-window or window 
with grates: Earn copiam^ quasi per tr an sennam^ prater' 
euntes strictim adspeximus, Cic. Cancelli (cancer), bars, 
which prevent entrance into, or the approach to a place ; it 
may likewise consist of lattice- work : Ex fori can eel lis 
plausus est excitatus. Cic. Certarum rerum forensibus can-' 
ceil is circumscripta scientia. Id. 

437. Fenus, Usura, Versura, Versuram facere, Ver- 
sura solvere; Anatocismus; Fenebris, Feneratorius. 
Fenusy profit of invested capital, by which the creditor in- 
creases his property, usury : Duodecim tabulis sanctum^ ne 
quis unciario fenore amplius exerceret^ quum anteor ex 
Ubidine locupletium agitaretur. Tac, i. e. annually of one 

438. Ferax, 205 

hundred asses as many uncicB ; hence there were paid monthly 
(431.) 8 J uncicB» Scaplius centesimis, renovato in siri' 
gulos annos fenore^ conientus non fait, Cic, sc. partibtis 
sortis^ i. e. of one hundred asses capital, monthly ^j^ or one 
05, annually, therefore, twelve pro cent, Usura, that which 
is given for the use of borrowed capital, interest: CcbUus 
Prcetor legem promulgavit^ ut sine usuris creditcB pecunicB 
solvantur, Caes. Versura (properly, the turning of the ox 
at the end of the furrow), the change of a dead capital into 
one bearing interest, or also the transformation of a capital 
and interests, both due, into a new debt : Rogatione tribuni- 
cia ad semuncias redajcta^ postremo vetita versura, Tac 
The fenus unciarium was reduced to 4^ uncia, and at length 
aill borrowing on interest prohibited. Versuram facere^ 
borrowing a capital on interest, in order to pay a debt : Sala- 
minii qvum RomcB versuram facer e vellent, non pate' 
rant ; quod lex Gabinia vetdbat, Cic. They intended to sat- 
isfy with it their creditor, Scaptius. Versura^ VersurA 
facta 5 oZw ere, paying a debt with borrowed money: Op» 
pio DCCC aperuisti : qua quidem ego utiquevel versura 
facta solvi volo, Cic. Anatocismus^ interest upon 
interest, when tlie unpaid interests were added to the capital, 
thus bearing themselves interest : Clamabant^ nihil impudeu' 
iius Scaptio, qui centesimis cum anatocismo contentus non 
esset, Cic. Scaptius demanded quatema centesimce cum an» 
aiocismo anniversario. Ibid., therefore, 100 capital gave, 
with fourfold centesimce^ that is, 48 per cent, interest, and the 
anatocismus^ which was calculated for the next year, 100 -^ 
48-}-23j^j= 1*712^5. — i^ene iris, relating to usury: Fe- 
neb rib us legibus constricta est avaritia, Liv. Fen era» 
torius^ carrying on usury : Avar a et feneratoria Gallo' 
rum philosophia. Val. Max. 

438. Ferax, Fertilis, Fecundus, User. Ferax^ fertile, 
having a strong impulse to produce often and much : Terra 
ferax tJereris multoque feracior uvce, Ovid. Fertilis^ 
that which bears much, capable of bearing much, fertile, of 
inanimate nature, e. g. ager : Gallia frugum hominumque 
fertilis, Liv. Fecundus^ productive, full of fecundity, 
that is, containing much of generative energy and substance, 
and hence producing much : Sue nihil genuit natura fecun- 
dius, Cic. Fossionibus agri repa^linationibusque muUo 
fit terra fecundior. Id. Byzantium fertili solo fecun* 
do que mari^ quia vis pisdum innumera Pontum erumpit* 

' 18 

206 439. Ferice. 440. Ferre. 

Tac. Uher, 276, producing nourishment in plenty, abun- 
dantly causing or favoring it, e. g. solum: Lactis uberes 
cantare vivos, Hor. Periclem censet Socrates uberem et 
fecundumfuisse, Cic, rich in ideas, and constantly pro- 
ducing new ones. 

439. FfiRi-aE, Justitium; Feriatus, Otiosus. Feria^ 
days of rest, generally connected with religious service : 
Feriarum festorumque dierum ratio in liberis requietem 
hahet litium et jurgiorum ; in servis operum et laborum, Cic. 
Justitium (standing still of the jus)^ vacations of courts of 
law, their adjournment at universal mourning or great danger 
of the state ; when they were passed, the business began 
again: In tanto tumultu justitium per aliquot dies serva^ 
turn, Liv. — Feriatus^ having, enjoying days of rest; one 
who does not occupy himself with any thing: Feriatum 
cessatione torpere, Cic. JVe putes^ Jilium tuum in Asia fc' 
riatum a studiis futurum. Id. Otiosus, having leisure, 
being free from official or professional occupations : Satius 
est otiosum esse, quam nihil agere, Plin. 

440. Ferre, Gerere, Bajulare, Portare, Vehere ; 
Ferre, Capere fructum; Ferre, De — Referre rem ad 
ALiQUEM. Ferre, carrying, bringing as burden, load, e. g. 
jugum: Oppidani cum omnibus rebus suis, quce f err i agi' 
que potuerunt, nocte excesserunt, Liv. Ferre sententiam de 
cdiquo. Cic, giving a judgment; Tribus plerasque tulil 
Planciv^, Id., obtaining the votes of most tribes. Gerere, 
422, carrying something publicly : Princeps Horatius ibat, 
trigemina spolia prce se gerens. Liv. Bajulare (prop- 
erly, malting a. jack), carrying on the neck : Hie istam colloca 
cruminam in collo plane, — Ego bajulabo. Plant. For- 
tare, getting away, conveying a thing from one place to 
another; Naves legatos Romam portabant, Liv. Miles 
circumspiciebat, quid secum portare posset, Cses. Tantum 
nunc porto a portu tibi boni. Nunc hanc IcBtitiam accipe a 
me, quam fero. Plant. Vehere, moving away, conveying; 
curru, equo vehi, driving, riding, i. e. being moved away, by 
a vehicle, on horseback. Formica vehit ore cibum, Ovid» 
Pecuniam portantibus suis prcecipit Geritius, parvis itin- 
eribus veherent. Liv. , carrying. Quadrigis v eh ens. Cic. , 
moving away, along. — Ferre fructum (bearing advantage, 
bringing use), being profitable, and enjoying advantage (carry- 
ing away advantage), as reward of one's merit; Capere, 
deriving advantage,, enjoying the fruits of something : Pisoni 

• 441. Ferre, 207 

f rue turn pietatis suce neque ex me, neque a populo Romano 
ferre licuit. Cic. Omnium laborum vos fructus uteres 
capietis. Id. — Ferre rem ad poj9wZMm, bringing some- 
thing before the people, relating it to them, that they may 
vote on it: Volero rogationem ad populum tulit^ ut 
plebeii magistratus tributis comitiis JierenU Li v. Tum^ ut 
bellum juberent, latum ad populum est. Id. Deferre 
rem ad aliquem, lodging information with some one, in- 
forming some one : Eporedorix, cognito Litavici consilioj 
rem ad Ccesarem defert, Cses. Gallia civitates habent 
legibu^ sanctum^ si quis quid de re publica a Jinitimis rumore 
ac fama acceperit^ uti ad magistratum defer at. Id. 
Referre rem and de re ad aliquem^ making report, as 
delegate or ambassador, or officially, consulting with some 
one about something : His mandavit CcBsar^ ut, qua diceret 
Ariovistus, cognoscerent et ad se refer rent, Cses. Tant 
relata ex iniegro res ad Senatum, Liv. 

441. Ferre, Perferre, Sustinere, Tolerare, Pati, 
Perpeti, Sinere, Permittere. Ferre, bearing a burden, 
having to carry onerous things, having them upon one's shouU 
ders : Magna laus est tulisse casus sapienter adversos, nan 
fractum esse fortuna, Cic. P€r/er re, bearing, with manly 
perseverance, to a certain aim or end {per) : Id, quod suS' 
cepi, quoad potero, perferam, Cic. Sustinere, keeping 
the burden up, not allowing it to sink, holding from below, 
persevering, with greater endurance than is required by j^er- 
^erre, sustaining with perseverance: Sriscipis onus officii^ 
quod te putas sustinere posse. Cic. Milites virtute et pa* 
tientia nitebantur, at que omnia vulnera sustinebant. Cses. 
Tolerare, bearing (if we'say, he bore it well, like a man; 
standing, if used as verb active), offering resistance to the 
feeling of the burdensome or onerous with persevering 
strength, e. g. hiemem, famem, sumtus : Ferte, viri, et duros 
animo tolerate labores, Cic. Pati, suffering, bearing with 
resignation, allowing a thing to be done, to pass : Virorum 
est fort ium, toleranter dolor em pati, Cic. Gallia omnes 
cBquo animo belli patitur injurias. Id. Sequani per fines 
suos Helvetios ire patiuntur. Csbs. Perpeti, persever- 
ing in suffering (per -pati) : Mendicitatem multi perpeti- 
untur, ut vivant. Cic. Sinere, 292, allowing to happen, 
permitting: Sine nunc meo me vivere modo. Ter. Suevi 
vinum ad se importari non sinunt. Cses. Permittere^ 
properly, allowing to run ; permitting that something be done, 

208 442. Fervere. 444. Fetialis, 

not throwing obstacles in the way, not hindering : 7<i, quod 
imperaiur^ necessarium : illud^ quod permittitur, volunta" 
rium est, Cic. Ponies rejicere, magnitudo fiuminis non per» 
mitt eh at, Cses. 

442. Fervere^ Effervescere, iEsxuARE, Ebullire. 
Fervere^ obsolete Fervere^ brewing, i. e. the making 
noise by agitation of liquids (as the German hrauen^ brewing, 
and -hrausen, producing loud noise, as the wind, yet lower 
than howling, are etymologically nearly the same words), 
boiling, e. g. aqua, cera, ccs : Fervere appellant musti in 
vina transitum, Plin. Effervescere, brewing up, boiling 
up, hence. Orator effervescens iracundia, Cic. MstU' 
are, being in the state which is the effect of enduring and 
more violent inward heat; with water, it precedes that of 
bubbling by boiling, simmering (German wallen) : Syrtes^ 
uM Maura semper cestuat unda, Hor. llle quum cBstua' 
ret {sole), umbrmn secutus est, Cic, boiled. Ebullire^ 
bubbling of boiling water, throwing up bubbles ; hence, DiX' 
erit Epicurus, semper bealum esse sapientem, quod quidem 
solet ebullire, Cic, with which he boasts. 

443. Fe'ssus, Fatigatus, Lassus, Languidus. Fessus 
{fatiscere, bursting from superabundance), tired, exhausted; 
used of the exhaustion of strength, as quality; Fatigatus^ 
10, tired, without strength, as the state, effected from without ; 
Lassus, lax, used of want of strength or energy united with 
dislike of labor, without its being the effect of exertion ; Lan- 
guidus, languid, worn out, of exhaustion : Fessis labore 
ac pugnando quies data militibus. Li v. Longo iiinere fati' 
gatus et onere fessus. Id. Ut lassus veni de via, me 
volo curare. Plant. Romani, quamquam itinere atque opere 
castrorum et prcdio fessi i as si que erant, tamen insiructi 
intentique obviam procedebant, JS^am dolus Numidarum ni- 
hil languidi, neque remissi patiebatur. Sail . 

444. Fetialis, Pater patratus, Caduceator. The Fe* 
tiales, priests, who watched over the observance of the law 
of nations, demanded, when hostilities had broken out, satis- 
faction of the enemies, announced war with peculiar ceremo- 
nies, and consecrated alliances and treaties. The one among 
them whose office it was to take the oath {jusjurandum pa- 
trare), was called the Pater patratus, Liv. 1, 24. 32. 
CadMcea^ or, a herald sent to the enemy; he carried for 
his security a staff of peace : Philippus caduceatorem ad 
Consulem misit, qui inducias ad sepeliendos equites peteret, 

445. Fetus. 446. Fides. 209 

445. Fetus, Catulus (Catellus), Pullus, Hinntts, 
HiNNULEUS. Fetus, the produced living issue, the brood, 
e. g. avium: BesticB, quce multiplices fetus procreant^ ut 
sues, ut canes. Cic. Catulus, a young one of cats, dogs, 
foxes, monkeys, hogs, stags, and other animals (it comprises, 
therefore, more than the English whelp does at present, 
though the original meaning of whelp is not restricted to 
beasts of prey ; it is originally the same with calf, in other 
Teutonic languages Kalp, Kwalp, &c.) : Lecma catulorum 
ohlita. Virg. Catellus, signifies a puppy only. TantiU 
lum loci, ubi catellus cubet. Plaut. PmZZms, filly (which 
is the same word), of horses, asses ; especially of fowl (puU 
let) : Quum cavea liber ati pulli non pascereniur. Cic. 
Hinnus, the young of a mare and an ass: Equo et a^ina 
genitos mares, hinnos antiqui vocabant: contraque mulos, 
quos asini et equce generarent. Plin. Hinnulus, the young 
of goats, deer, chamois, stags; Hinnuleus, a stag of one 
year, without antlers yet. 

446. Fides, Fidelitas; Fidus, Fidelis; Fidentia, Fi- 
DUciA, CoNFiDENTiA. Fidcs, properly, promise; the hon- 
esty in promises and contracts or agreements, if we keep 
them honestly and conscientiously ; and the belief in the 
truth of a thing, the holding ourselves convinced of its cer- 
tainty : Fides est dictorum conventorumque constantia et 
Veritas. Cic. Fid em res habuit. Ovid., it was believed, the 
thing found belief. Fidelitas, faithfulness, conscientious- 
ness in the fulfilment of one's duties and calling : Vita mea 
fideliiate amicorum conservata est. Cic. — Fidus, trust- 
worthy, to be relied upon: Canurnfida custodia. Fide- 
lis, faithful, who keeps faith, in whom you may confide: 
Servi animo fidel i in dominum. Cic. — Fidentia, the 
being confident, self-reliance, the being of good cheer, opp. 
metu^ : Fidentia est, per quam magnis et honestis in rebus 
multum ipse animus in se fiducice certa cum spe coilocavit. 
Cic. Fiducia, confidence : Non modo spem tibi, sed prope 
certam fiduciam salutis prcsbet. Liv. In law language, 
fiducia signifies the pledge or security for fulfilment of 
payment, which the creditor receives from the debtor; fur- 
ther, a sale on condition of being permitted to buy back, 
and the necessary contract respecting the transaction : Qui 
fiduciam accepit , debet prcestare fidem. Cic . C a nfi a c n- 
tia, a faulty confidence, boldness, temerity: Videte, quo 


210 447. Fieri. 448. Figura. 

vidtu, qua confidentia dicant; turn intelligetis, qua reli' 
gione dicant, Cic. 

447. Fieri, Evadere. Fieri (one of the most sensible 
lacks of the English idiom is, that it has no word which ex- 
presses that signification of fieri which in German is given 
by werden, a want which makes itself continually felt, and 
actually forces the writer to leave certain shades unsaid) ; 
beginning to be, growing, continuing to be, happening ; Eva^ 
dere, coming about, to pass, at last, turning out thus or other- 
wise : Ego sum ille Amphitruo^ idem Mercurius qui fit^ 
quando commodum est. Plaut. Fi t, quod futurum dixi. Id. 
Albucius perfectus Epicureus evaserat. Cic. 

448. FiGURA, Forma, Species ; Tropus ; Figurare, For* 
MARE, CoNFORMARE. The figure of a thing is called Figu- 
ra^ if it represents something general, and is proper for a 
certain end only; Forma, if it represents a definite object, 
and, conformably to the letter, its parts stand in the proper 
proportions to one another; Species, if the observer repre- 
sents it to himself, as it appears to him, see 424, hence the 
appearance, the look : Himera, in muliehrem figuram ha- 
bitumque format a ex oppidi nomine etjluminis. Cic. Natura 
figuram corporis hahilem et aptam ingenio humano dedit. 
Id. Artifex quum faceret Jovis for mam aut Minervce, no» 
ex aliquo similitudinem ducehat. Id. TJri sunt specie et 
colore et figura tauri. Caes. Natura for mam, corporis 
nostri, reliquamque figuram, in qua esset species honesta^ 
eam posuit in promtu. Cic. For mam, those parts which 
give beauty to the body; figuram, those which are neces- 
sary for its destination; species, the sight of which is not 
offensive. — Figura, in rhetoric, every modification of ex- 
pression by which the same is beautified, and becomes capa- 
ble of producing a more lively impression or notion connected 
with direct pleasure, e. g. prosopopoeia : Crudelitatis mater 
est avaritia, et pater furor ; the antitheton : Domus deerat 1 
At hahebas. Pecunia superdbat 7 At egebas. Tropus, 
the more vivid representation of an idea under the image of 
something similar or well-known, as in the metonymy, synec- 
doche, and metaphor; the trope. — Figurare, shaping, 
forming something according to its destiny : Boum ierga nan 
ad onus accipiendum figurata. Cic. i^or marc, fashion- 
ing, giving to a substance that form in which it represents a 
certain object with the same proportions of its parts : E Pario 
formatum marmore signum. Ovid. Materiam fngit et 

449. Fingere. 450. Finis. 311 

format effectio, Cic. Conformare^ forming somethiiig 
harmonious in ita parts: Mundus non adificattu est^ ted u 
natura conformatus, Cic. 

449. FiNGERE, Con — Effinoerb, Conflarb ; Fictob, 
Plastes ; FiGULAEis, FicTiLis ; Ficrns, Commentigius, Six* 
ULATus. Fingere^ fashioning, forming, causing a rude 8Qb- 
stance to assume a certain form ; it precedes the Jigurare and 
formare^ see 448 ; Confingere^ forming that things fit to- 
gether, to one another ; Effi ngere^ forming after an original ; 
Conflare^ melting metals together: Aves fingunt nidos; 
fin g ere aliquid e cera, Cic. Apes faoos confingunt 
et ceras. Plin. Icarus his conatw erat casus effing ere in 
auro, Virg. Augustus argenteas statuas, olim sUd posita»^ 
conflavit omnes. Suet. — Fictor^ the fashioner, he who 
fashions some substance, e. g. wax, clay, wood, stone, and 
the like, into a figure, an image, &c. ; Plastes, the fiuh* 
ioner of soil substance, as wax, clay ; yet for this, fetor is 
more common : Falfer quum quid ad^fUaturus est, materia 

.utitur ea, qua sit parata: fictorque item cera. Cic.— 
Figularis, proper for the potter {Jigulus\ e. g. rota, creta; 
Fictilis, earthen, made of clay: Vasa fictilicL '^H 
fin g ere takes as substance something unreal, merely im- 
agined, it signifies treating a fiction poetically (Grerman er- 
dichten) ; the inventing of this subject, the thinking it oat, is 
expressed by Comminisci; hence Fictus, invented, ficti- 
tious, put on by way of hypocrisy (Grerman erheucheU) : Pf0 
non incauto , fictum astutumque vocamus. Hor. Commt^n^ 
ticius, invented by way of fiction, for pleasure or entertain^ 
ment, e. g. crimen; ficta et commenticia fahuku .Cio. 
Simulatus, only apparent, not real: In amidtia tenea- 
dum, ne quid fictum sit neve simulatum. Cici, no nm- 

450. Finis, Modus, Terminus, Libies, Meta; Fufxix, 
Terminare, Definire, Detsrminare. JFint^, tl» limit of 
a thing as the end of its extension, the end, where somethinff 
ceases in time or space ; Fines, ihe limits of a country, and 
the land comprised within them itself: Ligures ad eac^emsm 
fin em provincia Gallia venenmt. Liv. Domus finis Sff 
usus. Cic, the object, the end, Dumnori» a Sequanis tsifve- 
trat, ut per fines sues Helvetios ire patiantur. Cees. Mth 
dus, the measure to determine a magnitude, and by which 
something is limited, according to space, time, and degree : 
Modes, qviibus metirei^vr rura, alius oKos ctmstHmL vanr. 

212 451. Flaccesccre. 

Modufrt ponere orationi, Tac, not allowing it to become 
too long; fin em ponere^ to make an end to it, stopping. 
Terminus^ the sign or mark of limit, the limit-stone, as the 
final aim not to be trespassed, in reference to the space on the 
othe r side ; Certos mihi fines terminos que constituam^ 
extra quos egredi non possim. Cic. Limes^ a cross- way, 
cross-path, boundary, limits, the old mere^ the strip of un- 
ploughed land between two fields (in German, Rain), and 
every landmark for the purpose of dividing land, a post, tree, 
stone: Ante Jovem ne signare quidem aut partiri limit e 
campum fas erat, Virg. Me t a, a conically formed hay- 
stack, the cone at the end of the Roman circus, and, in gen- 
eral, the aim, term, where we turn again : Fomum siccatum 
in met as exstruere, Colum. Sol ex mquo met a distabat 
utraque, Ovid., at noon, because there the chariot of Phoebus 
turns again, if not back, at least down. — Finite, limiting, 
ending, finishing, concluding : Populi Romdni imperium 
Rhenus finit, Caes. Term in are, drawing the limits, be- 
yond which something shall not go : Mare terras terminat 
omnes. Lucret. jBeZZtt/n/tn ire, bringing to an end; Ter» 
minare helium, putting a stop to it, not allowing it to con- 
tinue any longer. Definire, showing, indicating accurately 
the limits, how far a thing extends and no further, or how far 
it is to extend : Fundi extremam partem olea directo ordine 
definiunt. Cic, they indicate the limits of the land from 
within outward; — terminant, they make the limit with 
regard to the things without, surrounding land. Deter mi- 
nare, reducing the limits to a certain mark or to certain 
bounds, boundaries : Vates scipione determinavit templi 
imaginem in solo. Plin. 

451. Flaccescere, Tabescere ; Flaccidus, Marcidus. 
Flaccescere, becoming flaccid, slack {fagging), wither- 
ing; Tabescere, melting away by dissolution, diminishing 
imperceptibly, vanishing : Fceniculum sub tecto exponito, dum 
flaccescat, Colum. Sol altas nives radiis tabescere 
cogit. Lucret. Diutumo morbo tabescere, Cic. — Flac- 
cidus, withered, slack, limber, e,g, folium; Marcidus, 
friable, brittle (this is the nearest, I believe, that our language 
can approach, though marcidus expresses that lack of con- 
sistency and solidity which we observe in wood with diy rot, 
or the ice of sea water, while brittle would indicate the ease 
with which glass can be broken), e. g. a^seres obruti vetus- 
tate, Vitruv. Caper f lac cidis et prcBgravantibus auribus^ 

452. Flare. 455. Fluere. 213 

Colum., naturally flabby; Equis fessis aures marcida. 
Plin., slack, pending, from fatigue. 

452. Flare, Spirare, Halare. Flare^ blowing, is the 
forcible exhalation of air in one direction, and in one blast, 
one exertion : Simul flare sorhereque hand facile est. 
Plaut. Spirare^ breathing, blowing, of the motions of the 
atmosphere, every perceptible draft of air: Nee Zephyros 
audis spirare secundos? Virg. lifaZ are, a soft streaming 
of air from within the body ; that breathing which is stronger 
than the common breathing, but less forcible than blowing, if 
expressed by flare: De gelidis halahat vallibus aurn, 

453. Flectere, Plectere, Plicare ; Movere, Afficeee. 
Fleecier e^ bending, changing the straight direction into a 
curved: Flectitur obsequio curvatus ah arbore ramus. 
Ovid. Plectere^ braiding, entwining, according to order 
or not, pliable bodies, is only used in the partic, prcsL and 
in compounds. Flores ylexi corollis. CatuU. Plicare^ 
folding: Charta plicetur altera. Martial. — Flectere^ 
giving a different direction to one's opinion or disposition, 
moving to compassion, to yield : Commutare animos atque 
omni ratione flectere. Cic. Movere^ moving from the 
spot: Glebce ccepere moveri. Ovid., and moving the soul, 
the heart, producing in them a change, exciting pleasure or 
displeasure, inclination or disinclination, joy or grief: Mo' 
vere risum^ indignationem^ odium, misericordiam. Flee* 
tere si nequeo super os, Acheronta movebo. Virg. -^ffi^ 
cere animum, influencing the soul in a manner that it is 
placed in a disposition corresponding to our intentions, influ- 
encing : Eorum, qui audiunt, sic afficiuntur animi, ut 
eos affici vult orator. Cic. Animi spectantur aut quemad' 
modum affecti sint, virtutibus^ vitiis, artiJms^ inertiis^ 
aut quemadmodum commotio cupiditate, metu^ voluptate, 
molestia. Id. 

454. Florere, ViGERE. jpZor ere, blowing, flourishing: 
Arbor lentisci una ter floret. Cic. Regina Berenice^ flo' 
reus cBtate formaque. Tac. Vigere, being in its vigor, in 
full power, alacrity, and activity, being alive : Jacet corpus 
dormientis, ut mortui; viget autem et vivit animus. Cic. 

455. Fluere, Labi, Manare ; Fluctus, Unda, Fluen- 
tum; Fluxus, Fluidus, Caducus. Fluere, flowing, mov- 
ing along, as liquid body, without reference to direction or 
course; Labi, 156, running, easily gliding along, slightly 

214 456. Fluvius. 

downward; Man are, running, coursing, streaming, from a 
given point in one uninterrupted course, and extending fur- 
ther: Fluunt lachrimcemore perennis aqucB, Ovid. Adspice 
jucundo labentes murmure rivos. Id. Gutta lahitur ex 
oculis. Id., glides down. Sudor ad imos man at talos. Hor. 
Man ah at saxo vena perennis aqua. Ovid. Multa a luna 
man ant et fluunt, quibus animantes alantur, Cic. — Flue- 
tus, properly, the waving, the wave, the large mass of water 
which is forcibly heaving and apparently moving along on the 
agitated sea, the billow : Insani feriant sine litora fluctus, 
Virg. Unda, the wave, smaller than the previous one, the 
ever-movable, mostly smaller mass of water which heaves on 
a moved mass of water: Sonat undarum incursu gravis 
unda; fluctihus erigitur coelumque cequare videtur pon- 
tus, Ovid. Fluentum, the heaving mass in its natural state, 
while fluctus is caused from without by storm, earthquake. 
Fluent a, the billows, heavings, as an aggregate (German, 
die Fluthen) : llle (Eridanus) caput placidis sublime flu en- 
lis extulit. Claudian. — Fluxus, ihsii by which the flowing 
becomes perceptible: Purpura flux os habent succos. Plin. 
Vas fluxum pertusumque. Lucret. Fluxa fortuna, fides, 
inconstant. Fluidus, liquid, fluid: Contrarium est terre- 
num fluido, Colum. Mollia et fluid a corpora. Liv., 
lax, incapable of resistance. Caducus, that in which the 
falling shows itself as prominent quality, fallen, falling, ripe 
for falling, e. g. /bZiwm : Res humancB fragiles i:aduccBqvs^ 
sunt. Cic, frail, transient, apt or destined to fall (the German 

456. Flu VXDS, Flumen, Amnis, Rivus, Torrens. Flu- 
vius, river (properly, the flow) considered simply materially, 
as ever-flowing mass of water: Fluvius Eurotas is, qui 
propter Lacedcemonem fluit. Cic. Hence also as river-god, 
personified quality of flowing. Flumen, river, inasmuch as 
we perceive in it the flowing as a permanent state : Indus est 
omnium fluminum maximum. Cic. Hence also used of 
rivulets: Nos flumina arcemus, dirigimus, avertimus. Cic. 
Flumen orationis : Flumen aliis verborum volubilita^que 
cordi est. Id., flow of words. Amnis, the stream, larger 
than Fluvius, and flowing with greater rapidity, e. g. McB' 
ander : Pars magna Carpetanorum flumine (Tago) ab- 
sumta ; quidam vorticoso amni delati in hostes, ah elephaU' 
tis obtriti sunt. Liv. Rivus,^. small running water, rivulet : 
E rivo flumina magna facis. Ovid, Sudor fluit undique 

457. FmtidiLS. 461. For em. 215 

rivis. Id. Torrens^ properly, boiling of heat {torrere)^ 
streaming with velocity, tearing rapidity : Urbs cingitur 
amne i or rent i. Curt. Hence a wild freshet, which in- 
creases rapidly, becomes totrens and dries up again : Rapi' 
dus montano flumine torrens sternit sata. Virg. 

457. FcETiDus, PuTiDus. Foetidus^ stinking, the evil 
smell of which causes disgust: Ore foetid o teterrimam nO' 
bis popinam inhalabas. Cic. Putidus, rotten, putrid, smell- 
ing of rottenness: Putida caro. Cic. Put idee paludis 
vorago. Catull. 

458. Folium, Frons. Folium, the leaf, of all kinds of 
leaves ; Fr ons, properly, the young sprout of leaves ; the 
branch with the leaves, and foliage : In arboribus truncus^ 
rami, folia sunt. Cic. Folia ccepcB, chartarum. Plin. 
In nemoribus virgulta et frons multa. Varr. Bobus prce^. 
stabit villicus Octobri frond em et ficulnea folia. Colum. 

459. FoNS, ScATURiGo, ScATEBRA, PuTEUS. Fons, the 
well, in reference to its origin from the earth : Rivorum a 
fonte deductio. Cic. Causa atque fons moproris. Id. 
Scaturigo, the well, as the water gushing forth with vio- 
lence from the earth : Vix deducta summa arena erat, quum 
scaturigines primo tenues emicare, dein multam fundere 
aquam coeperunt. Liv. Scatebra, spouting, gushing forth 
from the earth, and rising to some elevation: Scalebra 
fonticuli semper emicante, lacus non augetur. Plin. Puteus^ 
a pool, a well, artificially dug, where water collects : Mise- 
rum est opus demum fodere puteum, ubi sitis fauces tenet. 
Plaut. Aqua hausta de jugi puteo. Cic. 

460. FoRARE, Perforare, Terebrare, Cavare. FO' 
rare, making a hole, as passage: For at a arbore lapidem 
adigito. Col\im. P erf or at ense latus. Ovid., through and 
through. Perforare is For are with the idea of quite 
through. Terebrare, boring with a gimlet or similar in- 
strument, which is turned: Arbores terebrare Gallica tere- 
bra. Colum. Cavare, hollowing, making a cavity: Saxa 
cavantur aqua. Ovid., poetical: Parmam gladio, galeam^ 
que cavari videt. Id. 

461. Forem, Essem; Fore, Futurum esse. Forem^ 
I should, would be, and Fore, to become (see 447), infini- 
tive future of the verb being, designates a being (i. e. " to 
be," a state) which depends upon circumstances, with regard 
to which first something else must happen before it can be 
realized, can appear as reality ; Essem^l may be, a being 

216 462. Forfet. 465. Formula. 

(" to be," a state) which is supposed, indeed, yet supposed as 
something actual, real; Futurum esse, a being, a state, 
which does not yet exist, but is now becoming, growing : Si 
scBcla forent antiquis grata puellis^ ess em ego^ quod nunc 
tu : tempore vincor ego. Propert. Neque ego ea, qu<B facta 
sunt, fore quum dicebam, divinaham futura : sed quod et 
fieri posse, et exitiosum fo r e, si evenissety videham, id ne 
accideret , timeham. Cic. Gavium eum fu turum esse puto^ 
qui esse debet. Id. 

462. FoRFEx (FoKPEx), FoKCEPs, VoLSELLA. Forpcx, 
the scissors of the barbers, is only corrupted pronunciation 
of Forfex, the scissors; Forceps (fervum- capere, 164, 
properly, fire tongs); Forfice fila: pilos cape forpice : 
Fo rcipe ferrum. Isidor. Vitiosa grana uvarum fo rfi c i^ 
bus amputant. Colum. Compressam forcipe linguam dbs» 
tulit ense. Ovid. Vol sell a, tweezers, a pair of nippers, 
to tear out {evellere, French ipiler) hairs, and for similar 

463. Fori, Transtra, Juga. Fori, 186, the passages on 
the deck, from aft to the bow: Fori, tabulata navium: ah 
60, quod incessus ferant. Servius. Transtra, the benches 
for the oarsmen, in the hold ^beam the vessel : Navium 
transtra pedalibus in latitudinem trabibus confixa clavis 
ferreis. Caes. Juga, the same benches, inasmuch as they 
reach across the vessel, from one side to the other : Animas^ 
qiuB per juga longa sedebant, deturbat, laxatque foroa. 

464. FoRis, FoRAS. Fo r is (instead of a ybris^arftftiw, 
from fonts, i. e. quod fertur extra), without, and from with- 
out, opp. intus, intra; For as (for a(Z ybras parses), out- 
ward, direction toward without : Adversarii et intra vallum 
et foris ccedebantur. Nep. Ut apud te exemplum eooperi- 
undi habeas, ne petas foris. Plant. Inccmatum senem foz 
ras extrudunt mulieres. Id., 

465. Formula, Norma, Regula. Formula, the pre- 
scribed, generally ancient words, which were used in certain 
kinds of legal transactions, and in the sense of which the 
latter must be executed, when they should be valid, e. g. 
Formulce testarnentorum, juris consultorum. Sunt jura, 
sunt formula de omnibus rebus constitutes, ne quis caU in 
genere injuries, aut rations actionis errare possit. Cic. P. 
Scipio JEmilianus Africam in formulam redegit provin» 
ci<B, Yellei., giving the accustomed organization of a Roman 

466. Fornix. 467. Forte. 217 

province. Norma^ square (of the carpenter), and Regula^ 
a rule (the instrument for ruling) ; tropically, the rule, that 
by which we regulate our free actions. Norma determines 
the measures and proportions which we observe in so doing ; 
Regula^ the whole procedure which we follow or observe: 
Nee sunt hcec rhythmiporum ac rrmsicorum acerrima norma 
dirigenda. Cic. Habere regulam, qtm vera et faha judi- 
centur. Id. 

466. Fornix, Camera, Testudo, Tholus, Lacunar, 
Laquear. Fornix, the single arch-way; Camera (which 
is more correct than the later Camara), the ceiling, consisting 
of arches, vault : Tullianum (in car cere Romano) muniunt 
imdique parietes, atque insuper camera lapideis fornici' 
bus vincta. Sail. Testudo, a vault of low and long arches, 
in the form of the shell of a turtle. Tholus, the inner cen- 
tral point of a vault, in which the arches meet ; generally a 
cupola ; Par ( Terra rotunda) fades templi : nullus procur» 
rit in illo angulus : a pluvio vindicat imbre tholus. Ovid. 
Lacunar, the inlaid ceiling, inasmuch as it is provided with 
embellishing squares, hollows (lacus); Laquearia, plur. 
the lines similar to drawn cords (laqueu^) which define these 
entablatures of a ceiling; hence the ceiling itself: Non ebur^ 
neque aureum mea renidet in domo lacunar. Hor. De- 
pendent lychni laquearibus aureis. Virg. 

467. Forte, Fortuito — tu, Fors, Forsan, Forsit, 
Forsitan, Fortasse, Fortassis. Forte, as form of the 
Ablative, by a chance, by chance, of an event, the causes 
and connexion of which we are unable to explain: Forte 
evenit, ut in Privernati essemus. Cic, hence perhaps, after 
si, nisi : Nemo fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit. Cic. 
Fortuito, only with later writers Fortuitu, accidentally: 
Ea, quce gignuntur, donata consulto nobis, non fortuito 
nata videntur. Cic. Fors, 183, as adverb, Forsan, For- 
sit {fors -sit), poetical, and Forsitan, it may, it might be 
that, are used if something is imagined as possible : Et fors 
(Bquatis cepissent prcemia rostris, ni Cloanthus divos in vota 
vocasset. Virg., at a boat- racing. Aliquis forsan me pviet 
non putare hoc verum. Ter. Forsitan qucsratis, qui isle 
terror sit. Cic, expecting. Neque id f ado, ut forsitan 
quibusdam videor, simulatione. Id. Fortasse, as Accusa- 
tive, rarer Fortassis, as Genitive, perhaps, if the supposi- 
tion is pronounced with a belief in the probability of the 
event : Habes epistolam verbosiorem fortasse, quam veZZetn. 


218 468. JPorum. 471. Frangere. 

Cic. Sed ego fortasse vaticinor et Juzc omnia meliores 
hahebunt eariiiw. , Id., for which older editions have ego for- 

468. Forum, Velabrum, Macellum; Conciliabulum, 
Emporium. Forum^ market, market-place, whither com- 
modities were carried (ferre) for sale, e. g. hoarium, pisca- 
torium, Erat Vaga^ oppidum Numidarum, forum rerum 
venalium totius regni maxime celebratum. Sail. Velabrum^ 
places or squares in Rome, at the foot of the Aventine, Pala- 
tine, and Capitoline hills, where oil and cheese sellers offered 
their commodities. Between the larger and lesser Velabrum 
was situated the Macellum, the food market, where meat, 
fowls, vegetables, &c. were sold. — Forum Romanum, 
chief square in Rome, where all public magisterial acts were 
performed; hence also were called For a those provincial 
places where, on account of the conflux of people, market- 
days and courts were held, e. g. Forum Julii, Forum Fo- 
conii; Conciliabulum, properly a club ; generally, smaller 
market-places, with courts, in the Roman provinces : Decern- 
viri supplicationem in biduum in urbe et per omnia fora^ 
conciliabulaque edixerunt, Liv. ^mportwm, properly, 
a commercial place: Creusa Thespiensium emporium^ in 
intimo sinu Corinthiaco retractum, Liv. 

469. Fossa, Fovea, Scrobs. Fossa (fodere), a long 
ditch, fosse (as being dug, as the German Graben, from the 
corresponding verb, and etymologically the same with the 
English word grave) : Pomarium circummunire fossa prce- 
cipiti, Colum. Fovea {f6dere),Si short ditch, a hole dug 
in the ground, an excavation to catch or keep wild beasts : 
Anates in foveas, quibus fer as venamur, delapscB evadunt. 
Plin. Scrobs, obsolete Scrobis,Si hole to put something 
in: Viti ponendcB scrobis in longitudinem altitudinemque 
defossus tripedaneus, Colum. 

470. Fovere, Calefacere. JPo were, warming, keeping 
warm: Aves pullos pennis fovent, ne frigore Icedantur, 
Cic, hence, fostering, 433. Quasi fovebam dolor es meos. 
Id. Calefacere, making warm, heating: Arbqrum con- 
sectione ad calefaciendum corpus, igni adhibito, uti- 
mur, Cic. 

471. Frangere, Rumpere ; Fragmentum, Frustum, Seg- 
MENTUM. Fr an g ere, breaking something solid by a violent 
pressure, blow, &c. : cervices, paiinam; aticujus farorbm 
petuUmtiamque. Cic. Perfdiosum et nefarium est fidem 

472. Frenum. 474. Fruges. 219 

frangere. Id. Rump ere (from rapere^ plucking), tear- 
ing, separating by violent extension : Nodos et vincula linea 
rupit, Virg. Inflates rumpuntur vesiculce. Cic. Fran- 
gere fcsdus, designates the sacrilegious violation of that 
which is sacred in the foedns; Rumpere^ the violent sepa- 
ration and dissolution of the part. — Fragmentum, part of 
something broken, fragment, e.g. lapidis^ fastis ; Frustum 
(rumpere)^ di piece torn off from a whole: Frustum offcB 
cadit ex pulli ore^ quum pascitur. Cic. Viscera in frusta 
secant, Virg. Segmentum (secare)^ a piece cut off, a seg- 
ment ; this is even on the side of the cut, and thus may be 
fitted to the whole again, which the frustum cannot: PZti- 
ra sunt segmenta mundi, qua nostri circulos appellaoere. 
Plin. Quid de veste loquarJ nee vos^ segmenta, requi- 
ro, Ovid. 

472. Frenum, Lupi, Lupata, Capistrum ; Habena. 
Frenum, plur. Freni and Frena, bridle, bit; the latter is 
the original meaning : Equum coegit fr enos invitum pati, 
Phoedr. Frena injicere licenticB, Hor. Lw|?i, "wolf-bit,^' 
a sort of frenum with iron teeth, like those of wolves ; more 
frequently Lupati and Lupata : Asper equus duris con- 
tunditur ora lupatis. Ovid. Cajp is i rwm, cavesson (from 
the French cavesson, German Kappzaum, literally, Cap- 
bridle), also halter: Pullos asinorum noctihus leniter capiS' 
iris habent vinctos. Varr. ifa Jena, halter, something by 
which we may retard, relax, lead something, bridle of horses : 
Tempore paret equus lentis animosus habenis^ et placido 
duros accipit ore lupos, Ovid. 

473. Frigus, Algor (Algu), Gelu, Rigoe. Frigus^ 
the cold, which causes congealing: Tectis f rigor um vis 
pellitur, Cic. Algor, the cold which is felt, the feeling 
cold: Hostis confectus algore atque inedia, Tac. Algu, 
antiquated, the cold which withers, makes limber : Crepitans 
dentibus algu, Lucret. Gelu, the cold which makes coag^ 
ulate, congeal, the frost : Gelu que fiumina constiterint acuto. 
Hor. Rigor, the stiffness of^ frost: Bruma nives affert 
pigrumque rig or em reddit. Lucret. 

474. Fruges, Fructus, Fetus, Frumentum ; Frugi, 
Frugalis. Fruges, all fruit of the field, also of trees, as 
productions of the soil : Natura fruges ad spicam perducU 
ab herba, Cic. Fructus (Jrui), the fruit, which can be 
enjoyed, eaten; the produce, and every enjoyment, use, 
which we derive from a thing: Fructum, arbitror^ esse 

220 475. Frustra. 476. Fugere. 

fundi eum, qui ex eo satns nasdtvr utilis ad aliquam rem, 
Vfiurr. Fr ugum fructuum que reliquorum perceptio et can- 
servatio sine hominum opera nulla esse potest Cic, of the 
fruits of the field, and of the produce of meadow land, gar- 
dens, and pastures. Gloria est fructus verce virtutis. Id. 
Fetus, 445, the fruit as something produced by the process 
of generation : Ager aratur, quo meliores fetus possit et 
grandiores edere, Cic. Fetus arhorei, vinece, Virg. Fru- 
men turn, grain, as means of nourishment : Frumentum ex 
agris in loca tuta comporiatur, Cic. Frugum sunt duo 
genera : frumentum, ut triticum, hordeum ; et legumina, 
vt faba, cic'er, Plin. — Frugi, properly, useful ; acting ra- 
tionally : X. Piso tanta virtute atque integritate fuit, ut solus 
Frugi nominaretur. Cic. Proverhii locum ohtinet; homi- 
nemfrugi omnia rectefacere. Id. Frugalis is only used 
as comparative and superlative of frugi: Optimus colonuS, 
parcissimus, modestissimus, frugalissimus, Cic. 

475. Frustra, Incassum, Nequidquam, Gratis, Gra- 
TUiTO; Cassus, Irritus. In vain is given by Frustra 
{fraus), if deceived expectation and unsuccessful exertion is 
to be expressed : Obsecro, ji^ me in Icstitiam frustra con^ 
jicias, Ter. Hcec si verbis explicare conemur, frustra 
suscipiatur labor. Cic. Incassum, without effect and use: 
Gain V ana incassum jactare tela. Li v. Incassum pati 
labores. Virg. Nequidquam, without coming to the ob- 
ject, effecting any thing ; Res nequidquam erant repetita. 
Liv. Nequidquam sapit sapiens, qui ipse sibi prodesse 
non quit. Ennius; while Gratis, also Gratiis, is gratis, 
without taking or giving remuneration : Gratis rei publicce 
servire. Cic. Habitare gratis in alieno. Id. Gratuito, 
gratuitously, from mere kindness, to render himself obliging : 
Multorum causas non gravate et gratuito defendere. Cic. 
— Cassus, empty, of something hollow, e. g. nux, glans; 
hence, in vain: Cassi labores et infructuoscB preces. Plin. 
Irritus, properly, invalid; Quod modo erat ratum^ irri" 
tum est. Ter., hence, in vain, as well as not done, frustrated : 
Sternuntur segetes, longique labor perit irritus anni. Ovid. 
IrritcB preces. Plin,, without effect, useless. 

476. FuGERE, Subterfugere, Vitare, Facere fugam, 
Tergum vertere, SoLum vertere ; Fuga, Exsilium ; Fu- 
GAx, FuGiTivus, Profugus. Fugcrc, flying, retiring in 
haste from a place, and striving to get rid of a thing, with- 
drawing from it, e. g. conspectum multitudinis, laborem. 

477. Fulcire. 221 

Suhterfugere^ stealing away from, e. g. periculum: VlyS' 
ses simtdatione insanicB militiam subte rfu gere voluit. Cic. 
Vitare, avoiding, going out of the way : Eum locum si qui 
V it are voluerit^ sex millium circuitu in oppidum pervenieL 
Cobs. ColumhcB quum scepe effugissent miluum^ et celeri» 
tate penncB evitassent necem, Phaedr. Periculum fu gere^ 
flying the danger, is if we do not expose ourselves to it ; v i- 
< are, escaping it, by not falling into it. Fugam facere^ 
making flight, i. e. running away, becoming runaways : Furi' 
dam tibi nunc vellem dari^ ut tu Ulos procul hinc ex occulta 
ccederes: facerent fug am, Ter. Fug a confestim ex 
acie^ duce amisso^ fieri ccepta est, Liv., and making that 
one runs away : Anguis elapsv^ terror em fug am que fecit, 
Liv. Terga vertere^ turning the back, i. e. turning to 
flight; Hostes terga verterunt, neque priv^ fugere 
destiterunt^ quam ad flumen Rhenum pervenerint, Cses. So' 
lum vert ere, changing the soil (i. e. our country), means 
going into a foreign or other country, generally of voluntary 
exile : Qui volunt poenam aliquam suhterfugere, aut calamita- 
tem, eo solum vertunt, hoc est, sedem ac locum mviant, 
Cic, emigrating. — Fug a, flight from one's country, as mere 
removal : Oh invidias multitudinis civium expuhiones, ca- 
lamitates, fu gee, Exsilium (see 416) , the residence with- 
out one's country, in order to escape punishment, and as 
punishment, exile : Exsilium non supplicium est, sed per- 
fugium portu^que supplicii, Cic. Camillus damnatus in ex- 
silium ahiit. Liv. — Fug ax, given to flight, apt to fly, he 
wjio does not stand, and easily runs away, e. g. cervus : Fu- 
gaces labuntur anni, Hor. Fugitivus, fugitive, being on 
the flight, also a runaway slave : Dicitur tuus servus fugi- 
tivus cum Vardceis esse: ego, terra marique ut conquirere- 
tur, prcemandavi, Cic. Profugus, he who flies on in the 
wide world : Prdfugi Scythce, Hor., who have no stationary 
place, erring: Hannibal, patria profugus, pervenerat ad 
Antiochum, Liv., far away from his country. 

477. Fulcire, Sustinere, Sustentare ; Fultus^ Nixtts, 
Fretus. Fulcire, propping, supporting, giving support: 
Fulcire opus trabibus, Plin. Imperium gloria debet ful- 
tum esse et benevolentia sociorum. Cic. Sustinere, 441, 
holding upright (as we use the noun upright for a support) ; 
holding up, supporting : Senex ferula titubantes artus sus ti- 
ne t, Ovid. Milo humeris sustinebat bovem vivum, Cic. 
CcBsar lahentem excepit, fulsit et sustinuit re, fortuna, 


222 478. Fulgere. 

fide, Cic. Sustentare^ tropical, keeping up something 
from perishing, preserving, and bearing, enduring : Valetudo 
su,stentatur notitia sui corporis et observatione, qua res 
out prodesse soleant, aut ohesse, Cic. Sapientes lahorem spe 
otii sustentani. Sail. — PwZ^ms, supported, held up by a 
support: Domus fulta columnis, Propert. Nixus or Ni* 
»M«, resting on something, leaning : SccBvola, corifectus seneC' 
tute, hdstili nixus. Cic. Fret us, properly, resting on 
something ; confiding in something, relying on (which is the 
same trope): Hcec scripsi liherius, fretus consdentia of' 
fidi mei henevolenticeque. Cic. Miles, ferro et animis fre- 
ius. Liv. 

478. FuLGERE, Splendere, Lucere, Nitere, Corus* 
CARE, Radiare, Micare ; Fulgere, Fulgurare ; Fulgor, 


emitting a bright, blinding light, shining in a high degree, e. g. 
ehore et auroy purpura: Micantes fulsere gladii, Liv. 
Splendere, emitting a pure, shining light: Splendens 
Pario marmore purius. Hor. Splendens Stella Candida. 
Plaut. Lucere, giving light, emitting a light which makes 
things visible: Luna luce lucet aliena, Cic. Nitere, 
shining, of the mild shine of a pure, smooth, bright, or oily 
surface: Nit en t unguentis, fulgent purpura, Cic. ^ra 
nitent usu, Ovid. Coruscare, properly of the quivering 
of the lightning, flame, rays of light ; glittering, corruscating : 
Flammainternubes coruscat, Cic, of the lightning ; hence 
it is used of the quivering motion of slender, pointed bodies : 
Longe coruscat sarraco veniente dbies, Juvenal., active: 
Hastamque coruscat. Virg., shakes. Ji a dt are, radiating, 
sending forth rays : Radiantis imagine lunce. Virg. Mi' 
care, of rays suddenly darting forth and vanishing: Qualis 
gemma mi cat. Vii^. Mi cat ignihus cether. Id., hence of 
similar movements: Aures micantes pavidis equis. Plin. 
— (The reader will have observed, that the English language 
is peculiarly destitute of words designating with nicety either 
the degree, effect, or movement of light. Indeed, there are 
yet many other notions respecting light to be expressed, and 
are actually expressed by other languages, for which we have 
no words in English. For the varieties of sound, the English 
seems peculiarly rich. May not the reason be, that light is not 
a very prominent ingredient in the English sky, but that the 
sea-girt isle has the greatest variety of sounds daily sounding 
up to her shore ? Be that as it may, the remark applies to 

479. Fundere. 223 

the subsequent part of this section likewise.) — Fulgere, 
obsolete, lightning, of the sudden dart of the single flash of 
lightning : Antiqui ad signijicandum hanc e nuhibus suhita 
lucis eruptionem dicebant fu Igere. Senec. Fu Igura re, 
the flashing of the electric fluid in the skies, without a partic- 
ular line in which the light is concentrated, diflfusive flashing : 
Noctu magis, q uam inter diu sine tonitrihus fu Igurat. Plin. 
— Fulgor, the bright splendor of the lightning, and of sim- 
ilar flashes of light which suddenly vanish, and of emission 
of dazzhng light, e. g. armorum; Fulgnir^ the lightning as 
fiery meteor which precedes the thunder, and with equal 
rapidity darts forth and vanishes; Fulgetrum^ the light in 
the skies which lasts longer and is without thunder ; also the 
flash of lightning merely as fiery phenomenon ; Fulgurc^ 
tio^ the same, as act; Fulmen, the flash of lightning with 
brilliant light and annihilating power : Prospera Juppiter his 
dextris fulgoribus edit. Enn. Stella solis fulgore 
ohumbrantur. Senec. Credas et rapidum ^tnceo fulgur 
ab ignejaci, Ovid. Si in nube Jlatus aut vapor erumpit aV" 
dens^ fulmina oriuntur ; si longiore tractu nititwr^ ful' 
getra. Plin. Fulguratio est late ignis explicitiLS ; Fuh 
men est coaclus ignis et impetu jactus. Senec. 

479. Fundere, Profligare, Sternere, Prosterneee; 
Fundus, Pr^dium, Rus, Villa. Fundere^ pouring on the 
ground : Mer curium e patera sanguinem visum esse fun- 
dere^ qui quum terram attigisset, refervescere videretur, 
Cic, hence scattering, dispersing an army already beaten : 
Ex Uteris hostium exercitum casum fu sum que cognovi, Cic. 
Legiones^ item classes fusee fugatceque. Sail. Profit» 
gare, beating down to the ground along before one : Adem 
hostium. Cic. Classem hostium primo impetu profligavi. 
CsBs. Commissum ac profligatum bellum conficere, Liv., 
pretty nearly finishing. Sterner e^ strewing (German streu» 
en, which is of the same root with the Latin) on the ground, 
extending, stretching on the ground : Semitam saxo quadrcUo 
straverunt. Liv. Stravit pelliculis hcedinis lectulos. 
Cic, and forcibly, violently stretching on the ground, throw- 
ing to the ground; Turbam invadite, ac sternite omnia 
ferro, Liv., see Torrens, 456. Prosternere, stretching 
down to the ground, cutting down: Se ad pedes; corpora 
humi, Liv. Communis Mars belli utramque adem pari cade 
prostravit. Id. He who is profligatus, has been deprived 
of the power of resistance ; the prostratus, of the courage 

224 480. Funus. 

and energy. — Fundtts^ the soil, inasmuch as it is the 
ground and substratum ; and a real estate (as this is called 
in German, likewise, a Grundstiick, a ground-piece ; it is 
also called lying property, i. e. not movable ; and the Latin 
Fundus leads to the same original meaning, fundere^ see 
above) : Fundus dicitur ager^ quod planus sit ad similitU' 
dinem fundi vasorum. Festus. Fundum alienum arat^ 
incultum familiarem deseriL Plaut. Mancipio fundum ac- 
cept, Cic, a farm with the appertaining land; Prcedium^ a 
farm, which as free property (fee simple) of a Roman citizen 
(dominium quiritarium)^ might be pledged as bail, mortgage, 
&c., for which reason it must lie in Italy, or at least in a 
province which had Jv^ Latii : Patres^ si quihas argentum 
in prcBsentia deesset^ dandam ex arario pecuniam mutuam^ 
prcBdibusque ac pradiis cavendum populo^ censehant. Liv. 
JRm*, a farm, with regard to its rurality, i. e. contradistinction 
to the residence in town, with its privation of pure air, rural 
scenery, &c. ; see 50. Villa, a. country seat, with the pre- 
dominating idea of the edifice, villa : Accepit agrum tempori' 
hus iis, quum jacerent pretia prcediorum : qui ager neque 
V ill am Jiahuit, neque fuit cultus, Cic. Fundi appellatione 
omne cBdificium et omnis ager continetur : sed in usu urhana 
(Bdificia, odes; rustica, villcB dicuntur, Digg. 

480. Funus, Exsequi^, Pompa, Sepultuea, Humatio, 


LiA, Inferi^. Funus (Gothic Fun, for fire, which is the 
root of the German Funke, spark), funeral, inasmuch as the 
body was burnt; see 155. Huic vivo funus ducitur, Cic. 
ExsequicB, sc, res, the funeral procession, with every thing 
belonging to it ; properly, the funeral suit (the following) : 
Mater exsequias illivs funeris prosecuta. Cic. Pom- 
p fl, is the same, yet with the idea of solemnity and pomp ; 
pompous or magnificent funeral : Publici funeris pompa. 
Tac. Spoliatum cadaver imaginibus, exsequiis, pompa, 
laudatione, canibus dilaniandum reliquisti. Cic. Sepultu- 
ra, the mode in which a dead body is brought under ground, 
the peculiar manner of burying, the burial : Antiquissimo 
sepulturcB genere redditur terrce corpus, et ita locaium ac 
situm operimento matris ohducitur, Cic. Humatio, inter- 
ment, as actfon ; Just a, the last marks of honor or feverence, 
prescribed by law or custom, which we feel bound to pay to 
a departed person: Nondum omnia patemo funeri justa 
solvit» Cic. — Funebris, that which is becoming for a 

481. Fungi. 482. Fur. 225 

corpse, relating to it ; laudatio^ epulum, vestimenti genus. Cic. 
Funereus, peculiar to a corpse, belonging to it; Ter omen 
fun er BUS bubo letali carmine fecit. Ovid. Pyram fronde 
coronal fu nerea. Virg. , with cypresses. Fu nestus, mourn- 
ful : Familia fu nest a fratris morte. Liv. Fu nestus dies 
Alliensis. Cic. FeraZis, agreeing with a funeral: Tata' 
men exsiincto feralia munera ferto. Ovid., hence, — Fe- 
ralia sc. sacra^ the annual feast of the dead: Hanc quia 
justa ferunt^ dixere Feralia lucem. Ovid. Infer ice^ 
sacrifices which brought on the feralia^ on the seventeenth 
or twenty-first of February, on the tombs of the departed : 
Inferias exstincio mittere Phoco. Ovid. 

481. Fungi, De — Perfungi, Administrare, Obibe. 
Fungi, getting through with something, finishing it; per- 
forming an oflBce, business, with pleasure and satisfaction on 
account of success : Fundus erat dapibus. Ovid. ConsU" 
lentibus respondens senectutis non inertis grato atque honesto 
fungebar munere. Cic. Defungi^ getting through with 
something entirely, getting off, especially off from something 
onerous, e. g. honoribus^ cura^ labore, poena: Maximo se 
affectum beneficio putavit, quum tribus decumis pro una de- 
fungeretur. Cic. Perfungi, getting through a thing 
entirely, passing through a sufferance^ at last having it be- 
hind one's self, serving through a difficulty, as it were, sur- 
mounting : Eis favemuSy qui eadem pericula, quibus nos 
perfuncti sumus, ingrediuntur. Cic. Administrare^ 
making the minister, i. e. the servant in some affair or busi- 
ness, directing, administering it by one's services, attention, 
handling a business, e. g. bellum, navem: Administrat 
ad rem divinam tibi. Plaut. Postulate rem publicam suSci* 
piant atque una secum administrent. Caes. Toti officio 
maritimo M. Bibulus prcepositus cuncta administrabat. 
Id. Ob ire, tending, keeping, attending, e. g. sacra, bellum^ 
negotium, res suas : Rex certamini non adfuit, quum imperu" 
tor Romanus omnia militaria munera ipse impigre obiret. 

482. Fur, Latro, Frjedo, Pirata; Furari, Rapeee, 
DiRiPERE. Fur {ferre, carrying off), a thief, he who car- 
ries off the property of others secretly and with bad intent of 
appropriation: XII. iabulce nocturnum furem interfici im^ 
pune voluerunt. Cic. Latro (Gallic Ladraw, robber), high- 
way robber, he who publicly and forcibly, and armed, attacks 
others and takes property from them: Subitolatroncs e» 

226 483. Furia. 485. Garrulus. 

insidiis advolant, interque ccedem diripiunt nummos, Phsedr. 
PrcBdo^ 334, a robber, he who goes out and robs, on land 
or water: Maritimos prcedottes consectando mare tutum 
reddidit. Nep. Pirdta, one who ranges {mlgto) the sea 
with the view of robbing, a pirate, corsair : Belli more, non 
latrociniorum, orbem classibus pirates terrehant, Vellei. — 
Furari, stealing: Solet hcec, qua rapuit et furatus 
est, nonnunquam dicere, se emisse. Cic. Rap ere, robbing, 
hastily and forcibly : Vivebat latronum ritu, ut tantum hahe' 
ret, quantum rap ere potuisset, Cic. Diripere, 131, plun- 
dering: Expilare socios,dirip ere provincias. Cic, Mith' 
ridates res ex tota Asia direptas in suum regnum conges^ 
serat. Id. 

4^3. FuRiJE, DiRJE, EuMENiDES. The furies, furious 
spirits of torment, were called Fur ice, as avengers of evil 
deeds, by causing disquiet within the malefactor ; they are 
the personified bad conscience; they are called Dirce, 122, 
as bringing woe, the terrific; Eumenides, the gracious, 
poetic, when, from reverential fear, their true name was not 
pronounced : Furies d^ece sunt speculatrices et vindices fa' 
dnorum et scelerum, Cic. Ultricesque sedent in limine Di- 
m. Virg. 


484. Ganeo, Nepos, Asotus. Ganeo (ganeum, a cook's 
shop, where people satisfied their palate and gave themselves 
up to voluptuousness), the glutton, the dissipated fellow, who 
is always to be found where there is dissipation, where peo- 
ple administer to theu* sensual appetites, in whatever way that 
may be: Ganeones nostri, quihus modulus est vitce culina, 
Varr. Nep o s, properly, nephew, grandchild ; a rake, spend- 
thrift : Perditus ac profusus nepos, qui non adesa jam, sed 
ahundanti pecunia sic dissolutu^ fait, Cic. ^ so <U5, an in- 
satiate and insatiable voluptuary : Si Jinitas cupiditates hahe' 
rent luxuriosi non essent asoti, Cic. (From the Greek 
aaojTogf of « — awfw, not to be saved.) 

485. Garrulus, Loquax. Garrulus {garrire), chat- 
tering, making a noise like a rivulet, of no great rapidity, if 
slightly but repeatedly beating against rocks ; it is the open 
i^und, not the subdued one expressed by murmuring ; the a 

486. Gaudere. 488. Genius. 227 

in garrulus, chattering^ the Scottish clabbering, the German 
plappern, and similar words of so many other languages, in- 
dicates the open sound ; hence, making much noise of this or 
some similar sort, e. g. hirundo, rivus ; talkative, garrulous, a 
talker, a chatter- box: Percontatorem fugito ; nam garru* 
J.US est, Hor. Loquax, loving or ready to speak, also 
talkative: Senectus est natura loquacior, Cic. The Gar- 
rulus chatters away without thought or sense ; the Loquax 
finds always some subject or other to talk upon. 

486. Gaudere, LiETARi ; Hilaris, L^tus. Gaudere, 
rejoicing at, indicates the emotion which is caused by the 
delight at a real or imagined good; L atari, being glad, 
rejoicing, indicates the state when joy affects us ; it is the 
consequence of joy within : Quum privamur dolore, ipsa libc' 
ratione molestim gaudemus : omne autem id, quo gaud C' 
mus,voluptas est. Cic. Lcetaris tu in omnium gemitu^et 
triumphas. Id. — Hilaris, obsolete Hilar us (the same 
root with the German hell, i. e. bright, shining, serene), glad, 
gladly disposed, happy, if this indicates our feeling : Hilar i 
animo esse et prompto ad jocandum, Cic. Lcetus, glad, in a 
higher degree, merry, frolicsome, used of the effects of joy, 
which show themselves in exciting our spirits, and the exter- 
nal manifestation of this effect, happy, as used in this sense : 
LcBtus sum laudari me a laudato viro. Cic. Videbant 
Catilinam alacrem atque Icetum. Id. 

487. Generalis, Universalis. Generalis, general, 
with reference to the kind (genus) ; generalis, therefore, is 
that which is constituted like all the species of the same 
genus; Universalis, common, referring to a whole, so 
constituted, or of such a character, as all individuals which 
belong to a whole (universum) must be, are: Generale 
quoddam decorum intelligimus, quod in omni honestate versa» 
tur. Cic. In constitutionibus principum nihil inveniebam aut 
proprium, aut universale, quod ad Bithynos ferretur, 

488. Genius, Lares, Penates; Genialis, Genitalis, 
Genitivus. Genius, the protecting or directing, influenc- 
ing spirit which presides over human nature, and watches 
over the procreation, birth, and life of a human being, and 
even after death continues to act protectingly in the Lar ; 
hence the constant endeavour to keep him well-disposed, and 
to reconcile him in misfortune which had befallen the indi- 
vidual : Scit Genius, natale comes qui temper at cistrum. 

328 489. Gens. 

naturcB deus humana, Hor. Suum genium defraudare* 
Ter., not to allow one's self any comfort, denying one's self 
the necessary things. Lares, house and family gods of the 
Romans, whose little images stood upon the hearth, sacred to 
them, and under which the families paid honor to their de- 
parted forefathers. There were likewise public Lares, as 
patrons of cities, streets, and peasants: Ego Lar sum Fa^ 
miliaris, ex hac familia, unde exeuntem me adspexistis, hanc 
domiim jam multos annos est quum possideo. Plaut. Parvo 
Sub I are pauperum comes. Hor., the house itself. Penates 
(compare Penes, 22.), private deities, of which every family 
chose for patrons, while the Lares were only worshipped 
men ; they were also worshipped as publici in the Atrium or 
Impluvium (Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Vesta), on the Capitoli- 
um, and from them were expected blessing, nourishment, 
prosperity : Dii patrii ac penates, qui huic urhi atque kuic 
imperio prcesidetis. Cic. Exterminahit cives Romanes edicto 
consul a suis penatihus? Id., out. of their houses. — Ge-» 
nialis, constituted agreeably or conformably to the Gentus, 
as the giver of joy and all comfort, festival-like, e. g. lectus^ 
the marriage bed; Invitat genialis hiems, curasque resoU 
vit. Virg., the time when the farmer rests and enjoys comfort 
Genitalis, that which has the capacity of procreation or 
generation: Quatuor genitalia corpora mundus continet. 
Ovid. Elements. Dies genitalis. Tac, birthday, inas- 
much as from its constellation the astrologer or reader of 
nativity divines the future fate of an individual; n at alia, 
birthday, inasmuch as it is the day on which he was bom. 
Genitivus, that which has remained ever since tne birth, 
that which we brought with us into the world : Augustus coT' 
pore tradiiur maculoso, dispersis per pectus atque ahum 
genitivis notis. Suet., moles. (Innate, when applied to 
inborn ideas, must be given by innatus; genitivus is only 
that which we have from our generation, the procreation of 
the individual.) 

489. Gens, Familia, Genus, Stirps, Prosapia ; Ge- 
nus, Natio, Populus; Gentilis, Gentilicius, Genticijs. 
Gens, a. clan or race, as a multitude of persons who are able 
to prove their descent, through all possible degrees of consan- 
guinity, to the same progenitor {genitor); Familia, 372, 
that branch of the gens who belong, as nearest kinsmen (re- 
lations by consanguinity), to a descendant of such a genitor, 
in direct line. Those who belonged to one gens had the 

489. Gens, ' 229 

common name of the genitor (nomen) ; those that belong to 
the same familia^ have in addition the name of the family 
father {cognomen). Thus the Gens Cornelia^ descending 
from one Cornelius, branched out in the families, Comelii 
Scipiones^ Cornelii Dolabellce^ Cornelii Cethegi^ CorneUi 
Sullce^ Cornelii Cinnce^ etc. Ex gente Domitia dua fa- 
mi lice claruerunt^ Calvinorum et Mnoharhorum, Suet. Gs' 
nus^ the race or kind, genus, with reference to the common 
qualities or distinctions which all individuals of the same pro- 
creator have, e. g. genus humanum, genus acre leonum: 
Non idem mihi licet^ quod iis^ qui nobili gen ere naii sunt. 
Cic. Stirps^ trunk, chief part of a plant, and of a whole 
race or people, i. e. the two first progenitors, from which, as 
from a trunk, all descendants, like branches, went forth ; and 
these descendants themselves, inasmuch as they form one 
whole: Atticus Juniam familiam a stirpe ad hanc cetU' 
tem enumeravit. Nep. Horatius orabat^ ne S6, qttem paulq 
ante cum egregia stirpe conspexissent^ orbum liberis face- 
rent, Liv., with his stock or race. Prosapia^ properly, the 
distant relationship ; an ancient, extensive clan, inasmuch as 
an individual descends from it: Homo veteris prosapicB ac 
multarum imaginum. Sail. — A whole people is called GenSy 
as race descending from the same founder, parent : Segm 
Condrusique ex gente et numero Germanorum, Cses. Sue- 
vorum gens est longe maxima et bellicosissima Germanorum 
omnium. Id. Genus, as a genus of people, a species of 
nations, distinguished by characteristics common to all mem- 
bers, from other nations : Nostrorum virtuti consilia GaUo' 
rum occurrebant^ ut est summon genus sollerticB atque ad 
omnia imitanda et efficienda^ qua ab quoque traduntur^ aptiS' 
simum, Caes. Natio^ a people, with regard to their birth in 
a common country, and the peculiar character which results 
from this fact: Suevorum non una^ "ni Chaitorum Tenctero- 
rumve, gens, major em enim Germanice partem obtinent^ pro^ 
priis adhuc nationibus nominibusque discreti, quamquam 
in commune Suevi vocantur. Insigne gentis^ obliquare 
crinem nodoque substringere, Tac. Natio est omnium Gal- 
lorum admodum dedita religionibus, Cses. (Hence does 
natio signify a set of people who agree in character, as con- 
sequence of the same profession, endeavour, &c., e. g. naiio 
candidatorum.) Populus^di people, as state, or inasmuch 
as it is a society of free citizens, kept together by the com- 
mon band of government: Populus est coetus midtiiiuiinisy 


230 490. Gestire. 492. Gladius. 

juris consensu et utilitalis communione consodatus, Cic. 
Na tiones ftra et populi ingentes vi suhacti. Sail. Scipio 
llergetum gent em quum infesto exercitu invasisset^ Athana' 
giam urbem^ qtuB caput ejus populi erat^ circumsedit, Liv., 
gen tern, as a people of a common descent, which, however, 
as political body, populus^ had their capital. — Gentilis^ 
one of the same race or stock, ^ ens; akin hy gens: Phe- 
recydes Syrius fait meo regnante gent Hi. Cic. The gen^ 
til is of Tullius Cicero was TuUius Hostilius. Gentilicius, 
peculiar or common to gentiles: Gentilicia sacra, Liv., 
family sacrifices. Genticus^ common or peculiar to a tribe, 
people, as of common descent (gens)-^ national : Servitia^ 
quihus more gentico continuum ferri tegimen. Tac. 

490. Gestire, Exsilire, Exsultare. Gestire^ 301, 
giving to understand, manifesting by position, bearing, and 
movement (gestus)^ of the body one's emotions, especially 
joy, desire: Licet ora ipsa cemere eorum^ qui voluptate 
nimia gestiunt: quorum vultus^ voces^ motus statusque mu- 
tantur. Cic. Gestit animus aliquid agere in re publica. 
Id. Exsilire^ leaping out of, up, leaping for joy: Litefis 
perlectis^ exsilui gaudio, Cic. Exsultare, jump, re- 
peatedly and wildly, of delight : Vacca ex suit at in herhis. 
Ovid. Alacris ex suit at improhitas in victoria, Cic, ex- 

491. GiGNERE, Generare, Parere, Procreare. Gig' 
nere (from geno : Principium genendi, Varr.), producing 
something out of itself, begetting: Pisces ova quum genue- 
runt^ relinquunt, Cic. Artis proprium est create et gig^ 
nere. Id. Generare, producing something begotten, pro- 
ducing, generating; it designates the effect o£ gignere: 
Placet Stoicis, qua in terra gignantur^ ad usum hominum 
omnia creari, homines autem hominum causa esse genera- 
tos^ut ipsi inter se aliis alii prodesse possent, Cic. Pare* 
re, giving birth, bringing forth : Vt ea liheros ex sese pare» 
ret, quos quum videret, Icetaretur, Cic. Gallina peperit 
ovum. Id, Cuilaurus honores peperit. Hot, Procreare 
(see 286.), producing something, giving it existence and pre- 
senting it as something produced, something having come 
forth, without reference to begetting : Hcec terra, qtUB te 
procreavit, est patria tua, Cic. 

492. Gladius, Ensis, Agin aces, Sica, Pxtgio. Gla- 
dius, the sword for cut and thrust; Ensis, the longer 
sword, more adapted for the blow or cut, hence with heroes 

493. Gradus. 494. Gramen. 231 

and gigantic people : Graviter glad io caput percussit, Hirt. 
Stricto gladio transfigit puellam. Liv. Hectoreo percvlsus 
concidit ense, Cic. J. cin aces, the crooked Persian sabre; 
Sica (secare)^ a short cutlass used by banditti; Pugio 
(pungere)^ a stiletto, dirk: Tibi extorta est sic a de mani" 
bus. Cic. CcBsare interfecto statim cruentum alte extollit 
Brutus pugionem. Id. 

493. Gradus, Gressus, Passus, Incessus ; Gradatim, 
Pedetentim, Sensim, Paulatim. Gradtts, the step which 
a walker makes : Gradum accelerare ; Aciem pleno gradu 
in hostem inducers, Liv., quicker than in the gradus mili' 
taris and gradus modicus, Stahili gradu impetum hos» 
Hum excipere. Id., in a position stepping forward ; hence the 
step of a staircase, of a ladder, and the measure of the steps 
of a person walking to and fro : Elaium e curia in inferior em 
partem per gradus dejicit, Liv. Honorum gradus sum- 
mis hominibus et inflmis sunt pares. Cic. GressMS, Supinal 
form, the stepping, the making steps: Veniebat gressu 
languido, Phsedr. Passus, the step, the extension of the 
legs from one another in walking, and, as measure, five Ro- 
man feet ( pedes) : Sequiturque patrem non passibus aquis. 
Virg. TJt ab urbe abesset millia passuum ducenta. Cic, 
Incessus, the walk, as peculiar manner of walking : Tenero 
et molli ingressu suspendimus gradum: non ambulamusj 
sed incedimus. Senec. — Gradatim, step by step, and 
gradually, signifies slowly one thing or act afler the other, in 
measured points of rest or stops: Gradatim adscendere 
vocem utile et suave est, Cic. Pedetentim, foot af\er foot, 
step by step, slowly, gradually, and cautiously : Viam pede* 
tentim tentabam, Cato. Nihil condone tua sapientius : ita 
pedetentim et gradatim turn accessus a te ad causam 
facti, turn recessus. Cic. Sensim, gradually, imperceptibly ; 
of a continuous yet hardly perceptible following upon one 
another: Sensim sine sensu cBtas senescit, Cic. Nilus in* 
cipit crescere sensim modiceque, Plin. Paulatim, grad- 
ually, slowly, a continuous following upon one another, yet 
so that each time the state or position of the thing changes 
but very little : Paulatim adnabam terra, Virg. 

494. Gramen, Herba, Fcenum. Gramen, grass in 
general, as fresh, green, and growing, with narrow leaves and 
blades, on which each blossom brings but one grain ; Herba^ 
herb, the sprouts of the grass or any other plant which come 
directly out of the ground, before it has a blade, stalk, 

232 495. GraVm, 496. Gravis. 

stem, or trunk: Jacere in tenaci gr amine» Hor. Injussa 
virescunt gramina, Virg. Fetialis ex arce graminis 
herb am puram attulit. Liv. Ut sulcis frumenti qucereret 
herb am. Virg. Fcenum^ hay, mown and dried grass: 
FcBnum siccatum in metas exstruere, Colum. 

495. Gratus, Memor ; Grates s. Gratias agere, Gra- 
TiAM habere, referre, reddere, facere. Gratus^ 311^ 
grateful, thankful, one who manifests his gratitude ; Memor j 
he who remembers a benefaction, who does not forget kind 
acts: Bene de me meritis gratum me prceheo, Cic. Socios 
BithynicR^ si iis commodaris, memo res esse et gratos cog' 
nosces. Id. — Grates^ poetical, and Gratias agere^ ex- 
pressing thanks, orally or by writing : Mihi senatits singula- 
ribus verbis gratias egit, Cic. Gratiam habere^ 
having grateful feelings, feeling one's self obliged, being con- 
scious of kindness bestowed upon one's self, and feeling 
grateful consequently; referre^ returning a kind act, prov- 
ing one's gratitude: Inops etiam si referre gratiam non 
potest^ habere certe potest, Cic, also, Maximas tibi^ Pan- 
sa, gratias omnes et habere et agere debemus. W. 
Gratiam reddere, returning an act of kindness with an 
equivalent or similar one, paying off one's debt of gratitude : 
Quoad vives, nunquam redditam gratiam putaveris. Sail., 
requiting entirely, perfectly. Gratiam facere, giving up 
something, claim, &c., from kindness : Omnium tibi, qua 
impie nefarieque es ausus, gratiam facto. Liv, 

496. Gravis, Onerosus; Gravare, Gravari ; Gravi- 
DtJS, Fetus, Prjegnans. Gravis, heavy by its weight, 
also, oppressive, difficult to he borne : Aureum amicvJum 
Jovis Olympii grandi pondere astate grave esse. Cic. 
Graves hostilibus spoliis naves. Liv., heavily laden. Gra» 
ve omne insuetis onus. Phaedr. Verebar, ne mihi gravis 
esses. Cic. Onerosus, onerous, if something is a heavy 
load for us, e. g. prceda: Onerosa gravis que esse potest 
imbellibus hasta lacertis. Ovid. — Gravare, making heavy, 
adding weight: Poma gravantia ramos. Ovid. Muli 
gravati sarcinis. Phaedr. Grauari, going with difficulty 
to a task, shunning: Non gravabor de amidtia disputetre^ 
Cic. — Gravidas, full of something, and thus being heavy, 
pregnant, e. g. arista, pecus : Qui manus attulit steriles intro, 
gravidas for as exportat. Plant. ' Fetus, that which is 
provided with generative power, capacity of procreation ; 
that which can produce a fruit, has produced it, or is produc* 

497. Guhemaculum, 500, Chitta, 233 

ing it, e.g. pregnant with it: Ubi visceribus gravida 
telhiris imago ejecta est hominis, f^to consurgit in arvo. 
Ovid., capable of producing, fecund. Prcegnans {prcB — 
gignere)^ in the last stages of pregnancy, near delivery. 

497. GuBERNAcuLUM, Clavus. Gubemaculum^ the 
rudder; Clavus^ properly, a nail, plug; the helm of the 
rudder, and the rudder itself with the helm : Naufragus ad 
guhemaculum accessil et navi est opitulatus. Cic. Gt«- 
hernaior clavum tenens sedet in puppi. Id. Clavum im* 
perii tenere et guhernacula reipublicce tractare. Id. 

498. GuRGEs, VoRAGO, Barathrum. Gurges^ eddy: 
Rheni fossa, gurgitibus redundans, Cic. Vorago, a 
depth, a very deep abyss, which devours every thing which 
falls into it, i. e. every thing that falls into which perishes ; 
applied to water, it means a vortex, an extensive eddy, which 
draws things in, whirling them to the centre, and thence to 
the ground : Forum medium speai vasto collapsum in immen- 
sam aliiliulinem diciiur, neque earn voraginem conjectu 
terrcB expleri potuisse. Liv. Dionysius quum equum demisis* 
set in Jlumen, submersus equus voraginibus non exstitit, 
Cic. Gurges ac v or ago patrimonii. Id. Gurges, re- 
specting the quantity which the spendthrift makes pass 
through his gullet ; Vorago^an insatiable vortex. Bara* 
thrum, n bottomless abyss, respecting the enormous depth: 
Imo barathri gurgite vastos sorbet in abruptum fluctus, 

499. GusTus, GusTATUs, Sapor. Gustus, the taste, the 
sensation on the tongue in tasting something : Dominus ipse 
panis bonUatem gustu suo exploret. Colum. Gustatus, 
the taste or tasting, as effect of the tasted thing upon the 
nerves of taste and the sense of taste, the faculty of taste : 
Pomorum jucundus non gustatus solum, sed odoratus etiam. 
Cic. Gustatus sentire eorum, quibus vesdmur, genera 
debet. Id. Sap o r, taste of a thing, that quality of producing, 
by contact with the nerves of taste, an effect peculiarly per- 
ceived by them : Mel suo proprio genere sap or is dtdce 
esse seniitur. Cic. 

500. GuTTA, Still A, Stiria. Gutta, the drop in a 
globular form : Numerum in cadentibus guttis, quod inter- 
vallis distinguuntur, notare possumus. Gutta cavat lapi- 
dem non vi, sed scepe cadendo. Ovid. Still a, the drop 
falling down, and which in so doing becomes extended, 
oval, or long: Interit magnitudine maris JEgcd still a 


294 501. Hdbena, 503. Hahitus. 

muria. Cic. Stiria^ the pending, also the frozen drop: 
Turpis ab inviso pendebat stiria naso. Martial. Stiria* 
que induruit horrida harbis, Virg. 


501. Habena, Lorum, Corrigia, Amentitm. Habena^ 
472, the thong for holding (habere) or pulling, of a sling, 
shoes: Equus liber habenis, Virg. Fundam Mezentitts 
adductd circum caput egit habena. Id. Lorum^Vi thong 
to tie or bind, to hold something together or fast, also for the 
rein: Lor is ccedere^ equos ducere. Id. Corrigia, a thin 
thong for tying, pulling together, a string : Pedis ojensia et 
abruptio corrigia, Cic. ilmen/ttm, a thong in the mid- 
dle of the spear, for throwing, to give it more force by a 
swing: Inserit am en to digitos et torsit jaculum, Ovid. 

502. Habere, Possidere, Tenere, Esse alicui; Habi- 
Lis, Capax. Habere, having, of every sort of property; 
Possidere^ possessing, inasmuch as we alone have the 
thing, may freely use it, and freely dispose of it; Ten^re^ 
holding, in the hands, or by way of possessing, inasmuch as 
we maintain our possession of a thing, are actually holding 
it; Mi hi est^l have, when merely the existence of a pos- 
session for me is meant: Domus tibi deer at 7 At habebas, 
Cic, as proprietor. Iste tum^ quum omnia tenebat^ non est 
ausus meam domum possidere. Id., as sole owner, master; 
tenebat,he who would not allow himself to be dispossessed. 
Danao quinquaginta fuerunt Jilice, Cic, they were there 
for him, extant; habuit Jilias^ they belonged to him. — 
Habilis^ 14, that which is easily held, which allows itself 
easily to be treated ; comfortable, because it fits well : Caleei 
habile s et apti ad pedem. Cic Capax, capacious, spa- 
cious, that which can contain, hold much, e. g. domus : Puer 
animi ad prcBcepta capacis. Ovid. 

503. Habitus, Vestitus, Amictus. Habitus, the pe- 
culiar manner of dress, according to substance and form^ 
dress, e. g. scenicus, triumphalis ; Vestitus, the dress itself^ 
inasmuch as it covers the body, garment; Amictus, the 
outer dress, which strikes the eye, garb, ornamenting or em- ' 
bellishing dress: Vestitu catceatuque et cetera kabitu n& 

504. Harere. 507. Heu. 235 


virili quidem ustLs est. Suet. Appuleius specie et motu atque 
ipso amictu capiebat homines. Cic. 

504. H^RERE, Pendere. Hcsrere^ hanging to some- 
thing, adhering, not to be able to separate from it: Haret 
OS fauce ; senex in equo ; laxus in pede calceus. Hor. Pen* 
dere^ hanging in a pending position, pending, hanging down : 
Pendent poma in arhore. Virg. 

505. Haurire, Sorbere. Haurire^ taking part of a 
larger mass up and out: Aqua e puteo hausta. Cic. Mid" 
tos hausit flamma, gurges. Liv., devouring in mass. Sor^ 
here, drawing in a liquid, not in large draughts, but witii 
half-closed lips, gradually, and with pleetsure. I believe the 
only word which comes near it is sucking; it is between 
sipping and drawing (in German schlurfen) : Animalia^ qui' 
his continui denies^ s or hent^ut equi^hoves, Plin. Medicus 
ohiit^ dum mulsi potionem haurit; alivs^ quum mulsum W- 
hisset ovumque sorberet. Id. 

506. Hereditas, Patrimonium, Peculium ; Hereditatem 
CERNERE, ADiRE. Hcrcditas (Aere5, heir; originally, the 
acquirer of a piece of earth ; in German, the former Erbe^ 
the latter Erde)^ inheritance in general: Hereditas est 
pecunia^ qucB morte alicujus ad quempiam pervenit jure, Cic. 
Patrimonium^ patrimony, the property which the freebom 
Roman father left to his children as lawful property : Optima 
hereditas a patribus traditur liberis^ omnique patrimo' 
nio prcBstantior^ gloria virtutis rerumque gMarum. Id. 
Peculium (pecus)^ the peculiar small property which one 
has saved, especially a son as soldier (castrense), by other 
occupations or pursuits {quasi castrense)^ by paternal grants 
or allowances {profecticium)^ by inheritance on the maternal 
side {adventicium)^ or what a slave saves with the permission 
of the master : Servi cupiditate peculii nullam conditionem 
recusant durissimce servitutis. Cic. — Hereditatem cer- 
nere^ viewing the inheritance, examining it, meant, if the 
heir by testament (neither son nor slave of the testator), de- 
clared solemnly, only after a period of five days, that he was 
willing to become heir; a dire, when he solemnly took pos- 
session of the inheritance : Pridie Nonas Februarias crevi 
hereditatem. Cic. Arehias adiit hereditates civinm 
Romanorum. Id. 

507. Heu, Heus. Heu, alas! ah! is the exclamation 
of pain; Heus, hah! listen! if some one's attention is 
called to listen : Heu me miserumf Ter. A. Heus Geta! 

236 508. Hiare. 509. Hie. 

— G. Hem tihi! Id. Heus ! uhiesti8 7 ecquis hoc aperit 
ostium ? Plaut., holla ! 

508. HiARE, HiscERE, Dehiscere, Fatiscere ; Hiatus, 
Rictus, ilia re, yawning, opening wide the mouth: Hia- 
vit humus multa vasta et profunda. Sail., also opening the 
mouth wide from surprise or greediness : Emtorem inducers 
hiantem, Hor. Hiscere and Dehiscere^ designates the 
beginning of this action, opening itself, yawning, as we use 
it of an abyss: Respondebisne ad hac? aut omnino hiscere 
audebis? Cic, opening the mouth. In dehiscentem tn- 
tervallis hostium aciem equites emisit. Liv. Fatiscere 
(fatis^ 10.), properly, bursting of too much ; cracking, 
getting crevices from dryness, &c. : Naves rimis fatis- 
cunt, Virg. 

509. Hic, Ille, Is, IsTE ; Hic, Illic, Ibi, Inibi, Ibidem, 
IsTic. By Hic^ this, the speaker points at an object; by 
Hic^ here, at a condition near, locally and in mind ; by lU 
Ze, that, and //Zic, there, he points at the opposite, . more 
remote object ; hence Hi c is used, also, for present, and that 
which is at present ; Ille<, famous, renowned by the tradition, 
report, &c., which tells of remote things, speaking of some- 
thing which everybody knows, and hence may be pointed at 
at once : Tu si hic sis, aliter censeas. Ter., this one here, 
i. e. on the spot where he stands, pointing at himself. Negli- 
genter scribimus adversaria; diligenter conficimus tabulas. 
H(Bc delentur statim; illce servantur sancte, Cic. /s, he, 
that one, the one, points, for the benefit of the addressed per- 
son, at an object only as known, already mentioned; Iste, 
that one there, as one to whom he ought to direct now his 
particular attention : Fuit olim hinc quidam mercator ; navem 
is /regit apud Andrum insulam: is obiit mortem, Ter. At 
istosrastrostamen inter ea adpone, ne labor a. Id. Si ami' 
citiam adfructum nostrum referemus, non erit ista amidtia, 
sed mercatura qucedam utilitatum suarum, Cic. Hi c segetes^ 
illic veniunt felicius tpcBy arborei fetus alibi, Virg. Ibi 
(is, in the ancient dative form), there, even there, at the spot : 
JDemaratus fugit Tarquinios Corintho, et ibi fortunas stias 
constituit, Cic. Inibi, in the place, in the thing itself, ex- 
pressing in a stronger way its existence : Hannibalem Capua 
corrupitj et superbia nata inibi esse hcBcvidetur, Cic, even 
there. Ibidem, at the same spot: Si Thessalonicce erit 
causa, aut ibidem opperiar, aut me ad te conferam, Cic 
I«itc, there, at that place, where the addressed person ia: 

510. Hirtus, 513. Horreum, 237 

Ibi malis esse^ uhi aliquo numero sis^ quam is tic, ubi solus 
sapere videare. Cic. 

510. Hirtus, Hirsutus, Hispidus, Pilosus, Villosxts, 
Setosus. Hirtus, properly applies to hair standing up; 
that which is rough to the touch: Barba vivos hirtaque 
decent in corpore seta. Ovid. Hirsutus, provided with 
stiff hair, bristles, pricks: BesticB spinis hirsutcB. Cic, and 
of the hair itself, if singly the hairs stand upward : ConuB 
hirsutcB et intonscB sunt. Curt. Hispidus, VII, rough, of 
stiff hair standing close together, e. g. sus : Tiberini frons 
hispid a manat imbribus, Claud ian. In the words Pilo» 
sus, full of hair, Villosus, shaggy, »jSeio5tts, full of bris- 
tles, the species of covering hair is more particularly indi- 
cated : PiloscB gencB ; Pellis villosi leonis ; Setosa 

511. Homo, Vir. Homo, man, as the nobler, rational 
creature, in conrtradistinction to the brute; Fir, man, inas- 
much as he is distinguished by peculiar qualities from other 
men (mares, 260.) by strength, courage, intrepidity, merits, 
honorable offices : Mariv^ tulit dolorem ut vir; et, uthomo^ 
majorem ferre sine causa necessaria noluit. Cic. 

512. HoNos, HoNORES, MuNus ; Honestare, Honorare. 
Hon OS {Honor only from the third century; originally 
spite, German Hohn, Gell. 12. 9.), honor, mark of honor, by 
which we manifest our esteem and approbation to a person 
on account of his worth or merit: Honos est pmmium vir* 
tutis, judicio studioque civium delatum ad aJiquem, Cic. ; 
hence, a public office, connected with honor and authority, 
generally in the plural. Honor es, places of honor, which, 
in Rome, were without salary: Hie ipse honos, delatus ad 
me, testis est innocentice meee. Liv. Munus, 373, an office, 
inasmuch as it is connected with burden and expense, without 
reference to dignity : Non surdus judex huic muneri atque 
officio prceest. Cic. — Honestare, making honorable, giv- 
ing honor and authority; Honorare, honoring, showing 
honor to: Domino domus honestanda est. Cic. Am» 
phiaraum sic honoravit fama Gmcia, ut dens habere" 
tar. Id. 

513. Horreum, Granarium, Cumera. Horreum, the 
barn ; every storehouse, magazine, but especially of grain : 
llliv^ immenscB ruperunt horrea messes. Virg. Deripere 
horreo amphoram. Hor. Granarium, granary, larger 
building for the preservation of considerable quantities of 

238 514. Hortari, 516. Hospes. 

grain: Triticum condi oporlet in gr anuria sublimia, Varr. 
Cumera, a. large basket or earthen vessel for the preserva- 
tion of grain with farmers: Cur tua plus laudes cumeris 
gran aria nostris? Hor 


tari {horiri^ excite, belongs to oriri)^ encouraging, stirring, 
by representations and impressive words : Ad artem impellere 
atque hortari. Cic. Mo nere^ admonish to think of some- 
thing, reminding, warning: Pluribus te hortari non deheo: 
tantum moneo^ magis idoneum tempusy si hoc amiseris, te 
esse nullum unquam reperturum. Cic. Admonere, re- 
minding on occasion, also urgently : Leo coniexit asinum 
frutice et admonuit simul^ ut insueta voce terreret feras. 
Phsedr. Sua d ere, advising, in pointing out the reasons and 
with the intention of persuading to do something : An Tre- 
honio persuasi? cui ne suadere quidem ausus essem, 
Cic. Mo n ere, expresses an action which influences the 
intellect ; Ho rtari, the volition ; Suadere, conviction. 


Hortus, a kitchen, fruit, flower garden, as a plsice fenced 
in; Horti, in plural, a large pleasure garden, park: Prwi- 
pus, custos pauperis horti, Virg. Epicuri horti. Cic. 
Pomarium, orchard: Ar'borihus consita Italia est, vt tota 
pomarium videatur, Varr. Viridarium, a pleasure 
garden with rare plants and trees, as they were behind the 
cellcB on both sides of a Roman domus (we have the same 
idea of green prevailing in greenhouse) ; Viretum,^. charm- 
ing spot, where there is a great deal of green, i. e; verdure, 
e. g. clumps of trees ; it also signifies a fine lawn, a green (in 
England): Amoena vireta nemorum. Virg. 

516. HosPES, Caupo, Deversor; Hospitus, Hospita- 
Lis. Hospes, 32, the " stranger," as guest, and the host, 
who receives him ; especially the guest with whom one had 
concluded the relation of hospitality for mutual kind recep- 
tion, according to antique custom: Adeone hospes hujusce 
urbis es, ut h<Ec nescias ? Cic. Dexteram hospes ho spit i 
porrexisti. Id. Caupo, also Copo, a wine-seller, who, for 
money, receives strangers in his booth {caupona, tabema) and 
refreshes them ; Deversor, one who puts up with a friend, 
or in a tavern (who turns in) : Homo multorum hospitum^ 
copo deviaLatina, Cic. — Hospitus, as fem. and neut. 
for Hospes: Pomponia, Ego sum, inquit, hie ho spit a, 
Cic. Quo tutior ho spit a lustres aquora. Virg. Hospi^ 

517. Hostia. 519. Humus, 239 

talis^ hospitable, and where guests are well received, e. g. 
^edes : Cimon in suos curiales ho spit alis fait, Cic. 

517. HosTiA, ViCTiMA. Hostia^ a sacrifice of atone- 
ment; Victima^ a costly sacrifice of thanksgiving, for 
which well fed cattle were taken: Victim a, qua dextra 
cecidit victrice^ vacatur» Hostibus amotis, hostia nomen 
hahet, Ovid. 

518. Humor, Sudor, Uligo ; Humidus, Madidus, Uvi- 
Dus, Udus; Humectare, Rigare, Irrigare. ilwrn or, hu- 
midity, in general, with which a body is penetrated, e. g. 
narium: Humor et calor, qui est fa.sus in corpore, Cic. 
Humor. Terra et Mbit humor em^ et, quum vult, ex se ipsa 
remittit. Ovid. Sudor, perspiration, sweating, as exhala- 
tion on a surface, sweat: Humor, allapsus extrinsecus, su^ 
do rem videtur imitari, Cic. Uligo (for udiligo), natural 
humidity or marshy quality of soil : Venetia agros arhustat 
salice propter uliginem soli, Plin. — Humidus, humid, 
penetrated, in a less degree, by watery particles ; Madidus, 
wet, from without, and dripping : Ignem ex lignis viridibus 
atque humidis fieri ju^sit, Cic. Madidis Notus evolat 
alis, Ovid. Uvidus, contracted Udus, very moist, a higher 
degree of humidus, more rarely used : Vides me, ornatus ut 
sim vestimentis uvidis, Plaut., instead of madidis, Uda 
pomaria rivis. Hot. — Humectare, moistening, so that 
something is penetrated in a less degree by moisture : Hth 
meet at Lucifer agros, roranti prcevectus equo, Claudian. 
Rigare, watering, with rain or artificially; /rr?g a re, irri- 
gating : Estate seminaria conspergi scepius, quam rig art 
debent, Colum. Mgyptum Nilus irrigat. Cic. 

519. Humus, Terra, Tellus, Solum; Humare, Sepe- 
LiRE, Tumulare ; Humilis, De — SuMMissus, Abjectus, 
SuppLEX. Humus, earth, as the moist and low soil : Repere 
per hum urn, Hor. Procumbit humi bos, Virg., down on 
the ground. Mulier humi jacebat, Phsedr., on the ground. 
Terra, earth, as element, in contradistinction to water and 
fire, as an original substance of the universe, pervading it, as 
firm land, country, and as substance: Aquam terramque 
alicui adimere, Cic. Terra locata in media sede mundiy 
solida et globosa. Id. Manibus sagulisque t err am exhau- 
rire, Caes. Tellus, the earth, as body in the universe, gen- 
erally as goddess, poetically also for the ground, surface of 
the earth, land: ^des Telluris, Cic. Solum, properly, 
the foundation ; the soil, as the base of produce, property. 

240 520. Jacere. 

and home: Terra pingue solum fortes invertant tauri. 
Virg. — Humare^ covering with earth, and interring, as 
general expression : Quod nunc communiter in omnibus se- 
pultis ponitur^ ut humati dicantur^ id erat proprium turn in 
tw, quos humus injecta coniegeret. Cic. Sepelire (properly, 
setting aside [se]), interring: Aiticus sepultus est juxta 
viam Appiam in monumento avunculi sui. Nep., hence bring- 
ing into total oblivion: Sepultum helium^ sepultus dolor, 
TumuZ are, covering a grave with a hill: Injecta tumula^ 
bor mortua terra, Catull. — Humtlis^ near the ground, 
low, lowly: Vites ca, qucB sunt humiliora neque se toilers 
a terra altius possuni, Cic. Humili atque obscuro loco 
natus. Id. Animi humiles formidine divum, depressiqite 
ad terram. Lucret. Demissus^ properly, let down; de- 
pressed, bent by misfortune; Summissus^ lowering one's 
self, humble : Erigebat animum^ jam demissum et oppres- 
sum, Cic. Cum civibus vivere neque summissum et ab* 
jectum^ neque se efferentem. Id. Abjectus^ 268, thrown 
to the ground, without courage, despairing: Sum animo per- 
culso et abjecto. Cic. Supplex^ with bent knee, humble 
and urgently praying: Sup pi ex te ad pedes abjiciebas, Cic. 
Humili s^ designates the manifestation of our feeling of 
distance from a superior ; Demi 5 5us, humility and resigna- 
tion of our worth; Summissus^ subjection; Abjectus^ 
feeling of insufficiency of worth; Supple x^ the feeling of 
dependence upon the mercy of a powerful one, manifested 
by position of body. 

I, J. 

520. Jacere, Mittere, Conjicere, Jaculari, Collineare. 
Jacere^ throwing, by propelling through the air : scyphum in 
aliquem de manu, Cic. ; lapides post terga ; ancoras^ fanda- 
mentum, Mittere, throwing in sending, e. g. pila; send- 
ing: Tela tormentis miss a, Cses. Conjicere, throwing 
together ; hence opining, surmising, from materials thrown 
together, bringing various indications together (combination) : 
sarcinas in acervum, Liv. Brutus de matre suavianda ex 
oraculo argute conjecit Id., and throwing an object ageunst 
something : Pila in hostes ; aliquem in vincula, throwing 
into fetters; maledicta in aliquem, /a cu Zar t, throwing, by 

521. Jactatio. 523. Icere. 241 

swinging with the hand, throwing by the sling : Rector 
Olympi jaculaiur fulmina dextrd. Ovid. Collineare^ 
also Collimare (from limis)^ aiming the missile in a straight 
line^ aiming well, true : Quis est, qui totum diem jaculans, 
non aliquando collineei? Cic. 

521. Jactatio, Jactantia, Ostentatio, Venditatio. 
Jactatio, properly, the repeated throwing to and fro ; the 
repeated and boasting mention of one's performances, boast- 
hig, as action; Jactantia, the same, as quality, bragging: 
Jactatio ervditionis, Quinctil. Aholita retinere est fru 
voice in parvis jactantics. Id. Ostentatio, bragging, 
ostentatiously showing one's superiority, real or not : Vitanda 
est ingenii ostentationis suspicio, Cic. Venditatio, 
a still higher degree, downright bragging: Ostentatio qr- 
tis et portentosa scientice venditatio manifesta est, Plin. 

522. Jam, Jamjam, Nunc, Mox, Tum, Tunc ; Jam nunc, 
Nunc jam, Etiam nunc. Jam, now, already, compares a 
present, past, or future moment, as consequence of the past, 
with this latter ; Nunc (for num-ce), at present, now, points 
at the real circumstances of the present, inasmuch as they 
are closely following upon the past : Nestor tertiam jam 
cBtatem hominum vivebat, Cic. Discehamus pueri XII, quas 
jam nemo discit. Id. Jam te premet nox fahulaque «la- 
nes. Hor. Jamjam, increases the strength of jam, in this 
moment, directly: Claudius senatum, jamjam inclinatum^ 
a Pyrrhi pace revocavit. Liv. Nondum Jicbc, qua nunc te- 
net scBculum, negligentia Deum venerat. Id. Mox, within 
the shortest possible time, soon: Be summo bono mox, ut 
dixi, videbimus. Cic. Twm, then, and stronger Tunc {turn 
-ce), at that time, points at a past or future fact, relating 
back to the correlative Quum, when, or to the demonstrative 
Nunc: Quum inimici nostri venire dicentur, tum in Epi^ 
rum ibo, Cic. Verres quum rosam viderat, tunc indpere 
ver arbitrabatur. Id. Sederajt tunc excusatio oppressis: 
nunc nulla est. Id. — Jam nunc, already now; Nunc 
jam, now, even now ; Etiamnum and Etiamnunc, still 
now: HermcB, de quibus ad me scripsisti, jam nunc me 
delectant, Cic. Habui paululum mora: nunc jam sum 
expeditus. Id. Etiamnum credis te ignorari out tua 
facta? Ter. 

523. Icere, Ferire, Percutere, Verberare, Vapulare, 
PuLSARE, TuNDERE, Pavire. Icerc, reaching with a blow 
or thrust, hitting: Laurus Julmine sola non icitur, Plin 


342 524. Idiota. 526. Ignominia. 

Ferire^ carrying a heavy blow, beating severely, knocking 
hard: Comu ferit caper, Virg. Murum arieiibus feriri 
vident. Sail. Percutere, shaking through and through by 
a blow or knock : Januam plena percutere manu, Tibull. 
Lapide ictus ex muro periit, Csbs., is the one hit; per- 
cussusy who has received a severe contusion. Fulmine, 
securi ferire^ hitting; percutere^ slaying, executing. 
Verherare^ beating repeatedly with a swung scourge (ver- 
Jer), rod, giving blows and knocks, threshing ; Vapulare^ 
designates the shaking, tremulous motion caused by repeated 
beating upon a soft and elastic body ; receiving a beating : 
Ego vapulandOf ille verberando usque ambo defessi 
sumus. Ter. Fulsare^ obsolete Pultare {pellere), giving 
repeated knocks and blows with something that is roundish, 
like a butt: Fores pulsare^ with the comic writers, puh 
tare; Lictores valentissimi et ad pulsandos verberau' 
do 8 que homines exercitatissimi. Cic. Tun d ere, repeatedly 
and violently knocking, pounding, and thus violently shaking 
a body or crushing it : lAnum textum tunditur clavis. Plin., 
knocking ; /errww tundere. Id., welding; grana tundere 
in pila lignea. Id. Fdvire, properly, causing a surface to 
elevate itself by beating upon it, reverberating, rebounding : 
Quum aves pascuntur, aliquid ex ore cadit et terrain pavit. 
Cic, hence, also, making a surface denser, by beating, beat- 
ing firmer : Pavimenia primum facta in Italia Jistucis p a- 
vita, Plin. 

524. Idiota, Rums. /(Zto< a, an uneducated person, ig- 
norant, especially in the branch on which the conversation 
dwells, an ignorant person in general, ignoramus; Rudis^ 
rude, such as nature furnishes a thing, without further prepa- 
ration : Signa pulcherrima, qua quemvis nostrum, quos iste 
idiot as appellat, delectare possent. Cic. Rudis ad pedes- 
tria bella est gens Numidarum, equis tantum habilis, Liv. 

525. Ignis, Flamma, Ardor. Ignis, fire, as freed and 
luminous caloric ; Flamma, flame, the movable mass of fire 
which rises from burning bodies ; Ardor, 164, burning heat, 
glowing substance (German Gluth): Ignem sic distulit ven- 
tus, ut omnia flammam conciperent. Cses. Mea domus 
ardore suo dejflagraiionem urbi mindbatur, Cic. 

526. Ignominia, Infamia, Dedecus, Probrum, Oppbo- 
BRiUM. Ignominia, ignominy, the loss of a good name 
{nomen)^ civil honor, and marks of honor or distinction, con- 
nected with or efiTecting public shame, caused from without, 

527. Ignorare. 243 

inflicted by some one: Animadversio Censoris ignominia 
dicta est. Cic. Infamia, the evil repute, reputation, opinion 
of the public respecting one's morality, and the shame ensu- 
ing from it: Crudelitatis infamiam effiigere. Cic. De- 
decus^ that by which we injure our honor, dishonor, contu- 
mely : Ampla dprnus dedecori domino fit^ si est in ea 
solitudo. Cic. Quod privatarum rerum dedecus non hceret 
infamicB? Id.; dedecus^ disgrace; ignominia, state of the 
disgraced one. Probrum (pro^ IX, 1. c), a disgraceful 
action, by which we injure our morality and reputation ; a 
shameful act, and the shame it brings upon a man itself: 
Curium censor es senatu probri gratia mover ant. Sail. 7n- 
gerere pro bra, Liv., uttering abusive speech against some 
one. Opprobrium^ reproach we make to some one, on 
account of dishonorable actions: Majoris fugiens op pro- 
bri a culpcB, Hor. 

527. Ignorare, Non nosse, Nescire, Non scire ; Ig- 
NORANTiA, Inscientia, Inscitia ; Ignarus, Ignotus, Incog- 
NiTUs; Inscius, Nescius. /gnorare, not knowing, having 
no knowledge or information whatever of a subject, indicating 
a lack of our own experience, or that of others, or informa- 
tion : Res erat prcetoribus nota solis : ignorabatur a cete- 
ris. Cic. Non nosse^ not knowing something, i. e. not 
having learned to distinguish it by its proper marks of dis- 
tinction : Vesper ascit, et non noverunt viam {ancilla) . 
Ter. Not knowings that is, not having a distinct notion of 
something, of subjects of the understanding and memory (in 
German, nicht wissen)^ is Nescire^ if the idea expressed by 
the verb is negatived ; Non scire^ if the fact is negatived, 
and the negation is directly opposed to the affirmation, see 
540, d, Non tarn prceclarum est scire Latine, qiuim turpe 
nescire. Cic. Tu nescis^id quod scis^ Dromo^ si sapies, 
Ter., you act as if you did not know it, pretend not to know 
it. Pacisci modo scis : sed quce pacta es^non scis solvere. 
Plant. Non sciunt pueri viam^ qvxi domum redeant, Ter., 
signifies the existence and direction; non norunt^ the state 
and environs of the street, if we cannot find our way in it, or 
if we run in danger in it. — Ignorantia^ the not being 
known, as inherent quality of a thing : Munitionem cohortes^ 
ignorantia loci, sunt secutce, quum portam quarerent. Cabs. 
Inscientia, the subjective ignorance, lack of knowledge, 
which memory stores up in ourselves; Jn^ct Ha, practical 
ignorance, want of skill, which has its foundation in want of 

244 528. Ignoscere, 

proper knowledge and practice, in keensightedness and pres- 
ence of mind, or also in natural clownishness, helplessness, 
clumsiness ; Vitam omnem perturbari videmus err ore et ifi" 
scientia, Cic. Inscitice mecB et stultiticB ignoscas, Plaut. 
— Ignarus^ wanting in knowledge, he who has no knowl- 
edge of facts and subjects of sensual perception, of active use 
(in German unkundig): Ignarus legwm^ rudis in jure 
civili. Cic. ; and passive, unexplored, not known ; Regio 
hostihus ignara. Sail. Ignotus^ active, one who has not 
yet become acquaiuted with something, does not know it yet : 
llli artifices corporis simulacra ignotis nota faciehant, 
Cic, and passive, unknown, one we do not yet know : In 
navem omnibus ignotus nautis escendit. Nep. Incogni' 
tus^ not yet inquired into, one we are not yet acquainted 
with: Hoc vitandum est^ ne incognita pro cognitis habea- 
mus, Cic. — Inscius^ ignorant, designates the absence of 
knowledge; Nescius^ ignorant, not knowing, the want of 
knowledge : Artem si subtraxeris^ qui distingues artijicem ah 
inscio ? Cic, he who has not the rules and principles of the 
art in his memory ; ignarus artis^ who does not understand 
the procedure, mode of practising the art. Nescia mens 
hominum fati sortisque futurce, Virg. In prose, with pre- 
ceding negation, Jratum te regi fuissey non erant nes- 
cii, Cic 

528. Ignoscere, Indulgere, Parcere ; Indulgentia, Ob- 
SEQuiUM, Venia. Ignoscere^ not taking notice of some- 
thing ; hence, pardoning faults and omissions, from generosity : 
Et prater itis ignoscis^ et concedis futura. Cic, see 192. 
Indulgere {dulcis)^ being indulgent toward some one, or 
something, having indulgence with faults, from kindness of 
heart, also from weakness: Epicurei sibi indulgentes et 
corpori deservientes, Cic, who indulge themselves, do not 
deny themselves anything. Spemere veteres amidtias^ in» 
dulgere novis. Id., cultivating. Parcere^ moderating 
something, e. g. tr«, labori^ periculo ; and bestowing the 
greatest care upon the preservation of something, saving: 
Parcere subjectis^ et debellare superbos. Virg., sparing^ 
from humanity. — Indulgentia^ long-suffering, indulgence : 
Si fercB partus suos diligunt; qua nos in liberos nostros in- 
dulgentia essedebemusJ Cic O 5s e^ mi urn, yielding, if 
we regulate our actions according to the will and desire of 
another: Flectitur obsequio curvatus ab arbor e ramus, 
Ovid. LegatiLS officii terminos^ obseguium erga Impera^ 

529. Illusirrare. 531. Imhuere. 245 

torum exuit. Tac. Indulgentia, does not offer obstacles ; 
Ohsequium^ yields, does not resist. Venia^ pardon, shown 
to supplicating and guilty persons: Veniam et impunitatem 
dare, Cic, and the indulgence which is connected with par- 
don, permission: Dedi veniam homini impudenter pe- 
tenii. Id. 

529. Illustrare, Illuminare. Illustrare^ making 
something light, throwing light upon it, opp. obscurare ; lU 
luminare^ giving light, illuminating, shining upon : Qua sol 
hahitahiles illustrat or as. Hor. Luna a Sole illumi' 
nata. Cic. 

530. Imago, Effigies, Simulacrum, Signum, Sigillum, 
Statua, Toreuma. Imago^ the imitating, image of a sub- 
ject, presenting its form in all its details, if it makes an im- 
pression upon the imagination; hence. Imagines^ images 
of ancestors; Effigies^ the image, as plastic work of art, 
especially with reference to faithfulness and truth of expres- 
sion; Simulacrum^ the similar image or representation, 
inasmuch as it is formed similar to the original, of a formed 
image as well as an illusion in the air, dream ; hence of im- 
ages of gods, which can be formed similar only to the qual- 
ities of the deities ; Signum, every image as sign of the 
original, hence of images of deities, as their symbols ; Si» 
gillum^B. small image of this sort; Statua,, a standing 
image, statue, representing the whole body, and is worked 
round ; only used of human figures ; Toreuma, every half 
or entirely elevated image, relievo, as ornament of golden or 
silver vessels, also such a vessel itself: Quum statu as et 
imagines, non animorvm simulacra, sed corporum, stu» 
diose multi summi homines reliquerini, consiliorum relinquere 
ac viriutum nostrarum effigiem multo malle dehemus, sum- 
mis ingeniis expressam et politam. Cic. Est signum nO' 
tum, imago cvi tui. Id., of the seal. Signum Isidis,in 
modum LiburncB Jiguratum. Tac. In patella si gill a erant 
egregia. Cic, little images of embossed work, which were 
fixed to the vessel. Diodorus habebat perhona toreumata; 
in his pocula diio, summo artificio facta. Id. 

531. Imbuere, Inficere, Infuscare. Imbuere, im- 
merging a body in a liquid, so that the latter penetrates it : 
Quo semel est imbuia recens, servabit odorem testa diu. 
Hor., hence, Pueri animum tenerum his opinionibus imbu- 
a s. Cic, imbuing. Infi cere, mixing some ingredient with a 
substance in such a manner that it changes its natural property, 


246 532. Imitatio, 535. Imperium, 

dyeing: Britanni se vitro inficiunt^ quod caruleam efficit 
colorem, Cses. Puerum injicere artihus. Cic, making 
them part of himself. Infuse are^ making dark, dark col- 
ored, soiling: Ne maculis infuscet vellera pullis, Virg. 
Omnes^ quos non aliqua barharies domestica infuscaverat^ 
rede loquehantur. Cic. 

532. Imitatio, ^Emulatio, Rivalitas. Imitatio^ im« 
itation, without passion : Excellentium civium virtus imita^ 
tione digna est^ non invidia, Cic. Mmvrlatio^ the pas- 
sionate endeavour of equalling another in his envied superior- 
ity, emulation from ambition, and jealousy from ambition : 
Mmulantis est angi alieno bono, quod ipse non habeat, 
Cic. Et imitatio virtutis amulatio dicitur : et est cemu' 
I alio (Egritudo, si eo, quod concupierit, alius potiatur, ipse 
careat. Id. Rivalitas, rivalship in matters of love : QtttTi 
sine rivali teque et tua solus amares, Hor. Viiiosa cemu- 
latio, quce rivalitati similis est, Cic. 

533. Imminere, Impendere. Imminere, towering above 
something, bordering closely upon something, and being near 
at hand, of time, striving for something, threatening some- 
thing, in order to pounce upon it; Impendere, hanging 
over something and threatening to fall, threatening to befall, 
of near evils pending over us: Quercus prcetorio immine^ 
bat, cujus umbra opaca sedes er at. hiv. Mors quotidie 
imminet. Id. Mors, quasi saxum Tantalo, semper imp en^ 
det. Id. 

534. Immundus, Spurcus, Obsccenus, Impurus ; Obscce- 
NiTAs, TuRPiTUDo. Im mundus, not cleanly, unclean, where 
dirt, stains, and soiled spots are, e. g. sus : Pauperies im- 
munda domus procul absit. Hor. Spurcus, filthy, nasty, 
of disgusting uncleanliness for the sense of sight and smell : 
Si quid est urina spurcius. Gell. Tempestas spur c is- 
sima. Cic. Obsccenus, also Obscenus, giving an evil 
indication, e. g. aves ; ugly, nasty, foul, exciting disgust, hor- 
ror, and loathing in seeing or hearing it: Obscceni interpres 
funestique ominis auctor. Varr. Torquet ab obsccenis 
sermonibus aurem. Hor. Impurus, impure, unclean, vicious, 
unchaste: Persona lutulenta, impura. Cic. — Obscoeni^ 
< as, obscenity, as quality; Turpitudo, ugliness, as prop- 
erty, which disgraces, immorality, shamelessness : llliberalis 
jocus est, si rerum turpitudo adhibetur, aut verborum oh' 
sccenitas, Cic. 

535. biPERiuM, Principatus, Dominatus, Regnum; Im» 

536. Impius. 537. ImpUcare. 247 

PERiA, Magistratus. Imperium^ properly, the command, 
which demands implicit obedience ; the command, as of an 
army, &c., i. e. highest authority ; supreme authority, which 
unites with supreme power irresistible will : Imperium ali' 
cujus exsequi. Ter. Galli sub populi Romani imperium 
ditionemque ceciderunL Cic. Principatus, supreme place, 
precedence: Cingeiorigi principatus (in civitate) atque 
imperium est traditum. Cses. Dominatus^ mastership, 
as a state of things, when one can command over something 
as if it were his property, when he is lord of it; Dominatu 
unius omnia tenentur^ neque est usquam consilio aut auctori- 
tati locus. Cic. Regnuin, autocracy, regal dignity, govern- 
ment ; with the republican Romans, also used for tyranny : 
Duces (Romulus et T. Tatius) regnum consociant^ imperi' 
um omne conferunt Romam. Liv. — Imperium^ empire, the 
whole district or territory which stands under the supreme 
authority of an individual or a people : In tuo toto imperio 
ac provincia, Cic, i. e. Western Asia, where Thermus was 
praetor. Fines imperii populi Romani, Id. Regnum^ 
the district within which one, as master, ordains and directs 
every thing, and a realm, kingdom, as country : Id nisi hie 
in tuo regno essemv^s^ non tulissem. Cic, where thou alone 
hast the command. — Imperia^ the places of commanders, 
as offices, and in the persons of the commanders-in-chief; 
Magistratus^ the superior political or civil offices, under 
the authority of which public affairs and institutions stood ; 
also used for single superior magistrates: Vacuce ah impe- 
riis provincial, Cic. Imperia ex urhe exeunto. Id. Ut 
magistratibus leges^ ita populo prcesunt magistra' 
tus. Id. 

536. Impius, Nefarius, Sacrilegus. Impius^ impious, 
unconscientious, i. e. showing no conscience against Grod, 
country, or one's relations ; Nefarius^ of impious temerity, 
he who trespasses the divine and natural laws ; Sacrilegus^ 
a robber of temples, a dishonorer of temples : Qui affinem 
fama ac fortunis spoliare conatus est^ impium se esse fate' 
atur. Cic. Moliri nefaria mulier coepit insidiasjilio. Id. 
Sacrilego poma est, qui sacrum abstulerit. Id. 

537. Implicare, Im — Prjepedire, Obstare, Officere ; 
Impedimentum, Obstaculum, Difficultas ; Impedimenta, 
Sarcin^. Implicare^ putting into folds, entwining, en- 
tangling, e. g. crinem auro : Quod male implicuisti^ aoZ- 
vas potius^ quam abrumpas, Senec Impedire^ entangling 

248 538. Importunus, 539. Impudens. 

the feet, keeping off, hindering : TJt exercitum eadem^ qua 
impedieraty fortuna expediret. Liv. Prcepedire^ 
drawing something before the feet that will hinder, stopping, 
checking, detaining : Sine modo sese prcBda prcBpediant. 
Ldv. Ob St are, standing in the way, and thus detaining, 
e. g. currenti: Confer ti in portis^ ohstando magis^ quam 
pugnando^ castra tviabantur. Liv. Officer e^ working 
against, and thus being in the way or doing injury : Umbra 
terrcB soli officiens noctem efficit. Cic. Cur meis commo' 
dis officis et obstas? Id. — Impedimentum^ hin- 
drance, impediment, the thing by which we are prevented 
from advancing; Obstaculum^ the obstacle which places 
itself in our way, and interferes with our progress ; of rare 
use; Difficultas^ difficulty, expresses the exertion and 
application of great force and many means to bring about our 
object: Demosthenes impedimenta natura diligentia in- 
dustriaque superavit. Cic. Ego hac propter magnitudinem 
rerum ac d iffi cult at em assequi non potui. Id. — Imp e d' 
imenta^ are the baggage of an army, inasmuch as they im- 
pede military movements ; the impedimenta are constituted 
by the baggage, the people attending it, wagons, and beasts 
of burden; Sarctwa, a bundle of things tied together for 
travelling ; in plural, the bundles which the Roman soldiers 
carried on the march: Consistit agmen; impedimenta 
intra legiones recipiuntur, Caes. Sarcinas colligam ante 
quam proficiscar e vita, Varr. 

538. Importunus, Molestus, Intempestivus. Impor' 
tunus^ opp. opportunus, is partly he who allows one no quiet, 
who is unkind, impetuous, and insufferable: Uxor impor^ 
tuna atque incomm^da. Piaut. Importunus aique amens 
tyr annus, Cic. Molestus^ pressing, inconveniencmg, mo- 
lesting, e. g. onus^ labor ; also surprising by artificiality, &c. 
Latine loquendi accurata^ et sine moles ti a diligens ele- 
gantia. Cic, — partly unfitting, respecting place and circum- 
stances, inconvenient, importune : Aggeribus turribusque 
locus importunus. Sail. Cur sum ingenii tui premit hac 
importuna clades civitatis. Cic. Intempestivus, un- 
fit, respecting the time, untimely, improper, that which hap- 
pens or is done at an improper time : Amicitia nunquam iU' 
tempestiva, nunquam molesta est, Cic. 

539. Impudens, Inverecundus ; Impudicus, Incestus. 
Impudens, without shame, shameless, impudent, e. g. men- 
dacium, Inv er ecundus^iiQ who has no regard for decorum 

540. In. 249 

and propriety, who shows no esteem or regard for anybody, 
indecorous, e. g. frons : Legirupa^ impudens, impurus, 
inverecundissimus. Plant. — Impudicus^ shameless, 
insensitive against the violation of natural feeling of shame : 
Mulieres impudica. Cic. Incestus {castus), unchaste, 
impure with regard to religion and purity of morals, e. g. 
sermo : Incestus par at sacrificium, non ante perfusus flU' 
mine. Liv. 

540. In, De, Ne, Non. a. Jw, as preposition, signifies 
in, toward, on, into ; as negation, it signifies the English m», 
but only with nouns and verbs, formed of nouns substantive, 
e. g. Incommodare, causing incommodity. Incoquere 
aqua, cooking in water ; succum, boiling down ; jplumbum 
album incoquitur aereis operibus. Plin., adding by boil- 
ing, as it were, tinning over: Incocius^ uncooked. Inau- 
dire, hearing as a secret; inauditus, unheard of, and 
unheard: Inauditi aique indefensi perierant. Tac. /»- 
CO git are, thinking of something, meditating it, e. g. frau^ 
dem ; Incogitans, acting unthinkingly; Incogi'tatus^ 
though tZess, unreflecting, e. g. opv>s, Inf ring ere, breaking 
in two in the middle, into several pieces, by knocking against 
something, e. g. ollam in caput. Plant. Infr actus remus. 
Cic, broken (never, unbroken). — In, as preposition, also 
strengthens the meaning, e. g. Canus, silver-gray, 55. In» 
canus, very gray: Barbas incanaque menta tondent hirci. 
Virg. See Incolumis, 

b. In, as preposition, into, away from us and toward us, 
designates the direction toward the most inner point ; De, off*, 
away, of a straight line, surface, away from it, downward, 
313. Inflect ere, bending in: bacillum a summo inflex» 
um; Deflect ere, bending oflT, downward, e. g. ramum 
oUvcb; oculos aliorum {in se) inflect ere, attracting; de- 
fleet ere, turning away. Imminutus, diminished by a 
certain magnitude: Siet, plenum est; sit, imminutum, 
Cic. Deminutus, diminished, of decrease, weakened: 
Aliquid de libertate mea deminuium est. Cic. In the 
words designating dressing, dyeing, in signifies a putting on, 
or drawing over, or adhering to it, at it : D e, a coating over 
downward, covering over: Inauratus, covered over with 
gold, e. g. statua ; Deauratus, lighter gilt, rarely used, 
e. g. baltev^. De alb are, white-washing, e. g. columnam ; 
Inalbare, putting on white paint, rare. 

c. In, un, designates a reversion of the notion into its 

250 , 540. In. 

opposite ; De, a decrease, lack in perfection : Juvenes adhuc 
eonfusa quadam non indecent, Plin., disfigure: Falli^ 
err are, decipi dedecet, Cic, not befitting, which is unbe- 
coming. Indecorant bene nata culpa. Hor. , dishonoring ; 
Dedecorasfamiliam. Ter., bringing shame upon. In- 
dignari, considering something unworthy, feeling indignant 
at it; Dedigwari, considering something unworthy of us, 
disdaining. Insuetus, unaccustomed; Desuetus, disac- 
customed. Insipiens, the unwise, who does not know how 
to act in every situation rightly and decorously ; Desipiens, 
silly, who betrays want of intellect. 

d. In, un, designates as negation at the same time the 
opposite or the contrary quality of the notion expressed by 
the original word ; Ne and No w, merely negative : Ne, not, 
negatives the taking place of the notion ; No n, no, negatives 
the fact. Ne, relates to the meaning of the word ; No n, to 
the fact which it expresses: Infandus, unspeakable, so 
horrid, that it cannot be sufficiently expressed in words, inex- 
pressible, e. g. dolor, f acinus ; Nefandus, that which we 
dare not pronounce, or ought not to speak out, e. g. arma^ 
domus : Nefas, that which must not be permitted, must not 
be done, considers the consequences of the breach of the 
commandment; Non fas est, means, it is really not per- 
mitted, has reference to the commandment itself. Inopi» 
nans, active, and Inopinatus, passive, unexpected, that 
which happens when least expected ; Necopinans, he who 
cannot suppose something; Necopinatus, who cannot be 
supposed : Germani inscios inopinantes que Menapios op» 
presserunt. Cses. Hoc mihi improvisum inopinantuni' 
que accidit. Cic. Hostes necopinantes oppressimus. Id., 
stronger than inopinantes, expressing the surprise. Omnia 
repentina et necopinata sunt graviora. Id. Innocens, 
uninjurious, innocent, who has no share in the injury done or 
to be committed; Non nocens, he who does not injure, 
really does not do any harm. Indemnatus, uncondemned, 
is quality; Non damnatus, not condemned, designates 
action or condition. Inhonestus, dishonorable, immoral; 
Non honestus, not moral, not dutiful : Nihil a diis petere^ 
quod sit injustum atqv^ inhonestum. Or. p. Domo. Multa^ 
qu<B ho nest a natura videntur esse, temporihus jiunt non 
hone St a. Cic. Nequire,no\. being able, not being in the 
situation that we can do a thing, negatives the idea of the 
verb; Non quire negatives the action itself, which is thus 

541. In prcBsens. 544. Incola. 251 

opposed to the real being able ; being unable. After nequeo^ 
the being able does not take place ; after non queo the being 
unable takes place : Antonius^ pedibus ager^ prcelio adess^ 
nequihat. Sail. No n queo omnia scribere. Cic. 

541. In prjesens, In prjesenti, In prjesentia, Impeje- 
SENTiARUM. In prcBsens (tempus)^ for the present, for the 
present moment; ai^d In prcesenti sc, tempore, at present, 
now, only of time : Causa peccandi in prcBsens minus sup' 
petebat. Sail. Hoc ad te in prasenti scripsL Cic. In 
prcesentia, in the present time, for the present, of the 
present position and circumstances : Vestrce ccena non solum 
in prcesentitty sed etiam postero die jucundce sunt, Cic. 
Imprcesentiarum, and In prasentiarum (contraction 
of in pr essentia rerum), for the present: Hannibal cupivU , 
in prcBsentiarum bellum componere, Nep. 

542. Inanis, Vacuus. Inanis, empty, in which there 
is nothing, indicates want; Vacuus, empty, indicates the 
existence of space for the reception of something : Domum 
ornatum atque instructam reddiderat nudam atque in an em, 
Cic. Inanes liter cb. Id., empty, barren of any thing worth 
knowing. Prolapsorum equitum equi vacui. Liv. 

543. Inclinare, Vergere ; Acclinis, Acclivis. Incli' 
nare, properly, leaning upon something: Bos genua incli' 
nat arenis, Ovid., bending, deviating from the straight line : 
Inclinavit acies. Liv. Sol, fortuna se in din at, Cses. 
Vergere, bending toward ; of the direction, oblique, down- 
ward, toward something: Tectum vergit in tectum inferi' 
oris porticus, Cic. — Acclinis, leaning against : Corpusque 
levabat {Mezentius) arboris acclinis trunco, Virg. Ac' 
clivis, ascending : Leniter acclivis aditus. Cses. 

544. Incola, Indigena, Inquilinus. JncoZa, inhabitant, 
who dwells at a certain place: Peregrini atque incola 
officium est, nihil prater suum negotium agere, Cic. Indi' 
gen a {indu-gignere), naXiye, who is born in the place or 
country where he lives : Ne majores quidem Gallorum in" 
digencB, sed advence Italia cultores, Alpes transmiserunt, Liv. 
Inquilinus (for incolinus) , the inhabitant of a foreign place, 
where he does not enjoy the privilege of holding property, 
and who, on that account, continues to be considered a stran- 
ger ; an alien : Catilina postulat, ne Patres existimarent^ 
sibi patricio homini perdita re publica opus esse, quum 
cam servaret, M, Tullius inquilinus civis urbis Roma. 
Sail., because Cicero was a native of Arpinum. InquiZini 

252 545. IncorruptiLs. 547. Indoles, 

privatarum cBdium alque insularum. Suet., lodgers, in con* 
tradistinction to Dominic, freeholders. 

545. Incorruptus, Sincerus. Incorruptus^ unspoiled, 
with reference to the natural good quality; Sincerus (be- 
longs to semel, singuli)^ without foreign addition or alloy, 
genuine, such as something is by nature : Spina incorrupta 
etiam in aquis durat, Plin. Incorrupti atque integri testes. 
Cic. Sincerum est nisi vas^ quodcunque infundis^ acescit. 
Hor. Nulli sincera voluptas^ sollicitique aliquid latis in^ 
tervenit, Ovid. 

546. Indagare, Qujerere, Scrutari, Rimari, Vesti- 
GARE, Inyestigare, ExPiscARi. /nd agar 6, XIX, 1., trac- 
ing out: Ad indagandum canis natus est. Cic. QucB' 
rere^ inquiring into, searching with pains and attention : 
Mgre qu (Br it^et nihil invenit. Plant. ScrM^ art, searching 
by rummaging and " overhauling," accurately and carefully : 
Non excutio te^si quid forte ferri habuisii^ non scrutor. 
Cic. Arcanum scrutari, Hor. Rimari^ searching in 
all the cracks and fissures : Rastris terram rimantur, Virg. 
Vestigare^ tracking ; Investigare^ following the track, 
until the object searched for be found, tracing out : Causaa 
rerum vestigahimus. Cic. Adhuc investigare non 
possum^ uH Lentulus sit. Id. Expiscari^ fishing out, 
properly, of course, of fish, but also, in general, bringing out, 
to light, by careful search and investigation: Proinde ex» 
pis care, quasi non nosses, Ter. 

. 547. Indoles, Ingenium, Natura. Indoles, natural 
endowments, capable of growth, i. e. perfection by cultiva- 
tion, industry, and practice: animi, ingeniique. Liv. Cum 
hoc indole virtutum atque vitiorum Hannibal triennio sub 
Hasdrubale meruit. Id. Ingenium, the peculiar gifts, 
powers, and qualities which an individual has received at its 
first origin ; with men, their peculiarities of temper, charac- 
ter, and dispositions, and those of the mind, talent, genius, 
understanding, and wit : Cceli mores solique ingenia, Plin. 
Suum quisque noscat ingenium, acremque se et bonorum et 
vitiorum suorum judicem praheat, Cic. Na tura, the pecu- 
liar mode and way in which, with a being, its bodily compo- 
nent parts, as well as also its mental faculties, have been 
constituted and combined from its birth (na^ci) or origin ; its 
nature, natural state and organization, the nature of a thing : 
Qualis esset natura montis, qui cognoscerent, misit, Ci^. 
Medico natura corporis cognoscenda est. Cic. Mitis in 
nos Hannibal contra naturam suam est, Liv. 

548. Induere, 549. Industria, 253 

548. Induere, Vestire, Velare, Amicire, Obnubere, 
Vestis, Vestimentum, Amiculum, Tunica, Subucula, In- 
DusiuM. Induere^ putting on, and putting in, into {doing 
on and in): Loricam induam mihi, Plaut. Tu te in la- 
queum induas. Id. Vestire^ covering with a dress, cov- 
ering with something, be it for protection or ornament : Alere 
et vestire aliquem, Cic. Terra vestita Jlorihus^ arhori- 
hxis^ frugibus. Id. Velare^ covering, hiding something 
with a kerchief or garment, so that it cannot be seen, envel- 
oping : Augur capite vela to, Liv. Toga v el at us proces- 
sit. Id. Amicire {dd- micire^ belongs to mitra) , properly, 
dressing up, clothing, of external garments, which strike the 
eyes, e. g. toga : Eleus Hippias gloriatus est^ pallium^ quo 
amictus^ soccos^ quibus indutus esset, se sua manu confe- 
cisse. Cic. Obnubere^ properly, drawing fog over some- 
thing; veiling: /, lictor, caput obnube liberatoris urbis 
hujus. Liv. — Fes^is, gown, inasmuch as it covers nudity, 
or covers, in general (as we use coat still more generally) : 
Datames Iwminem optima veste texit. Nep. Vestimen' 
turn, inasmuch as it serves as dress: Milo calceos et vesti' 
menta mutavit. Cic. Amiculum, the outer garment : 
FemincB Persicce in conviviis summa quceque amicula exU' 
unt. Curt. Tunica, the white woollen under-dress, which 
the Romans wore under the toga ; with men, as low down aJ9 
below the knees, and fastened with a girdle ; with women, 
longer, wider, and with sleeves ; Subucula, a. sort of shirt 
worn by men, and Indusium (according to Varro Intusi- 
um, from intus), a shift worn by women near the skin, of 
linen or cotton: Si forte subucula pexcB trita subest tU' 
niccB. Hor. 

549. Industria, Assiduitas, Sedulitas, Labor, Dili- 
gentia : Industrius, Navus, Impiger ; De — Ex industria, 
Data, Dedita opera : Consilio, Consulto, Sedulo. In- 
dustria {indu, XIII, 2.), the activity which operates in the 
interior of a business, an affair, an activity which has entirely 
entered into the object to which it is applied, which is not «u- 
^er/icifltZ, industry : antelucana opificum. Cic. Assiduitas^ 
116, assiduity, the uninterrupted, lasting, and persevering 
diligence, e. g. medici: Id assiduitate et virtute conse- 
quere. Cic. Sedulitas, 304, the zealous industry which 
strives to make the best possible use of the time, especially in 
order to be obliging to others : officiosa, Hor. Pauper, sed 
mundcB, seduliiatis, anus, Ovid. Labor^ fatiguing labor, 


254 550. Infans. 551. Infensus* 

pains, trouble: Lai or ^ est functio qucRdam vel animi vet 
corporis^ gravioris operis et muneris. Cic. Diligeniia^ 
the accuracy, punctuality, diligence with which we carry on 
an affair: Curates hac magna diligentia. Plant. Ars 
{pratoris) demonstrat tantum^ uhi qucsras; reliqua sunt in 
cura^ attentione animi,, cogitatione, vigilantia, assiduitate^ 
lahore; complectar uno verho^ diligentia, Cic, applica- 
tion. Industrius^ he who finds his very element in indus- 
try, work ; active, industrious : Dionysius in rebus gerendis 
vir acer et industrius. Cic. NavuSj ancient Gnavus 
{geno, nascor, IV, 4.) properly, he who has native talent, 
skill for something, natural impulse for some certain activity, 
active: Ex inerti parente navus Jilius, Cic. Navus ope- 
rarius ignavo et cessatore multum prcestat, Colum. Impi- 
ger^ undaunted, he who goes to work with alacrity, and does 
not lose cheerful activity though the task may be laborious : 
Yir adlahores belli impiger» Cic. — De, Ex industrial 
with diligence, with careful reference to the object in view : 
Injuria^ qu(B nocendi causa de industria inferentur, Cic. 
Romulus ludos ex industria parat, Liv. Data^ Dedi' 
ta opera^on purpose, taking pains : Vt Juzc scirem^ d edit a 
opera has ad te liter as misi, Cic. Consilio^ intentionally ; 
Consulto^ considerately, with forethought : Consul j seu 
forte^ seu consilio^ Venusiam perfugit. Liv. Consul to 
et cogitate fit injuria, Cic. Sedulo^ sedulously, with great 
pains and activity in details : In ducendo hello sedulo tern- 
pus terere. Liv. 

550. Infans, Mutus, Elinguis. Infans^ who cannot 
speak, as the infant, or who does not dare to speak : Mutus^ 
speechless, dumb, as natural deficiency; Elinguis^ who 
has no tongue, or one that is palsied: Infantes pueri et 
mutcB hesticB. Cic. Timebam, si nihil dixissem^ne infan- 
tissimus existimarer. Id. Testem convicit et elinguem 
reddidit. Id, 

551. Infensus, Infestus. Infensus^ irritated against 
some one from hatred or ire, incensed, embittered against 
him: Pro offensione hominum, qui illi inimici infensique 
sunt. Cic. Infestus (belongs to Manifestus^ 210.), hostile, 
ever ready to commit hostilities against some one : Tutus ah 
infestis latronibus, Hor. Infestis signis ad hostemire. 
Cses., directed toward the enemy for attack; passive, it 
noeans unsafe, exposed to hostilities (infested) : Via excursio» 
niJms harbor orum est infest a. Cic. 

552. Btf^rus. 553. Lifbrmare. 366 

552. Inferus, Infimus, Imvs; IivFSfii, Oecus. Infe^ 
rus (tn, VIII, 1., with / as digamina), below, being beloWi 
and the lower one : lAmm mpenm^ inferumque^vale. Pkjit 
In the superlative, InfimuSj contracted, Jm««, the lowest; 
originally both words had the same meaning, but generally 
Infimus signifies , the lowest; ImuSf the deepest: -Tn/i* 
mcB monlis radices. Csbs. Perditissima atque infimafcm 
populi. Gic. Imo Nereus det cequora findo. Yiig. At 
imis unguibus usque ad verticem summum ex fraude camtaL 
Cic. — Infer i^ those that are in the lower regions, the de- 
parted, inasmuch as they dwell there : Oraiffr nan at in/e- 
ris mortuos excitdbit. Uic. Orcus^ the lower region, inas» 
much as it contains the dead, the realm of the dead : Mum 
sedet arbiter Or ci. Propert. 


In — Conformatio. Info rrnare^ forming into something | 
properly, a substantive into a plastic work of art : CycU^mi^ 
injormatum manibtis jam parte polita fubman ertU, Virg. 
Artes^ quibus atas puerilis aid kumanitaiem informari fCH 
let. Cic. Instituere, properly, placing there, down, estalK 
lishing, 6. g. cioitates ; establishing or oiganizing for a certaia 
purpose, object ; instructing one bow he ought to do a certain 
thing: Plane rudem instituere 4id dlte^vm. Cio. li^ 
struere, placing in good order,, upon, and by one anothjur, 
properly arranging, providing with every thins neces^nry, 
e. g. agrum^ ades; and furni^ng with ^owledge, insfaruci-^ 
ing, artibus. Uteris^ doctrinis^ eoMiliis^ or the subjeot of U^* 
struction is indicated by the accompanying w^s: MuKer 
instituit accusatores^ instruit testes. Ub., she appduotr 
accusers, and tells them what they have to do ; she fumiriM 
the witnesses with documents and evidisnce. Sentctus. .adih. 
lescentulos doeet^ instituit^ ad omm i^fieii nmlxa» iii^ 
struit. Id., furnishes them with knowledge, gives, directipa 
as to what they have to do now and in the future, profidet 
them with necessary prepart^tory knowledge for ever? afl^Mr* 
PrcBcipere, directmg beforehand, prescribin{| bow some- 
thing and what is to be done : Poritt sihenUbua %i^, qui jam Al 
portum ex alto invehumivr^ pracipere solmU et teHttfisatdtitm 
rationem et pradonum et locomm. Cic -Phittppiu et AnH* 
pater filiis pracipiunty vt aralume be^igna mMUudmU 
animos ad beneoolentiam aUidant, Id.-— Jnf or «lat to, the 
image which the soul forms of something: MabAam m oni- 
mo insitam informatianem fiumdam dH^: XSOf CoMflktt» 

256 554. Ingenuus. 556. Initium. 

matio, the formation of a whole in respect of the harmoniz- 
ing composition of its parts, conformation: Ipsius thecUri 
conformatio sic est jacienda, Vitruv. Est qucedam con' 
formatio insignita et impressa intelligenticB^ quam notionem 
voco, Cic. 

554. Ingenuus, Lib£r, Liberalis. Ingenuus^ that 
which we have by our procreation, which belongs to the in- 
dividual from the moment of its being engendered, e. g. tw- 
doles ; naturally free, freebom : Ean' in genu a an festuca 
facia e serva libera est 7 Plaut. Aries ingenues et huma^ 
na. Cic, befitting a freeborn man, noble. Liher^ civilly 
free, he who is no slave ; hence frank, open : Jure civili qui 
est maire libera^ liber est, Cic. Vocem liberam mit" 
tere. Liv. Liberalise 146, worthy of a freeman, decorous 
for him, proper for him : Omnis liberal is et digna homine 
nobili doctrina. Cic. 

555. Ingredi, Intrare, Introire. Ingredi^ walking 
along, walking toward something: Si sias, ingredere* 
Cic., going toward a place in order to enter; Intrare^ so 
far entering into an enclosed place that we are within {intra)^ 
passing the threshold ; Introire^ going into the interior: 
In viiam, tam,quam in viam ingredi, Cic. Tu ingredi 
iUam domum ausus es7 tu illud limen intrare? Id. Me 
fuerat cequius^ ut prius introieram^ sic prius exire de 
vita. Id. 

556. Initium, Origo, Ortus, Principium, Exordium, 
Primordium, Procemium. Initium (inire), beginning, ac- 
cording to space and time, inasmuch as something follows 
afler: GallicB pars initium capit aflumine Rhodano, Csbs. 
Initium belli^viicB, Id mihi propositum initio non fuit„ 
Cic, in the beginning. Hoc iibi et est antiquissimum et ab 
initio fait. Id., from the beginning. Iniiia^ the first be« 
ginnings, the elements or rudiments of a science, upon which 
more difficult problems follow : Ut male posuimus initia^ 
sic cetera sequentur, Cic. Aer^ et ignis, et aqua, et terra 
prima sunt. Ergo ilia initia et elementa dicuntur. Id, 
Mysteriis ex agresti immanique vita exculti ad humanitatem 
mitigatique sumus: Initiaque ut appellantur, ita re vera 
principia vitce cognovimus. Id,, the secret service of 
Ceres and Bacchus. Or I go (oriri), the origin, as descent; 
Ortus, the origin, the beginning of the existence of a things 
with reference to the question, whence? A primo animan- 
tium ortu petitur origo mmmi boni, Cic. Principiuvk 

557. Injuria, 257 

{princeps)^ the beginning, considered materially, inasmuch 
as that which follows has its foundation in it ; that frpm which 
something takes its rise : Omnium rerum magnarum a diis 
immortalibus principia ducuniur, Cic, ; hence, PrincU 
pi ay the original substances, the first fundamental doctrines 
of a science, on which the others rest: Rerum principia^ 
e quibus omnia constant. Cic. Juris principia. Id., and 
the first files in front of an army, where the colors were. In 
this sense also, Hoc principio est in omni qucRstione con' 
siderandum, Cic, in the beginning, first of all. Vellem a 
principio te audisse amicissime monentem. Id., from the 
beginning, with reference to order and series. Exordium^ 
properly, the edge or list of something woven ; the first part 
of a whole, from which the other parts start, or to which they 
attach themselves: Hujvs quoque exordium mali^ quoniam 
principium boni diximus^ explicemus, Cic. Prim or» 
dium^ the very first beginning, origin, with which the exist- 
ence of a thing begins : A Diis immortalibus sunt nobis 
agendi capienda primordia, Cic. Procemium {ngooi- 
fiiov)^ properly, the prelude ; the preface, introduction of a 
speech, essay: In singulis libris utor prooemiis, Cic. 

557. Injuria, Noxa, Noxia, Contumelia, Maledictum, 
CoNViciuM ; Injuriam facere, Nocere, CteESSE. InjU' 
ria, the wrong, every action by which the rights of another 
are violated : Duobus modis^ aut vi aut fraude^ Jit injuria, 
Cic. Noxa^ the injury, damage done to some one, and in 
this respect, also, the guilt ; and the injury, damage which 
we suffer, and in this respect, also, the punishment, see 289. 
Node nocent pota {aqua): sine noxa luce bibuntur, Ovid. 
Ne quis^ nisi qui noxam meruisset^ donee pcenam lueret^ in 
compedibus teneretur. Liv. JVo a? i a, sc. res, the injury done, 
hence also the crime (done to the suffering party) and the 
guilt, crime : Noxia pcenapar esto, Cic. Hence, Noxam 
jactam sarcire^ noxcB dare^ dedere; but noxiam sarcire^ 
in noxia esse^ teneri, Contumelia^ the wanton abuse 
of another, with disgrace to his honor, contumely, affront : 
Patior facile injuriam^ si est vacua a contumelia, 
Pacuv. Maledictum^ an expression which affects the 
honor of another, or an imprecating, cursing expression, gen- 
erally during a fit of high passion, an abusive word, an invec- 
tive imprecation : Maledictum est,sivere objicitur^ vehs' 
mentis accusatoris : sin falso, maledici conviciatoris. Cic. 
Convicium {vox),, properly, the wild screaming of many 


938 558. Innocens. 560. Inquietus. 

together ; hence the violent scream against some one, accom* 
panied with or consisting of reproaches and invectives, the 
ahusing of a person: Maledictio nihil hahet propositi^ 
prater contumeliam: qua si petulantius jaciatur^ con* 
vicium nominatur. Cic. — Jn^'ttrt am /a cere, committing 
a wrong, interfering with the rights, privileges of others ; 
Nocere^ injuring, causing injury to another; O ft e«*e, be- 
ing in the way, being a hindrance to another, opp. promoting^ 
injuring by hindrance : Alienum est a sapiente non modo in* 
juriam cui facere^ verum etiam no cere, Cic. Pudor is 
fait in Crasso^ qui non modo non obesset ejus orationif 
sed etiam proMtaiis commendatione prodesset. Id. 

558. Innocens, Innocuus, Innoxius, Insons, Integer. 
Innocens^ properly, without injuriousness ; he who does 
nothing wicked, has no share in a crime, innocent and guilt- 
less: Innocens^ si accusatus sit^ absolvi potest. Id. /n- 
no ctfu^, uninjurious, innocuous; active, incapable of injur- 
ing, innocuous ; and passive, uninjured, who has received no 
injury: Ave.s^ assuetum silvis innocuumque genus, Ovid. 
Sedere carina omnes innocuce, Virg. Innoxius^ free of 
injury ; active, uninjurious, harmless ; passive, uninjured, not 
exposed to danger: Anguis innoxius imo successit iumulo. 
Virg., without injuring anybody. Sic condita faba a curcu* 
lionibus erit innoxia. Colum. Innocens^ is the negative 
of the action of injuring; Innocuus, continuation of the 
state; /n no op tu«, indicates a «quality. Insons (properly, 
un^inful), innocent, guiltless, upon whom the guilt of a pun- 
ishable action does not rest : Quid Perseus^ noious rex^ ommA^ 
injuria insons, meruit? Liv. Integer (tangere), blame- 
less, spotless, respecting the moral state, righteous : Integer 
vita scelerisque purus. Hor. Integritatem atque inno-^ 
cent i am singular em esse oportet in ea, qui alterum accu* 
set, Cic. 

559. Innuptus, Innubus, Cjelebs, Innuptus, unmar- 
ried, not yet ever having married ; Innubus, remaining 
without marriage, unmarried, inasmuch as it indicates a state, 
not only the negation of being married (in German, ehelos) ; 
both used of women: Pueri innuptaque puella, Virg. 
Innuba permaneo, Ovid. , the CumsBan Sibyl says. Caleb 9^ 
without matrimony, of men ; one who has never married, or 
lost his wife, bachelor or widower : Pygmalion sine conjug» 
Calebs vivebat, Ovid. 

560. iNQiaiETus, iRBEQUiETus, Anxius, SoxJOcxTiisk Jn^ 

561. Inquit. 563. Instare. 258 

quietus^ obsolete Inquies, restless, where we cannot get 
settled, obtain quiet, and he who cannot settle or obtain quiet, 
who is in continual activity : Ltuc noctem inquietam ime- 
cuta est, Liv. Hispanorum in qui eta avidaque in novas ^ 
res sunt ingenia. Id. Irrequietus^ who never rests after 
previous activity : Siderum irrequieta semper agitatio 
nunquam in eodem vestigio manet. Senec. Anxius^ anxious : 
His anxius curis helium gessit Hamilcar, Liv. Philippus 
desiderio anxius Jilii et pcmitentia crudelitatis sua. Id. 
Sollicitus {solium - ciere), excited, agitated, disquieted : 
Mare sollicitum stridit, Virg. Solliciti eramus de 
iua valetudine. Cic. 

561. Ir^QUiT, Ait, Digit. Inquit {in^ — Gothic quitJum^ 
speaking, saying ; inquit, therefore, he speaks into, the con- 
versation ; inquam, is conjunctive form), he says, says he, 
and quite general as a formula of introducing words of an- 
other : Hoc libro quasi ipsos induxi loqvsntes, ne inquam 
et inquit scBpius interponeretur. Cic. Ait, he assures, 
asserts, maintains, as a formula of citing the assertion of 
another, which we cite by way of narration, and as contradis- 
tinction to negat ; he affirms. But if not only mere negation 
and affirmation are opposed to each other, but whole affirm- 
ing or negativing sentences, the words Dicit — negat are 
used; besides this use, dicit is simply an indicating and 
prefatory formula of citing the words of others : Ne faciam, 
in qui s, omnino versus"^ Aio, Hor. Rhenium eaueunl : 
aiunt ah eo literas puhlicas esse corruptas, Cic. Coifisidius 
ad CcEsarem accurrit ; dicit, montem, quern a Ldbieno occit' 
pari voluerit, ah hostihus teneri, Cees. 

562. In — ExsoMNis, Vigil. Insomnis, sleepless, he 
who cannot sleep : Noctes non sine multis insomnis lacri* 
mis agit, Hor. Exsomnis, not sleepy, awake, that is, ; 
sprightly, active, who allows no sleep to come into his eyes : 
Mcecenas, vir, uhi res vigiliam exigeret, sane exsomnis, 
Vellei. Fi^iZ, watchful, hence the watchman: Vigilum 
canum excuhice. Hor. Milites oherrahant tentoriis^ insom» 
nes magis, quam pervigiles, Tac. The insomnis is 
prevented from sleeping by disturbances, he is deprived ot 
sleep ; the exsomnis has no desire to sleep, because he is 
not tired ; the vigil will not sleep, suppresses it, because it 
is his will to be attentive and active. 

563. Instare, Urgere, Pbemere, Deprimere. Instare^ 
properly, standing upon something, being quite near in a 

260 564. Instaurare. 565. Institar. 

hostile sense ; being near at hand, of an event : Vicit hostis ; 
ferociter in si at victis, Liv. Nox^ dies ins tat; Bruto 
iter in St ah at et subitum et longum. Cic. Urgere^ or 
Vrguerey harassing, violently and repeatedly attacking : 
magna vi hostes. Sail. Malis omnibus urgeri, Cic. P re- 
in ere, pressing: Pressit pede exanimem, Virg. -4ere aZt- 
eno premi, Cses. Deprimere^ pressing down : Lanx in 
libra^ ponderibus impositis, deprimitur, Cic. Improbitate 
depress a Veritas. Id. Instare^ signifies a continued har- 
assing and pressing from above ; Urgere^ from in front, or 
that which drives into great difficulty ; P rem ere, something 
molesting; De/? rim ere, something pressing to the ground, 
and rendering useless all resistance. 

564. In — Restatjrare, Renovare, Integrare, Redin- 
TE6RARE, Sarcire. InstauTare, holding a solemn per- 
formance in due form, causing it to be held : Ludos votivos^ 
sacriflcium. Instauremus novum de integro bellum. Liv., 
i. e. with all formalities. Restaurare^ reestablishing, sol- 
emnizing again ; only used with later writers : adem vetustaie 
dilapsam, Tac, more common for this, is instaurare and re- 
stUuere. Renovare^ renovating, making that which is old 
new again, and beginning anew: bellum^ memoriam inter- 
mortuam, Cic. Integrare (^an^ere), , making intact, i. e. 
as if untouched, i. e. completing, reestablishing in the former 
sound state, rebeginning : Animus defessus audiendo^ admi' 
ratione integratur, Cic. Equites^ relictis equis^ pro' 
volant ante signa, et novam integrant pugnam, Liv. 
Redintegrare^ reestablishing something entirely: copias 
deminutas^ vires : Per enumerationem commonemus^ quibus de 
rebus verba fecerimus^ breviter ; ut renovetur^ non rediu' 
tegretur oratio. Ad Herenn. Sarcire^ reestablishing 
something defective : acceptum detrimentum. Cses. DisddU 
vestem; resarcietur, Ter. 

565. Institor, Mercator, Negotiator. Inst it or^ a 
merchant's servant, who for his master, or a pedler, who for 
himself, carries about, offers, and sells merchandise : Instu 
tor ad dominam veniet emacem^ expedietque merces suas, 
Ovid. Mercator^ the merchant, who buys commodities in 
foreign countries and brings them home for sale, and the 
retailer, shopkeeper, which profession was followed in Rome 
by low people and manumitted slaves only : Sordidi putandi^ 
qui mercantur a mercatoribus^ quod statim vendant, Cic. 
Negotiator^ banker, who carries on money transactions 

566. Instrumentum. 568. Integer, 261 

and exchange business in the provinces, or who carries the 
produce of his large estates to the capital for sale, as rich 
Roman knights and plebeians did: Negotiatores putant 
esse turpe, id forum sihi iniqvum ejurare^ vM negotien» 
tur, Cic. 

566. Instrumentum, Supellex, Vasa, Utensilia. In* 
strumentum^ that which serves to put a thing in its com- 
plete state, to arrange and establish it properly ; tool, imple- 
ments used as instruments or tools : Arationes conductas 
magno instrumento tuebatur, Cic. Implements for agri- 
culture. Belli instrumentum et apparatus: instrumen- 
ta virtutis. Id. Specific kinds are: Supellex^ Gen. Su- 
pellectilis (superlectus)^ properly, the covers, blankets 
(stragulce) over the places of repose; furniture: Supellex 
est domesticum patris families instrumentum^ quod neque 
argento aurove facto^ vel vesti adnumeretur. Pompon. FuU 
permagnurn optimi pondus argentic pretiosa vestis, multa et 
lauta supellex, Cic. Vas^ Gen. Vasis^ a vessel, a uten- 
sil, especially to contain liquid, e. g. vinarium; plur. Vasa^ 
or urn : Par are vestem egregiam^ vasa pretiosa, Cic, drink- 
ing vessels generally, plates, &c., also other utensils, e. g. of 
a soldier: Jv^si milites vasa colligere, Liv. Utensilia^ 
every thing wanted or useful for the daily support, and, in 
domestic economy, utensils and stores which are using: 
Utensilia, quibus aut alitur hominum genus, aut etiam ex» 
colitur. Colum. Exutus omnibus utensilibus miles. Liv. 

567. Insumere, Impendeee, Erogare. Insumere^ 
taking for some object, applying ; it indicates the destination 
of that which has been taken for a certain object : Quceriturj 
quibus rationibus vixerit {homo), quid sumtu^ in cam rem aut 
laboris insumserit, Cic. Impendere, applying to, or 
employing for ; indicates the real use : Non operam, curanty 
pecuniam impendent in eas res, quas vobis gratas fore 
non arbitrentur, Cic. Eragare, spending, paying out: 
Pecunia in classem est erogata, Cic. 

568. Integer, Incolumis, Salvus, Sanus, Sospes; So- 
LiDus, ToTus DIES. Integer, 558, yet untouched, hale, 
upon which nothing from without has had any influence, 
neither for its advantage or disadvantage : Rudem me et tn- 
tegrum discipulum doce, Cic, who has not yet learned any 
thing; Re integra, when nothing in the matter has yet 
been done; Integri milites defessis succedunt, Cees., sol- 
diers yet unused, fresh troops. Incolumi», 64, uninjured) 

262 569. Intelligere. 

as good as in the previous good state : Casar omnibus navu 
bus ad unam incolumibus^ milites exposuiU Cses. Et 
urbem et cives iniegros incolumesque servavi, Cic. 
jSalvus, safe, respecting the existence, we II- placed, saved : 
Salvum atque incolumem exercitum, nulla omnino nave 
desiderata^ transdvxi, Cses. Sanus^ sound in body and 
soul, feeling well, opp. cegrotus : Orandum est^ ut sit mens 
Sana in corpore sano. Juvenal. Sospes^ safely escaped 
from danger by divine assistance: Vix una sospes navis 
db ignibus, Hor. — Integer dies^ the whole day, the en- 
tire day which lies yet before us, on which we have done 
nothing yet, the unbroken day, as it were: Dicimus inte^ 
gro sicci mane die, Hor. Solidus dies, the whole, com- 
plete day, at the entireness of which nothing is wanting (a 
solid day): Hodiernus dies solidus est; nemo ex illo 
mihi quidquam eripuit. Senec. Tot us dies, the whole 
day, as to its duration, all day : Totos dies scribo, Cic. 

569. Intelligere, Per — Concipere, Comprehendebe. 
Intelligere, understanding, obtaining a clear, distinct, and 
correct notion of a thing : Explicari mihi tuum consilium 
plane volo, ut penitus intelligam, Cic. Percipere^ 
properly, to perceive and understand every thing which is 
necessary for the clearest possible idea of something : Artis 
prcecepta percipere. Cic. Id si minus intelligituVy 
quanta vis amicitia concordiceqtLe sit, ex dissensionibus atque 
discordiis per dpi potest. Id. Concipere, taking to- 
gether, by embracing all: Terra concipit semina. Cic., 
receives ; hence receiving, forming a notion, an idea of some- 
thing, imagining something : Quod ita juratum est, ut mens 
conciperet fieri oportere, id servandum est. Cic. Cowi- 
prehendere, grasping together; with the memory, obtain- 
ing a proper impression, taking care to remember ; grasping 
together, with the mind, the marks of distinction of a thing, 
to form an idea of it: Has disputationes memoria compre* 
hendamus. Cic. Concludunt philosophic nihil esse, quod 
nosci, per dpi, comprehendi possit. Id. Noscere, be- 
coming acquainted with, and thus knowing a phenomenon, 
something which appears to us; percipere, perceiving, 
comprehending its various marks of distinction; compre- 
hen d ere, uniting these marks of distinction into one notion. 
Discere, learning, obtaining by instruction knowledge, 
ideas, notions, skill, which so far we did not possess : Tom 
diu discendum est, quamdiu nescias, Senec. Didid 

570. Inter. 263 

ex Uteris tuis^ I have learned, i. e. seen from your letter ; 
intellexi^ I have understood from it, by closer atten- 

570. Inter, Intra, Per; Inttjs, Intrinsecus, Intro, In- 
TRORsuM ; Inter, Super coenam ; Inter, Per manus. /n- 
ter^ between, among, being in the row or series of several 
Others, or between two: Jura mons est inter Sequanos et 
Helvetios. Caes., and during^ falling into the course of a 
period, and moving along with this: Germani inter annos 
XIV tectum non suHeranU Caes. Intra, within a surrounded 
or limited space : Qui regnat intra montem Taurum, is non 
solum in monte Tauro regnat, sed in his etiam regionibusy 
qucB Tauro monte clauduntur. Gell. Modice hoc fa^iam, out 
etiam intra modum, Cic. Of time within the limits of a 
period, not going beyond them : Romani XLI oppida MquO" 
rum intra dies L ceperunt. Liv. Per, through, of place 
and time, during, during a whole period, uninterruptedly en- 
during: Me per jo cum divitias oraiionis habere dids. 
Cic, in joke, jocosely, of the form ; Supplicium minatus tn- 
ter jocum fuerat. Suet., during the joke, of the duration. 
Tenuisti provinciam per X annos a te ipso per vim et 
per fa clionem datos, Cic. , during — through force. Dies 
XLV inter binos ludos tolluntur, per quos solos judi» 
cium fieri posset. Id., between — during. — Inter, between, 
i. e. in the centre, limited on several, at least two sides ; In* 
tra, within, enclosed on all sides, opp. extra ; Intus^ therein, 
in the inner part, or in the centre of a space enclosed all 
round, inasmuch as something is in the same, goes thither or 
comes thence : Mcenibus in patriis atque inter tuta domo' 
rum confixi exspirant animos, Virg. lliacos intra muros 
peccatur et extra, Hor. Milites extra et intus hostem Ao- 
bebant. Cses., i. e. in castris. In portum naves introduxe^ 
runt. Quo simul atque intus est itum, Auster in Africum 
se vertit. Id., there, in the most inner port of the harbour. 
Pulia dum fores atque evocato aliquem intus ad'te, Plaut., 
from wjthin outward. Intrinsecus, turned within, to the 
inner part : Aviaria intrinsecus et extrinsecus poliantur 
opere tectorio. Colum. Jw^ro, into, moving into the exte- 
rior of an enclosed spot: Introrsum, Intr or s us, iowaid 
within, directed toward this point, either resting or moving in 
this direction: Ibo intro, atque intus subducam ratiuncW' 
lam. Plaut Hostem introrsum in media castra accipiuni, 
Caes. — Inter ccenam, during the eating and drinking, of 

264 571. Intercedere. 572. Interesse. 

something that is brought into connexion with the meal ; 
Super cmnam^ at table, at dinner, while one lies at table 
(or sits), used of something accidentally happening at this 
time: H<bc inter ccenatn Tironi dictavi, Cic. Tiberius 
Bolebat ex lectione quotidiana qucBstiones super cmnam 
proponere. Suet. Inter manus^ under the hands, when 
several istretch their hands for it at the same lime; Per 
manus^ from hand to hand, when one gives it to the other, 
and so on: Inter manus e convivis, iamquam e prodioy 
auferehatur, Cic. Sextius^ gravibus acceptis vulneribus^ 
<Bgre per manus tractus servatur. Cses. Traditce per 
manus religiones, Liv., handed down from father to son. 

571. Intercedere, Intervenire. Intercedere^ step- 
ping between, and thus separating two things, or preventing 
something; Intervenire^ coming between, coming to a 
thing, by which something may happen to be prevented, im- 
peded, &c., intervening : Hostes non longius prosecutus est^ 
quod silvcB paludesque intercedebant, Cses. De his rebus 
senatus auctoriias gravissima inter cessit; cui quum Cato 
et Caninius intercessissenty tamen est perscripta, Cic, 
the tribunes of the people interfered with their veto against 
the decrees of the senate. Plures ceddissent, ni nox prcelio 
intervenisset. Liv. 

572. Interesse, Differre, Distare ; Interest, Refert. 
Interesse^ being between, designates that which lies be- 
tween two thine», by which they are distinguished from one 
another; Bifjerre^ differing, relates to the subjects which 
may be distinguished by their different qualities ; Distare^ 
standing from one another, designates the distance, the dif- 
ference of two things : Inter hominem et beluam hoc maxime 
interest^ quod hcec ad id solum^ quod adest quodque prnsens 
est, se accommodat: homo autem facile totius vitcB cursum 
videt, Cic, is this chief difference. Quid est illud, qvx) pa- 
et(B differunt ab orator ibus? Cic. Mirabile est, quum 
plurimum in faciendo inter sit inter doctum et rudem^ 
quam non multum differ at in judicando. Id., how small a 
difference exists. Multum inter se distant istce facultatea 
(senaioris atque oratoris), longeque sunt diverse^ atque se* 
junctcB, Id. — In t ere sty it is important, depends upon, has 
reference to our own interest we feel in the subject ; U efert, 
to greater or less advantage, profit, utility : Magni mea in- 
t ere sty hoc tuos omnes scire, Cic Nor^ refert, quam 
multos libros, sed quam bonos habeas, Senec. 

573. Interficere. 574. Intemuntius. 265 

573. Interficere, Conficebe, Inter — Perimere, Oc- 
ciDERE, Necare, Enecare, Trucidare, Jugulare, Obtrun- 
CARE. Jn^er/i cere, properly, causing that something per- 
ish, and in this sense killing : Fer stahuLis inimicum ignem^ 
atque interfice messes, Virg. Conficere^ cutting 
down of living aj^d resisting beings: Postumum Agrippam 
ignarum inermumque quamvis Jirmatus animo centurio agre 
confecit. Tac. Inierimere^ properly, taking away out 
of the middle and carrying off; getting rid, i. e. killing, if 
applied to animate objects which molest, or of other evils : 
Amulius siirpem fratris virilem interimit. Liv. Cato 
ipse suis manibus se inter emit. Hirt. B. Afr. Perimere^ 
getting rid entirely, annihilating, extinguishing the existence 
of something: Ludi non intermissi^ sed peremti atque sub' 
lati sunt. Cic. Si supremus ille dies perimit ac delet om» 
nino. Id. Occldere^ properly slaying, that is, killing by 
blows; killing in general: Nullus modus est hominis occu 
dendi, quo ille non aliquot occiderit^ multos ferro^ multos 
veneno. Cic. Necare, killing violently and purposely, with 
the additional idea of hardheartedness, want of feeling : vir* 
gis ferroque. Hor. Imperii severitatem addit : igni atque 
omnibus tormentis nee at, Cses. Enecare, killing slowly 
in the same manner : Octavia prafervidi balnei vapore en 6" 
catur. Tac. Specific modes of depriving of life are desig- 
nated by: Trucidare, 122, cutting to pieces in a horrid 
manner, murdering: Inde non jam pugna, sed trucidatio 
velut pecorum fieri, Liv., carnage. Pleminius tribunos milu 
turn verberatos, servilibusqus omnibus suppliciis cruciatos 
trucidando occidit. Id. Jugulare, properly, killing 
by applying the means to the neck, throat, e. g. suem; in 
general, murdering, dirking: Ut jugulent homines, swr- 
gunt de node latrones. Hor. Obtruncare, surprising, and 
thus killing, assassinating : Tribunos militares inter epulas 
obtruncant. Sail. See Strangulare, Sujbcare, 390. 

574. Internuntius, Interpres, Sequester. Inter nuu" 
tius, the messenger between two parties, as negotiator: AU 
cibiades cum Pisandro prcetore per internuhtios collo' 
quitur, Nep. /rA<erjt?res, the mediator, who endeavours to 
settle disputed points between two parties: Hcec non per 
amicos atque interpretes, sed palam agebat, Cic; hence, 
the interpreter, explainer: JVec verbum verbo reddere cura' 
bis fidus interpres, Hor. Sequester, one with wViom 
money was deposited by two litigating parties, in order to 


266 575. hiterpolare. bl6. Interrogare. 

pay it over to whom the sentence of the court should legally 
assign it ; also, one who acted as go-hetween, in cases of 
bribing judges or at elections: Sequester a sequendo faC" 
turn esty quod ejus^ qui electus sit^ utraque pars fidem sequa^ 
tur, GelL 

575. Interpolare, Interlinere, Corrumpere, Vitiare, 
Adulterare, Transscribere. Interpolare^ giving a new 
appearance to a thing by dressing it up anew, e. g. togam ; 
falsifying a document by erasures and additions, not easily to 
be detected : Hoc modo iste sihi prospexit^ referendo in tabu- 
las^ quod gestum non esset, tollendo, quod esset^ et semper 
dliquid demendo^ mutando^ interpolando, Cic. Inter" 
Zin ere, writing between; in documents, writing a word be- 
tween others imperceptibly, striking out : Totum hoc nomen 
est in litura; quid fuit istic aniea scriptum? Cic. Cor- 
rump ere and Vitiare^ 281, falsifying, adulterating, cor- 
rupting, vitiating in general. Adulterare, admixing spu- 
rious or bad substances with the genuine, and thus corrupting, 
,e, g. nummos; more rarely used of documents. TranS' 
scribere^ imitating by writing, falsifying by copying : 
Transscripsit tahulas puhlicas, quum chirographum Se^s 
— primorum imiiatus est, Cic. 

576. Interrogare, Kogare, Qujerere, Percontari, 
ScisciTARi, SciTARi. The interrogator announces his inten- 
tion by Queer 0,1 ask, pronounced with emphasis, if he de- 
sires more accurate information on the spot, or if he means 
to bring the interrogated person to a confession; Rogo, I 
ask, if he addresses his question to the good will of the per- 
son interrogated ; /w / err ogo, if he addresses himself to his 
understanding, hence, in conversation, if the object is mutual 
communication ; Percontari, obsolete P e r c w n c < a r i, in- 
quiring, expresses the question of one who desires information 
respecting something not, or not sufficiently, known to him ; 
Sciscitari, rarer Scitari, desiring to know something, 
endeavouring to learn by inquiry, of the desire of knowledge 
as well as curiosity, which, following up an interesting subject, 
makes more and more penetrating queries, tracing or follow- 
ing up questions, questioning: me ncTno adhuc rogavit, 
num quid in Sardiniam vellem : ie, puto, scepe habere, qui : 
numquid Romximvelis, quarant, Cic. Racilius me primum 
sententiam rogavit. Cic. Visne, ut tu me Greece soles or' 
dine interro^gare, sic ego te vicissim eisdem de rebus La- 
tine interrogem? Id. Ego Masinissam de suo regno, Ule 

577. Invenire, 579. Invidia, 267 

me de nostra re jnMica percontatus est. Id. Confusam 
Jiliam quum pater forte vidisset, percunctatus^ satin* 
salvcB? elicuit comiter sciscitando^ ut fateretur causam 
doloris, Liv. Nonteid scitari^ qualem ego in inveniendo 
summum esse oratorem vellem, sed id mihi queer ere vide' 
bare^ quod genus ipsius orationis optimum judicarem. Cic. 

577. Invenire, Keperire, Nancisci, Offendere, De- 
PREHENDERE. Invenire^ happening to meet with something 
which lies in the way, or finding by searching, inventing and 
finding out: Quod quxeritaham^ jiliam inveni meam. Ter. 
PrcBsidia contra feras invenire, Cic. Reperire {pa^ 
rere), finding something which exists already, but has not yet 
been known, finding out, discovering : Eo projiciscitur cum 
legionibus : locum reperit natura atque opere munitum. 
Caes. Nancisci (naco^ in German nahen, i. e. nearing, 
approaching), properly, coming, getting near ; obtaining, 
getting, possessing ourselves of a thing after endeavour : 
Feras beluas nanciscimur venando, Cic. Occasionem 
reperire^ finding an opportunity, which exists already, but 
must be improved, seizing upon it; nancisci^ meeting with 
an opportunity which happens to present itself; by the addi- 
tional idea of approach, it diflfers from Assequi and Adipisciy 
115. Offendere, properly, stumbling upon something 
lying across ; happening to meet with something, unexpect- 
edly finding : Non off end es eundem honorum sensum, quern 
reliquisti, Cic. Deprehendere, catching on the spot, 
surprising in the very fact : In aliquo manifesto scelere d e- 
prehensus. Cic. 

578. Invicem, Vicissim, Mutuo. Invtcem and In ut- 
cem, for exchange, alternately, i. e. if several actions follow 
upon one another, directly changing, or if one action takes 
the place of another, instead: Dicamus invicem audiamus- 
que, Liv. Defatigatis in vicem integri succedunt, Cees. 
Vicissim, again, in a similar manner, as the other has done 
something before: Hanc veniam petimusque damusque vi- 
cissim. Hor., namely, when it will be our turn to requite 
the act of kindness by a similar one. Mutuo, 63, mutually, 
when two do the same to one another : Fac vahas meque 
mutuo diligas, Cic. 

579. Invidia, Invidentia, Livor; Invidus, Invidiosus. 
Mtslvlvs. Invidia, the dislike at the advantages or supe- 
riority of others; envy, as fault, active and passive: Invu 
dia non in eo, qui invidetf $o^-im dicMvr^ sed etiam in eo, 

268 580. Invitare. 582. Inultus. . 

cui invidetur. Cic. Excellentittm civium virttis imitatione 
digna esty non invidid. Id. ; passive, hatred, discontent 
with some one : Sullanus ager, a certis hominibus latissime 
continuatuSy magnam habet invidiam, Cic. Invidentia, 
the envying, as quality, by which the vice of envy manifests 
itself: Invidentia agritudo est ex alterius rebus secundis. 
Cic. Ltvor, properly, the lead-like or bluish color caused 
by contusion, lividness ; pale envy, in the highest degree of 
passion: Summa malevolentia et livore impediuntur. Cic. 
— InvtduSy envious against some one, grudging : Invidus 
dlterius macrescit rebus opimis, Hor. InvidiosuSyf\i\\ of 
envy, active : Invidiosa vetustas^ omnia destruens. Ovid. ; 
passive, envied, hated: Fuit invidiosa senatus potentia. 
Cic, the English invidious. Mmulus (see 532), one who 
with ill-feeling observes the advantages or preference of 
others, which he might enjoy himself; emulous, rival : JElmu- 
lus mearum laudum exstitit, Cic, or who sees with displeas- 
ure such advantages as he possesses himself, jealous : MiM' 
mmt (Bmulus Triton spumosa immerserat unda, Virg. 

580. Invitare, Illicere, Prolectare, Inescare, Dele- 
NiRE. Invitare^ inviting, calling upon, in a friendly way, 
for participation: Benigne salutare^ domum invitare. Liv. 
Illicere^ by allurements, charms : Eos ad b^llum spes rapt' 
narum ill ex er at. Sail. Pro Zeci arc, inducing the bash- 
ful, retiring pierson to come forth : Adolescens homines egentes 
et levesy ne sibi adversentur, spe legationis et viatico publico 
prolectaU Cic. Jn esc are, decoying the inexperienced: 
Animalia cibo inescantur. Petron. Nos cad, specie parvi 
benejlciiy inescamur. Liv. Delenire, winning by bl^- 
dishments, flattery, or cunning, the resisting, gaining : homi^ 
num animos prceda^ pretio^ oratione benigna, Cic 

581. Invittjs, Coactus. Invitus^ dislikingly, yet if wa 
conquer our own dislike against something unpleasurable, 
reluctant; Coactus, forced, if we are compelled to perform 
something not by our own free resolution, but by the authority 
of some one else: Solus sapiens nihil fadt invituSy nihU 
dolens, nihil coactus. Cic. 

582. Inultus, Impunittjs. Inultus, unavenged, if the 
offended party has not obtained satisfaction for the sufiered 
injury; Impunitus, unpunished, if the evil-doer does, not 
suffer that punishment which he deserves : Marcius excitabat 
manipulareSy ne inultos imperatores suos jacere sinerent^ 
Liv. Tibi uni direptio sodorum impunita fuU ac libera^ 

583. Invocare. 585. Ira, 269 

Cic. Id agis^ ut ceterorum qaoque injuries sint impunita 
atque ir^ultce. Id. 

583. Invocaee, Implobare. Invocare^ invoking some 
one, directing the call to his person: Deos testes^ Deorum 
opem, Implorarey imploring with tears and urgently for 
aid: Vestram imploro Jidem^ qui auditis clamorem jneum, 
ferte suppetias. Plant. 

584. JocTJS, Joci, JocA, LuDus, Lusus, LuDiCRUM ; Jo- 
cosus, JocuLARis, KiDicuLUS, LuDiCRUS. Jocus {juvarCj 
juvenis)^ the jest to laugh at, and the joke, fun, for serene 
and happy entertainment ; in the plural, Joci^ certain definite 
jests ; Joca^ jokes in general : Sed mehercules^ extra jocunij 
homo hellus est, Cic, joke apart, otherwise remoto joco. 
Horatium Augustus s(Bpe inter alios jo cos Jiomundonem 
lepidissimum . appellate Suet. Quam multa joca solent esse 
in epistolis, Cic. Ludus, the game, sport, as pleasing occu- 
pation for recreation: Ludo et joco uti licet tum^ quum 
gravihus seriisque rebus satisfecerimus. Cic. Ludi^ public 
games in Rome ; Circenses, races in the chariot ; Scenicij 
theatrical; Gladiatorii^ in amphitheatres. Lusus^ P^^y^ 
playing, as the state of him who plays: Puer Icarus lusu 
suo patris impediebat opus, Ovid. Ludicrum^ a specific 
game, as entertainment, play: Nunc versus et cetera ludi- 
era pono, Hor., trifles. Ludicrum fuit in Circo maximo 
equi pugilesque. Li v. — JocosuSy full of fun, that which 
gives a good deal to laugh at, sermo. Jocularis^ belong- 
ing to those things which entertain others, amusing : JoctA" 
I are istud quidem est^ et a multis scBpe derisum, Cic. Ru 
dtculusy laughable, that which causes laughing, that which 
is to be laughed at, worthy of nothing better, ridiculous: 
Inveni ridicula et salsa multa GrcBcorum. Cic. Sicinius^ 
homo impurusy sed admodum ridiculus. Id. Ludicrus 
(not extant in the nom. sing, masc), that which is done for 
entertainment, amusement, amusing: Ars ludi era arm<h 
rum et gladiatori et militi prodest aliquid, Cic. (not ludi- 

585. Ira, Indignatio, Indignitas, Iracundia, Excan- 
DEscENTiA, BiLis ; Iracundus, Stomachostjs. Ira^ ire, 
wrath, rage, the violent emotion or affection produced by the 
wrong and injuries which others have committed against us, 
and which incites to revenge : Ir cb, in the plural, the different 
manifestations of ire in several individuals: Ira est libido 
pomiendi ejus^ qui videatur Icesisse injuria, Cic Qicotn 


270 586. Ire. 

minimum irarum inter nos illosque relinqui velim, Liv. 
Indignatioy indignation, anger at unworthy, indecorous 
things : Si natura negate facit indignaiio versum, Juve* 
nal. Indignitas^ unworthiness, indecorous deportment, 
indecorousness, as cause of indignaiio ; stands likewise for 
displeasure, irritation at something: Patres indignitate 
rerum cesser ant in agros, Liv. Indignitas^ aique ex ea 
ira animos cepiL Id. /ra, is passing; Iracundia, iras- 
cibility, the lasting disposition to be wrathful, quick-tempered, 
choleric ; and also the violent anger, ire, which breaks forth 
into revengeful passion, heat of passion: Prce iracundia 
non sum apud me, Ter. Excandescentia^ the getting 
into a passion: Excandescentia est ira nascens et tnodo 
existens. Cac. jBtZt^, bile, choler, the anger which disturbs 
and excites more within than manifesting itself in fits, erup- 
tions of passions : Bilem id commovet latoribus legis, Cic. 
— /racwndus, of hot, quick, passionate temper, e. g. leo: 
Ariovistus homo harharus^ iracundus^ temerarius, Cses. 
Stomachosus, who has a touchy stomach, that is, because 
the ancients believed this to be the seat of choler, cross, ill- 
tempered, of angry temper : Stomachosiores meas literas 
quas dicas esse^ non intelligo. Cic. 

586. Ire, Gradi, Grassari, Incedere, Vadere, Meare, 
Pergere, Scandere, Con — In — E — Adscendere, Ex- 
SCENSIONEM FACERE. Ire, going, in general : pedibus^ equis", 
trans mare; IncipU res melius ire^ quam putaram, Cic. 
Gradi^ stepping, designates the equal extending or stretch- 
ing of the legs, the equal, measured, firm step; and Gras» 
sari, moving along with equal steps, stalking ; hiceder^ 
192 (properly, parting along, i. e. leaving space behind), 
walking along, the manner of walking and carriage of a man ; 
Vadere, wandering, the striving rapidly forward, onward, 
without allowing ourselves to be detained by obstacles ; itfe- 
are, walking all the time, continually, indicates the uniform 
course in a certain path, direction ; Pergere {anigx^tv)^ go- 
ing away, hastening away, the pursuing of one's object or 
aim without resting; Scandere, the lifting the feet and 
firmly placing them, in order to rise or descend by steps one 
above the other, walking or going with reference to ascent 
or descent (in German steigen): Galium gallinaceus gradi' 
tur ardua cervice, Plin. Animus ad gloriam virtutis via 
grassaiur. Sail. Ast ego, qua divom incedo regina, 
Yirg. Vadunt in prcdium et locum, ex quo cesserant^ rt^ 

587. Ila. 588. Itaque. 271 

petunt, Liv. Docehat Pythagoras^ qua sidera lege me a» 
rent Ovid. Concessum est^ ad castra uti contendant. Qua 
re concessa^ Iceti ad castra pergunt, Csbs. Victorem Tar- 
peias sc and ere in arces Roma videbit, Ovid. Conscen- 
dere^ ascending, whei> we arrive upon the ascended thing 
itself (in German hesteigen, as if we had a word he-walkings 
or be-scending) ; Inscendere, ascending and going in, 
entering (we might have inscending) ; Escendere^ ascend- 
ing, both as ascending a mountain and for rising; Adscen' 
dere^ ascending, up to a given height: Pompeius navem 
frumentarium conscendit. Cses. Mihi navem paro : i n- 
scendo^ut earn rem Naupactum ad herum nuntiem. Plant 
In navem omnibus ignotus adscendit, Nep. Constahat^ 
Eumenem, ut sacrijicaret Apollini^ Delphos adscensurum, 
Liv. Legati Delphos quum escendissent^ oraculum adie- 
runt. Id. Exscensionem facere^ stepping on shore, 
landing (never exscendere) : Philippus rex quinqueremibus 
sex profectus ad Erythras JEtohrum escensionem /e- 
cit. Liv. 

587. Ita, Sic It a {is, id), thus, so, points at something 
present in the mind, something thought: Sic, thus, so, at 
something in reality before us, something in the sensual 
world: Est, judices, ita, ut dicitur. Cic. Heus tu, Dore^ 
cape hoc flabellum, et ventulum huic sic fadto, dum lavdmus. 
Ter., showing to the eunuch how he ought to fan. 

588. Itaque, Igitur, Ergo; Eo, Ideo, Idcirco, Prop- 


ciRCA. a. Sentences or parts of sentences which express 
consequences or conclusions derived or founded upon preced- 
ing notions, and are acknowledged as true, either as neces- 
sary conclusions or consequences, or at the same time, accord- 
ing to our judgment, are united to their preceding part of the 
sentence by the demonstrative particles Itaque, Igitur^ 
Ergo, hence, therefore, consequently, now: Itaque has 
reference to the conclusion, as founded in the fact ; Igitur 
refers to that which precedes, as absolutely necessary ; JEr- 
g shows the obligation of conviction that the drawn conclu- 
sion is correct: Hecuba omnia mala ingerebat, quemquem 
adspexerat, Itaque adeo jure coepta appellari est Cani^ 
Plant. Staphyla: Ligna hie apud nos nulla sunt. Coci: 
Sunt asseres? St,: Sunt pol, Co.: Sunt igitur ligna; 
ne quceras forts. Id. Albano non plus animi erat, quam 
fidei. nee manere ergo, nee transire aperte ausus^ sensim ad 

272 598. Item, 590. Iter. 

monies succedit. — h. In demonstrative minor positions, in 
which a certain state of things is mentioned as a consequence 
of a reason or cause at which we point by a particle, JBo (for 
ea re), and more emphatically Ideo^ therefore, hence, points 
at a course directly influencing, and as the sole cause ; Id' 
circo, on this account, points at circumstances as causes of 
a state of things, inasmuch as the moving agency of the same 
is drawn into particular account ; Propterea^ therefore, on 
this account, points at the nearness of such moving causes ; 
Proinde, hence, therefore, points at the proper, correct re- 
lation in which the consequence or effect stands to its reason 
or cause : Hoc anno pestilentia fuit, eo nihil dignum memo- 
ria actum, Liv. Verres^ quod uhique erit pulcherrimum^ 
auferetl i^circo nemo superiorum attigit^ ut iste tolleret? 
ideo C. Claudius Pulcher retulity ut C. Verves posset au- 
ferrel Cic. Quia mihi est natalis dies, proptetea te 
vocari ad ccenam volo. Plant. Duces barbarorum pronufi' 
tiari jusserunt, illis reservari, quacunque Romani reliquis' 
sent: proinde omnia in victoria posita existimarent. Gees» 
— c. In active minor positions, which contain a consequence 
or effect and refer this back to a reason given in the ante- 
cedent, the following relative particles are used : Qu are, on 
which account, by, through which, if the given reason is to 
be considered the means or as existing secondary circum- 
stance ; Quamobrem, on which account, if the given reason 
is meant to be taken as a general motive ; Quapropter, on 
account of which, if this reason is to be considered as a near 
motive, lying close at hand; Quo circa, on which account^ 
why, if the effective agent is to be indicated as lying in the 
circumstances, which are given as reason : Alcibiades ei po- 
tentior et major, quam privatus, existimabatur, Quare 
fiebat, ut omnium oculos ad se converteret, Nep. Jhms epis' 
tolas quum lego, emergit rursum dolor. Quamobrem oh' 
secro te, mi Tite, eripe mihi hunc dolorem aut minue saltern, 
Cic. Stoici fortitudinem virtutem esse dicunt propugnantem 
pro cequitate. Quo circa nemo, qui fortitudinis ghriam 
consecutus est insidiis et malitia, laudem est adeptus. Id. 

589. Item, Itidem. Item, in the same manner, just so> 
also; with increased force, Itidem, precisely so, entirely 
so: Solis defectiones it em que lunce prcedicuntur in muUoa 
annos. Cic. Ea quce movent sensus nostros, itidem movent 
omnium. Id. 

590. Itee, Via, Meatus, Actus, Semita, Callis, Tka- 

591. Juha. • 273 

MES, Angiportus ; Iter, Viam facere, Viam munire. 
Iter {ire^ itum)^ the walk which we take, make toward a 
place, march, journey : Iter pedibus conficere. Cic, and 
hence the walk or road, in as far as it leads, goes to a place : 
Erant omnino itinera duo, quihus itinerihus Helvetii 
domo exire possenL Cses. Via (obsolete Fea, Veha, from 
vehere)^ the road for vehicles, road, way, street: Via Appia. 
Dejotarus rex perscepe revertit ex itinere^ quum jam pro' 
gressus esset rmiltorum dierum viam, Cic, a journey which 
had required many days; but novem dierum iter. Csbs., 
nine days' journeys. Meatus (see 586), the path on which 
a moving body passes along in its regular course, with the 
additional ideas of the narrow and hollow : Danubius in PoU" 
ticum mare sex meatihus erumpit, Tac. Acthis^a. field- 
way, a way for cattle, also a field-road for vehicles: Iter 
est, qua quis pedes vel eques commeare potest: Actus vero^ 
ubi et armenta trajicere et vehiculum ducere liceat, Digg. 
S emit a (se-^meare), a foot-path in streets and lanes, the 
part for passengers: Be via in s emit am degredere. Plaut. 
Call is, a narrow path over hills and mountains, especially 
a mountain path only used by the cattle, &c., cow-path : 
Nos hie pecorum modo per astivos saltus deviasque calles 
exercitum ducimus, Liv. Trames (trans — meare), a path, 
a cross-path near a large road, for foot-passengers, on which 
one may come shorter and less observed to the desired place : 
Vti per tramites occulte perfugeret in Galliam, Sail. 
Angiportus, Gen. us, and Angiportum, Gen. i, a nar- 
row passage between two houses, a narrow lane : Id quidem 
angiportum non est pervium, Ter. — Iter facere, 
making a journey, designates the movement toward the place 
of destination: Iter ad te in Apuliam facere ccepi, Cic. 
Viam facere, walking in the street: Ad senem etiam alte* 
ram facias viam, Plaut., and making way, opening one: 
Virginius ferro, quacunque ihat, viam facere, donee ad 
portam perrexit, Liv. Viam munire, paving a road, 
breaking a road: Appius ille Ccrcus viam muni v it, qua 
populus uteretur. Cic. 

591. JuBA, Crista. Juha, the mane, comb, plumes, of 
hair and feathers on the top of the head, and on the neck, if 
they hang down, e. g. leonis, equi ; Crista, the comb, plu- 
mage on the head of birds, and the crest on the helmet, if 
the feathers or hairs stand up: Gallinaceorum juhcR per 
colla cervicesque in humeros diffuscR, Colum. GaZZtnace- 

274 S92. Judicare. 594. Jurare. 

orum suhlimes sanguineceque nee ohliqtuB cristce. Id. Galea 
cristis decora. Virg. 

592. Judicare, Duudicare, Judicium facere, Judicatio, 
JuRisDicTio ; Judicium dare, reddere, ' exercere, facere. 
Judicare^ judging, in thought and orally : Id ita perspi' 
cuum est^ ut oculis judicare possitis, Cic. Dijudicare^ 
dividing two things, by one's judgment, deciding, distinguish- 
ing: Non facile dijudicatur amor verus et Jictus, Cic. 
Judicium facere^ forming a judgment, opinion, inasmuch 
as one is capable of doing it, generally giving a favorable 
opinion of some one : TJt primum per cetatem judicium fa^ 
cere poiuisti. Cic. Legio Ccesari graiias egit, quod de se 
optimum judicium fecisset Caes. — Judication the 
opinion of a thing ; in legal matters, the chief point in a liti- 
gation : Judicatio est^ quce ex infirmatione, et confirma' 
tione rationis (i. e. causce) nascitur controversia. Cic. Jt^ 
risdictio^ihe administration of justice, which was in the 
hands of the praetors in Rome and in the provinces, but only 
in civil actions, because in these they proceeded according to 
their edicts ; they directed public processes {causes publicce) 
pro imperio : An hoc dubitaHi quisquam^ quin Verres vena» 
lem in Sicilia jurisdictionem habuerit^ qui Romce totUm 
edictum atque omnia decreta vendiderit? Cic. — Judicium 
dare, reddere, granting and instituting a legal inquiry, 
trial, is said of a praetor, who gave the formula ^or the first 
steps and the adjournment of an action, and appointed the 
judges ; for the praetor did not decide himself either in judi* 
ciis privatis or in publicis ordinariis s. qtuBstionibus perpe» 
iuis, but had the fact decided by sworn judges. Judicium 
exercehat, and afterwards pronounced the judgment given 
by them {dicehat sc, jus, 5. sentential) . Judicium facere^ 
is said of the judges, if they give a legal opinion on the fact 
before them, giving a verdict: Gravia judicia pro rei 
publicce dignitate, multa de conjuratorum scelere fecistis, 

593. Jungere, Sociare. Jung ere (jugum), uniting, 
joining, so that several appear as a whole : Navibus junc* 
tis pontem imperant fieri, Caes. Sociare, making one a 
partner, associate, ally: Homines conjurare aut soeiari 
facinoribus noluerunt. Liv. 

594. Jurare, Dejerare. Jurare, swearing: Magna 
voce juravi verissimum jusjurandum. Cic. Dejerare 
and JDejurarey daring, placing one's existence at stake by 

595. JurisconmltiLs, 596. Jus, 275 

an oath, if it be not true ; firmly asseverating : Per omnes 
deos et deas dejuravit, occisurum eum hac nocte^qvicum 
cabaret, Plaut. 


consultus and Jureconsultus, the learned jurist, who i» 
asked respecting law cases, and gives his opinion, counsel : 
Est domus jurisconsulti totius oraculum civitatis, Cic. 
Jurisperitus, the experienced person in the knowledge of 
law and legal procedures; Leguleius^a. legal pedant, who 
studies but the letter of the law, not the philosophy of the law, 
as a public orator and sound jurist ought to do: Leguleius 
quidam cautus et acutus, praco actionum^ cantor formularum^ 
auceps sylldbarum, Cic. 

596. Jus, iEquiTAS, Justitia ; Lex ; Fas ; Jus dicebe, 
Jus, De jure respondere. Jus^ the right, that which is 
according to law, as subject of the administration of justice, 
and demanding strict attention and obedience; M quit as 
and Mquum^ fairness, equity, which brings the use we make 
of our rights and privileges and our duties into harmony, and 
moderates, tempers the strictness of the law, especially by 
humanity: Galba multa pro cr quit ate contra jus dicere. 
Cic. Justitia^ justice, according to which we satisfy our 
duties, without yielding up our rights or those of others: 
Justitia est habitus animi^ communi utilitate conservaia^ 
suam cuique tribuens dignitatem, Cic. — Jus^ right, as the 
authorization of action founded in nature, on law and custom, 
and as the aggregate of all binding laws, law ; Lea?, a law, 
or binding precept of superior authority, for actions of free 
agents; it is a species of the genus Jus: Natura jus est^ 
quod qucedam innata vis inseruit, ut religionem, pietatem^ 
gratiam, vindicationem^ ohservantiam^ veritatem, Cic, hence 
suo jure, rightfully, in virtue of his personal right; jus gen^ 
tium, international law, the aggregate of all the rights, cus- 
toms, and obligations sanctioned by common consent and 
long usage \ jus civile, civil law, all the positive laws, which 
every citizen of a state has to follow: Hoc si minus civ Hi 
jure perscriptum est, lege tamen naturce, communi jure 
gentium sancitum est, ut nihil mortales a diis usu capere 
possint, Cic. — Jus, right, that which is right and permitted 
according to human laws; Fas (fari), divine law, that 
which is right before God, hence also according to natural 
law : Quod eorum judicum major pars judicavit, id jus 
ratumque esto, Cic. Sanctis his ora resolvere fas est Ma' 

276 597. Jusjurandum, 598. Juxta, 

nihus, Virg. — Jus dicer e, deciding according to law, giv- 
ing sentence, is only used of the praetor, generally, in as far 
as he administered his office, in doing which he used the 
words (Zo, dico^ addico^ and especially when he gave judg- 
ment or sentence : Siculi dixerunt^ se Verri pecuniam oh jus 
dicundum dedisse. Cic. Jus, De jure respondere^ 
giving a legal opinion, of a Jurisconsultus, 595. Se ad jus 
respondendum dare : Rut ilius magnum munus de jure 
respondendi susiinebat, Cic. 


jurandum, rarely Juramentum, the oath by which we 
strengthen our assertion as being in accordance with truth ; 
Sacramentum, oath, by which one subjects himself to the 
avenging gods, if the promise should be broken ; hence the 
oath of fidelity, which tl?e soldiers were obliged to take on 
their being enlisted : Jusjurandum est qffirm^tio religiosa* 
Q^od autem affirmate, quasi deo teste, promiseris, id tenen* 
dum est. Cic. Aliquem obligare militia Sacramento. Cic. 
Sacramentum dicere apud aliquem. Cses., and Sacra- 
mento dicere alicui. Liv. 

598. Juxta, Instae; Secundum, Pbopter. Juxta {jun- 
gere), by a thing, by the side, close by : Furiarum maxuma 
juxta adcubat. Virg., hence, just so, as good as, of similar- 
ity of kind and mode of circumstances : Juxta hieme atque 
(Estate bella gerere. Liv. Iris tar (belongs to histrio), some- 
thing which bears a remarkable or striking likeness to some- 
thing else, and may be compared to it ; a form, an image, 
picture, in Virgil only of objects which attract much atten- 
tion ; in the Accusative, afler the image, i. e. as great, as 
good as, like, used of similarity of outward marks and qual- 
ities: Volat atri turbinis in star exitium dirum hasta fo" 
rens. Virg. Accepi epistolam, qucR voluminis in star erat, 
Cic. — Juxta, as preposition, very close by : Atticus septiiU 
ttis est juxta viam Appiam. Nep. Juxta deos,in tua 
manu positum est Tac, nearest to the gods, i. e. after the gods. 
Secundum, designates a following, partly according to the 
longitudinal extension of a body, along: Iter secundum 
mare faciunt. Cic, partly immediately after, close behind 
something, next after: Proxime et secundum deos homi- 
nes hominibus maxime utiles esse possunt, Cic, hence, after, 
consistently, agreeably, conformably to: Secundum arhi' 
trium tuum testes dabo. Id. Propter (prope) near, 
coming near, in the neighbourhood, as contradistinguished 

599. Ldbefacere. 600. Lobes, ^TI 

from the distance, expresses the mode and manner; prope^ 
however, only the locality: Adolescentia voluptates prop» 
ter intuens magis foriasse laiatur^ sed delectatur etiam SC' 
nectiLS procul eas spectans. Cic. Fluvius Eurotas propter 
Lacedcemonem fiuit. Id., pretty near. 


599. Labefacere, Labefactare, Convellere, Quatere, 
QuASSARE, Concutere. Ldhefacerc^ making that which 
is firm loose, shaking ; Lahefactare^^oxng the same vio- 
lently, with repeated blows: Omnes denies I ah e fecit mihi, 
Ter. Demoliri signum ac vectibus labefactare conantur. 
Cic. Leges ac jura labefactat. Id. ConucZZere, tear- 
ing off, separating with violence firmly united things, by tear- 
ing and blows, e. g. repagula valvarum: Milites vectibus 
infima saxa turris^ quibxis fundamenta continebantur^ coU' 
vellunt. Cses. Quatere,, making vibrate, and unsettling 
by percussion, by shaking and blows; Quassare^ shaking 
frequently and violently, giving shocks: Quatere in Ojere 
pennas. Ovid. Carlhaginis moenia quatit ariete, Liv. 
Quassat caput. Plaut. Concutere^ shaking by concus- 
sion: Terra ingenti concussa motu est. Liv. Te ipsum 
con cute. Hot., examine thyself, inquire into thyself. 

600. Labes, Macula, Nota, NiEvus. Labes (ZaW), 
properly, the falling together, downfall ; the spot, stain by 
which something becomes soiled, spoiled, the spot caused by 
something shameful (as we use the word in spotless char- 
acter) : Sit sine labe toga. Ovid. Mdcula^di speck, which 
is distinguished by a different color from the rest of a surface, 
whether this be by way of embellishment or disgrace : Fa- 
ri(B tigres ma cutis. Plin. Maculas e veste eas nonnisi 
urina ablui. Id. Delendavobis est ilia macula^ Mitkrida" 
tico bello superiore suscepta. Cic. Nota^ the mark of dis- 
tmction, mark, by which we make an object to be known and 
distinguished from others of the kind, or by which we our- 
selves wish to remember something : Sonos vocis literarum 
notis ierminare. Cic. Omnibus insignis notis turpitudy 
nis. Id. Ncevus (obsolete Crncms^ from gignere)^ an excres- 
cence of the body, a wart, a mole: Ncevus in articido 
pueri deleclat Alcceum, Cic. 


278 601. Labium. 602. Labor. 

601. Labium, Labrum, Labellum. Labium, the an- 
cient form, more common Labrum, the lip, the rim of a 
deep vessel, and the latter itself, e. g. for bathing : Senex in- 
curvus, lab lis demissis. Ter. Tantalus a labris fugi' 
entia capiat jftumina. Hor. Lab rum siinbalineo non est, 
ut sit, Cic. L a ^eZZum, a little lip and a small vessel, the 
basin: Platoniin cunis dormienti apes in lab ell is consC' 
derunt, Cic. 

602. Labor, Opus, Opera ; -^rumna, Molestia, Dolor ; 
Laborare, Operam dare, navare, Elaborare, Lucubrare, 
Elucubrare. Labor, 549, the labor, as fatiguing exertion : 
Se ex labor e reficere. Caes. Opus, 109, the work, as pro- 
duce of practice, skill, of the practised workman, artificer : 
Habeo opus magnum in manibus. Cic. Opera, the activ- 
ity, used to produce a work {opus), the pains we take, labor, 
in as far as it indicates this : Quod in op ere faciundo op 6' 
r<B consvmis tu<z, Ter. In Opera, is intention and free 
resolution ; in Opus, this is not considered in the least, hence 
it is used of animals too ; but of gods. Op e, e. g. Deorum 
ope opus est. Liv. — L a ^or, the toil, hardship, misery, in- 
asmuch as we resist and labor through : Vir fortissimus 
multis variisque perfunctus laboribus, Nep. ^rumna^ 
poverty, misery, connected with grief: Mrumna est <Bgri' 
iudo laboriosa, Cic. Ubi virtus est, ibi esse miseHa et 
arumna non potest, tamen labor potest, potest molestia. 
Id. Molestia, the weariness, enduring difficulties with the 
feeling of burdensomeness, dislike; Dolor, 369, pain, the 
painful feeling caused by misfortune or contrary events : Do» 
lor est cBgritudo crucians, Cic. — Laborare, exerting one^s 
self with great fatigue, fatiguing one's self, and being embar- 
rassed, grieved, being in great want of assistance, suffering 
severely : In enodandis nominibus, quod miserandvm sit, 
laboratis, Cic. Laborare animo, morbo, ex re frumen' 
taria, Caes. Operam dare, taking pains, being active for 
some one; navare, serving one with industry and zeal, 
with zealous endeavour : Plus opera Gracis dedisti rebus, 
quam putaramus. Cic. Certatum ab utrisque est, ut ad recori' 
cUiandam pacem consuli opera navaretur. Liv. Elabo' 
rare, fatiguing one's self to exhaustion, working one's self 
feirly down ; bringing about something with pains, elaborat- 
ing : Ornati elabo ratique versus, Cic. Lucubrare, 
working by candlelight; Elucubrare, with a greater de- 
gree of carefulness: Orationes diligenter elaboratas et 
tamquam elucubratas afferebamus, Cic. 

603. Lacerare, 606. Lacus. 279 

603. Lacerare, Laniare, Dilaniare, Discerpere. La- 
cerare^ lacerating, separating the outer and softer parts of 
a body by disfiguring wounds: Dilacerare, tearing asun- 
der by laceration: Tergum laceratum virgis, Liv. La- 
cerare aliquem verborum contumeliis, Cic. Laniare^ 
tearing to pieces with many deep wounds, with a higher de- 
gree of cruelty and fury; Dilaniare^ cutting, tearing the 
flesh of some animal body into pieces and asunder : Cadaver 
canihus dilaniandum reliquisii, Cic. Discerpere^ 
tearing to pieces by pulling violently in two directions, tear- 
ing : Bacchce discerptum juvenem sparsere per agros. 

604. Lacessere, Provocare, Irritare. Ldcessere 
(lacio, lacere), inducing to fight, or something of the kind, by 
teazing, taunting ; challenging, irritaiingly inciting, e. g. in' 
juria^ maledictis : Elrusci lacessere ad pugnam: primo 
ohequitando castris provocandoque^ postremo qua consit- 
les^ qua exercitum increpando. Liv. Provocare^ chal- 
lenging, calling out, forth, for a battle : ad certamen ; male' 
dictis aliquem. Cic. Irritare^ irritate, by exciting impres- 
sions to rage, battle, &c., e. g. crabrones. Plaut. Pueri et 
jcupiditas et licentia potius est irritata, quam repressa, 

605. Lacrimare, — ri, Flere, Plorare, Lugere. La- 
crimare, giving vent to tears, allowing tears to flow; La- 
crimari, as Deponens, being moved to tears, becoming 
aflfected to crying : Quis fait tarn inhumanus^ quin illorum 
miseria commoveretur 7 ecquis fuit^ quin lacrimaretur? 
Cic. Flere^ crying with a drawn mouth (in German 
fiennen^ greinen) ; in general, crying when the tears are in- 
terrupted by sounds indicating grief, weeping bitterly : FZe- 
hat uter que, pater dejilii morte, de patris Jilius, Cic. Plo' 
rare, cryii^, i. e. shedding tears with much noise, with 
accents of great misery or agony : TJxorem tuam neque ge- 
meniem, neque plorantem audivimus, Plaut. Lugere^ 
mourning, manifesting one's sadness by external signs, espe- 
cially by peculiar dress, bemouming: Lucius est agritudo 
ex ejus, qui carus faerit, interitu acerho. Cic. Matrons 
annum, ut parentem, Brutum luxerunt, Liv, 

606. Lacus, Lacuna, Palus, Stagnum. Zacu^, a deep 
reservoir, a lake, natural or artificial : Lacus vinarii et tor» 
cularii, Colum. Lacus Alhanus, Pucinus, Lacuna^ a 
slough, standing water, without outlet, having run into some 

280 607. Lcedere. 610. Lampas. 

low place: Lacuna^ aquce coUectio, Festus. PaluSy a 
pool of less extent, a morass, a "swamp," flat water on 
marshy ground : Ccesar paludes (Pomptinas) siccare volu' 
it. Cic. Stagnum {stagnare^ from stare) y a stagnating 
mass of water of an overflowed river, a puddle : Super ripas 
Tiberis effusus lenihus stagnis adiri non poterat amnis. 

607. LiEDERE, Sauciare, Vulnerare ; Saucius, Vulne- 
EATUS. Ladere^ violating, wounding, injuring in such a 
manner that the completeness, perfection, or beauty of a thing 
suflfers thereby : HerbasmorsulcBserejuvencce. Ovid. Sau- 
ciare^ wounding deeply and vitally : Sauciat ungue genas. 
Ovid. CcBsarem Brutus noster sauciavit, Cic. Vulne' 
rare, wounding lightly, by tearing, separation (vellere) of 
external parts: Ab Neoptolemo Eumenes aliquot plagis vuU 
neratur^ neque eo magis ex prcelio excessit^ sed acrius 
hostes institit. Nep. Se^^vi nonnulli vulnerantur ; ipse 
Rubrius in turba sauciatur. Cic, hence Saucius^ the 
severely wounded man, who is thus rendered incapable for 
battle, non-combatant ; Vu Ineratus^ any one who is wound- 
ed, only as such, though he may be only slightly wounded : 
Gladiatori illi confecto et saucio consules vestros opponite* 
Cic. Graviter vulneratus Prcefectus refertur in casira, 

608. LiEvus, Sc-Evus, Sinister. Lcbvus, left, opp. right, 
left-handed, clumsy: Dextrd montibusy Icevd Tiberi amne 
septus, Liv., 5c. manuy parte, O ego lav us! Hor. Scc^ 
VMS, obsolete, in the sense of left: Mucins SccBvola, Liv., 
generally reversed, unhappy: Sccbvus profecto et ccecus 
animi forem^ si issem magis ad aliuniy quam ad te. Grell. 
Sinister^ left, at the left hand ; hence, at the inconvenient 
time, illy applied, injurious : Gerens dextra manu clavam^ 
sinistra copulam, Nep. Sinistra liberalitas, Catull. 

609. Lambere, LiNGERE, LiGURiRE. Lamb ere {labium\ 
licking a thing all round, seizing it with the stretched out 
tongue and the lips: Canes tribunal meum vides lambere, 
Cic. Lingere^ licking, gliding with the tongue over some- 
thing: Quia te tango ^ mel mihi videor ling ere. Plant. 
Ligurire^ also Ligurrire^ with appetite slightly licking 
a thing ; also, tasting something delicate : Si quis eum ser» 
vum, qui tepidum ligurierit jus^in cruce suffigat, Hor., 

610. Lampas, Lucerna, Lychnus, Lychnuohijs, Latsr- 

611. Languere. 613. Lapis. 281 

NA. Lamp as (Xafinag)^ a torch of metal in the form of a 
trumpet, in the opening of which pitch was burned : Multum 
fiammarum et cena I amp as. Juvenal. Luc em a^ a burn- 
ing light, a lamp : ardens ; defectu olei restincta. Plin. 
Lychnus {Xvxvog) a pending lamp: Dependent lychni la- 
quearihus aureis incensi. Virg. Lychnuchus (Xvxvovxogj 
light-bearer), the instrument to hold a light, a candlestick : 
Epistolam scripsi ante lucem ad lychnuchum ligneolum» 
Cic. La^erna, a lantern : Thix laterna vi(B clausisferor 
aurea Jlammis^ et tuta est gremio parva lucem a meo. 

611. Languere, Marcere, Torpere ; Languor, Veter- 
Nus, Torpor, Torpedo. Languere, properly, being slow; 
being fatigued, weak, exhausted, e.g. de via: Tristi Ian- 
guebunt corpora morbo, Virg. Marcere, being withered, 
without strength, e. g. coronce, lilia infracta : Qui pugnant, 
mar cent Campana luxuria. Liv. Torpere, being without 
sensation, immovable, inactive, torpid : Corpora rigentia gelu 
torpebant, Liv. — Languor, exhaustion: Me deamhula- 
tio ad languorem dedit. Ter. Vetemus, sc. morbus, 
the irresistible disposition to fall asleep, as it appears with 
aged people ; hence sleepiness, the sleepy, drowsy disposi- 
tion and state of mind, dreaming disposition: Vetemus 
civitatem occupavit. Cic. Torpor^ the state of being with- 
out feeling, the state when one has been made torpid ; it is 
the effect of Torpedo, the stiffening, the torpidness which 
befalls one, the natural inclination to inactivity and want of 
feeling, hence the name for the cramp-fish {torpedo), which 
causes torpedo : Torpor gravis alligat artus. Ovid. Tor- 
pedo animas oppressit. Sail. Tutantur se tor pore tor- 
pedines, Plin. 

612. Lanius, Macellarius. Lanius, rarer Lanio, the 
butcher who sells but meat of larger cattle ; Macellarius, 
the butcher, with the idea of the killing, the meat-dealer, who 
sold all sorts of meat, even birds, fish, &c. : Lanii ad cul' 
trum bovem emunt. Varr. Omithonem fructus causa ma- 
cellarii habent. Id. 

613. Lapis, Saxum, Silex, Cautes s. Cos, Calculus. 
Lapis, the stone, according to its nature, as an earthlike, 
heavy, inanimate mass ; the stone, inasmuch as it is distin- 
guished as such from other things : Me lapidem, non hmni' 
nem putas. Ter. Saxum, sl stone with sharp point, a piece 
of rock, that which the farmer often calls " a rock," differs 


282 614. Laqueus, 616. Lascivus. 

from lapis by greater density, its capacity of wounding, and 
as a body of a certain form : Ex spelunca saxum in crura 
Icadii incidit. Cic. Est viridis silex^ igni resistens^ et 
uhi invenitur, lapis^ non saxum est. Plin., not so rough 
and hard as saxum, Stlex (hence stlere^ 193.), a pebble, 
quartz, especially of flints : Vias sternere silice. Liv. 
CauteSj contract. Cos^ Gen. Cotis^ a hard mass of rocks 
with pointed corners, cliff: Naves nihil sax a et cautes 
timehant, Ctss.^ aL cotes. Generally Co 5 is hone: Cotes, 
ad ferri aciem deterendam. Plin. Calculus^ a small round 
pebble, a little s.tone, also used for reckoning, making calcu- 
lation, and a stone in the game at checkers : Demosthenes^ 
conjectis in os calculis, summa voce versus pronuntidbaU 

614. Laqueus, Tendicula. Laqueus {Idcere^ 604.), 
a rope, a noose : Laqueis captare feras. Virg. Collum in 
laqueum inserere. Cic. Tendicula^ a gin, springe, only 
tropical: Aucupia verborum et literarum tendiculas in 
invidiam vocant. Cic. 

615. Larva, Persona. Larva^ a mask of frightful, 
horrid, or caricature-like form ; Persona^a. mask represent- 
ing a character, with a wide, funnel-like opening for the 
mouth, to strengthen the voice of the actor in the theatre ; 
this mask covered the whole head of the actor : At illi fceda 
cicatrix setosam IcBvi froniem turpaverat oris : nil erat laV' 
va aut tragicis opus cothumis. Hor. Personam tragicam 
Vulpes. viderat : O quanta species, inquit, cerebrum non ha- 
bet I Phaedr. 

616. Lascivus, Petulans, Procax, Protervus; Disso- 
LUTUS. Lascivus, loose, full of fun, disposed to dally: 
Vellunt tibi barbam I as civ i pueri. Hor. Petulans, 
wanton, who from light-hearted ness or wantonness teazes 
others and becomes offensive, especially with words: lllis 
liberos sues integros ab istius petulantia conservare non 
licitum est. Cic. Procax {procare, asking intrusively), in- 
trusive in demands and in speaking : VerncR procaces. Hor. 
Tertiadecimanos, ut sunt procacia urbana plebis ingenia, 
petulantibus jurgiis illuserant. Tac. Protervus {prO' 
terere), disregarding every thing, shameless in words and 
deeds: Homo honestas non audet cuiquam aut dicto pro* 
tervo aut facto nocere. Cic. — Lascivus, gay without 
bounds, with the feeling of perfect physical and mental 
health: Florentem cytisum sequitur I as civ a eapella. Yirg» 

617. Later, 620. Laus. 283 

Bissolutus^he who does not restrict himself by decorum 
and order, negligent as to care and attention, and dissolute, 
rakish, who in his unbridled appetites does not observe the 
laws of decency and respectability : Cupio in tantis rei pub" 
licce periculis non dissolutum videri, Cic. Negligere^ 
quid de se quisque sentiat^ non solum arrogantis esi^ sed om- 
nino dissoluti. Id. 

617. Later, Tegul^, Imbrex; CiEMENxuM. Laier, the 
flat brick: Macerice Jiunt e laterihus coctilibus, Varr. 
Tegula^ the tile (of the roof, hence the name); Imbrex 
(imber), the hollow or curved tile, that the rain may run 
down : Dissipatis imbricum fragminibus ac testes tegU' 
I arum, Sisenna. — Ccementum (belongs to ccedere)^ a stone- 
mass hewn off; plural, quarries, the particles of hewn stones 
which were used for mortar (mortarium) : Mortario ccRmen» 
turn addatur, Vitruv. LapicidincB^ 4e quibus et quadrata 
saxa et ccementorum ad cBdificia eximuntur copicR. Id. 

618. Latere, Delitescere ; Latet, Fugit, PRiETERiT. 
Latere^ being or lying hidden; Delitescere^ hiding, con- 
cealing one's self somewhere : Inclusum atque abditum late' 
re in occuUo, Cic. Mulier constitui locum jussit^ ut eo 
miiteret amicos, qui delitescerent^ deinde repente prosi' 
lirent. Id. La^e^, it is hidden, it is a secret, with Cicero 
without case governed by it. Id qua ratione consecutus sit^ 
latet, Nep. Fugit^ it escapes my attention, I cannot re- 
member it; Prceterit^ it escapes my observation, I do not 
perceive it, I do not see it: De Dionysio^ fugit me ad te 
antea scribere, Cic. Te non prceterit^ quam hoc sit dif» 
Jicile, Id. 

619. Latine, Romano more loqui. Both are more em- 
phatic expressions for simpliciter^ haud dissimulanter^ aperte 
loqui, yet with this difference, Latine loqui, is speaking 
so that every one can understand it, intelligibly, so as the 
words are commonly taken, without exaggeration, plain; 
Romano more loqui, speaking earnestly, sincerely, 
straightforwardly, plainly, and openly, without dissimulation 
or reserve : Gladiatorem ita appellavi, ut appellant ii, qui 
plane et Latine loquuntur, Cic. De hoc tibi homine 
hac spondeo more Romano, quomodo homines non inepti 
loquuntur: probiorem hominem esse neminem. Id. 

620. Laus, Gloria, PRiEcoNiuM, Elogium ; Latjdare, 
Prjedicare, Celebrare. Laus, praise as expression of the 
good opinion of another on account of his excellence»» 

284 621. Laxare. 622. Lectus. 

especially those which have their foundation in morality ; 
Gloria (connected with glowing, i. e. shining, brightness), 
glory, widely extending opinion of great and uncommon 
talents and powers, and their efiects: Trahimur omnes laU" 
dis studio, et opiimus quisque maxime gloria duciiur. Id. 
PrcBconium, properly, the office of a public crier; the 
making known with glory, the lauding: PrcRconium ah 
Homero Achilli tributum est, Cic. Elogium, the words of 
a passage of a testament, of a witness, of a dictum, of an in- 
scription: Solonis sapientis elogium est, quo ^'se^' negat 
^^velle suam mortem dolore amicorum et lamentis vacareJ*^ 
Cic. — Laud are, praising, expressing a favorable opinion 
of a person, his good qualities and actions, especially in a 
moral point of view : Quis vituperare improhos, quis lau' 
dare bonos omatius potest 1 Cic. Pradicare, saying 
loud and publicly, with particular force as to the subject; 
praising, making kiiown the praise of some one by public 
declaration among other persons : Deforme est de se ipsum 
pr <B die are, falsa prcBsertim» Cic. CeZe&rare, 194. 210, 
making known something by repeated praise, rendering some* 
thing famous : Trihuni plebis legem omnibus concionibus suis 
celebrabant, Liv., they extolled it. 

621. Laxare, Solvere ; Laxus, Prolixus. Laxare^ 
making loose, widening, making more spacious: Argilius 
vincula epistola laxavit. Nep. Solvere (solus) , freeing, 
making free, dissolving : Omne colligatum solvi potest. Cic, 
hence, freeing one's self from a debt, dissolving the obliga- 
tion, i. e. paying. — Laxus (Jacere, 604.), loose, e. g. arcuSy 
opp. tensus, wide, spacious, opp. tight, narrow : Male laxus 
in pede calceus hceret, Hor. Domus laxior. Plin. PrO' 
lixus, loose, hanging down, e. g. capillus. Ter., hence 
willing (not stifi* and resisting), yielding, obliging : Interest 
nostra Plancum hoc animo libenti prolixoque facer e. Cic. 

622. Lectus, Cubile, Thalamus, Stratum, Torus, Gba- 
batus, Sfonda. Lectus, the place destined and arranged 
for lying {laying down), as the frame, and with the couches 
on it, as the sofa, dinner-sofa, and bier of the dead : Lectus 
ad quietem datus, Cic. Cubile, the place of resting, as a 
remaining place, of laying down : Terra cubile erat Sciftha 
Anacharsidi. Cic. Thalamus {&dXafiog), the bed-room, 
poetical, the marriage bed : Thai ami que diu consorte care* 
hat, Ovid. Stratum, every thing which is spread on a sur* 
face in order to lie on it, e. g. mattress, bolster : Cottapsa 

623. Legate, 624. Legio. 285 

membra referunt thai am o, s trails que reponunt, Virg. 
Torus (iorquere)^ a soft pillow, every soft, downy place to 
sit or lie, also a seat of turf: In medio torus est de molli" 
has ulvis impositus lee to, sponda pedibusque salignis, 
Ovid. Grdhdtus (x^«/?aTo?), a small, low sofa, with feet, 
generally with poor people : Ibat tripes grab at us et bipes 
mensa. Martial. Sponda, bedposts and other frame part 
of a bed. 

623. Legare (Legatum), Allegare, Delegare, Mit- 
TERE ; Legatio libera, votiva. Legare, selecting one 
for a particular business, sending one as public ambassador, 
and appointing one as sub-commander, assistant of com- 
mander-in-chief: Legantur in Africam ad Jugurtham 
majores natu, nobiles, amplis honoribus. Sail. Casar Cos* 
sium sibi legavit. Cic, and bequeathing part of one's 
property to another, making a legacy : Proca Numitori reg" 
num SilvcB gentis leg at, Liv. Hence, Legatum, a be- 
quest, a legacy, which the testator binds his heir to give to a 
certain perspn : In testamento Augusti leg at a non ultra ciV" 
Hem modum, Tac. Allegare, sending one with particular 
charges as mediator to some one : Petit a me Rabonius, et ami» 
cos all e g at : facile impetrat. Cic. X>eZe^ a re, delegating 
some one to something, or something to some one to transact 
instead of myself: Hunc laborem alteri delegavi, Cic. 
Post delegatam mihi hanc provinciam. Id., especially 
when the debtor directs the creditor to another {per attribU' 
tionem), — Mitt ere, 520, sending, despatching, in general: 
Helvetii legatos de deditione ad CcBsarem miserunt. 
Cses. — Legatio libera was the permission granted by the 
senate to a senator to undertake a private journey in the 
character of a legate ; votiva, if the object of such a jour- 
ney was the fulfilment of a vow in the province, which, fre- 
quently, was but an ostensible and pretended object : Anicius 
negotiorvm suorum causa legatus est in Africam legatione 
libera, Cic. 

624. Legio, Cohors, Manipulus, Vexillum, Caterva, 
Manus militum. Phalanx, Turma. Legio, properly, a 
selection ; a legion, from the times of Romulus, three thou- 
sand men (thirty centuries) on foot, to which belonged three 
hundred (three centuries) cavalry ; under the consuls, four 
thousand two hundred on foot, divided into hastates, prind' 
pes, and triarii ; from the times of Marius, who introduced 
the division into cohortes, five to six thousand men. Co ^ or 8^ 

286 625. Lenire. 626. Lentus. 

an organized troop of infantry ; from Marius, a tenth of a le- 
gion, or from five to six hundred men; the cohors pra- 
toria^ body guard of the commander-in-chief, containing 
generally four turmcB (one hundred and sixty horse) and two 
cohortes (six hundred and seventy-two men) on foot. Ma» 
nipulus (properly, a handful), a company of infantry, three 
of which made a cohors: Pertica suspensos portahat longa 
maniplos (fomi)^ unde maniplaris nomina miles hahet. 
Ovid. Vexillum^dL. little flag, as each of the three divisions 
of the third order of battle, the triarii^ rorarw, and the aC' 
censi had ; hence this species of soldiers, mostly veterans, 
were called Vexillarii, and their divisions Vex ill a Legi» 
onu?n. Vex ilium designated, likewise, a troop of volunteers 
or picked men, who, with sQch a flag, marched off for some 
particular undertaking. Cdterva^a. troop of soldiers brought 
together without order : Dum fugiunt equitum turmcR pedU 
tumque catervcB, Hor. Manus mi Ziium, a corps of sol- 
diers, destined for some military undertaking or for defence : 
Octavianus Romam veniet cum manu magna. Cic. Pha*' 
lanx ((jp«Aa/|), an army in the Macedonian order of battle, 
an oblong generally of sixteen thousand foot, though the 
number varied. Turma, a company of horse, of which ten 
(each of thirty men, and divided into three decuries) belonged 
to one legion ; at later periods it contained forty horse, 

625. Lenire, Mitigare, Placare, Sedare. Lenire 
(making lenient), diminishing the violent sensation of any 
thing disagreeable, assuaging, e. g. dolores, miseriam, agri* 
tudinem, Mitigare (properly, making soft, mild), miti- 
gating, diminishing the external cause of that which is pain- 
ful: Materia igni adhibito ad mitigandum cibum utimur, 
Cic. Dolores mitig ant ur vetustate. Id. PZ a care, mak- 
ing flat, even, of the agitated sea ; calming violent painful 
sensations, especially appeasing excited wild passions and 
their eruptions: Tumida aquora placat, Virg. Impius ne 
audeto placare donis iram Deorum. Cic. Sedare, making 
that something sinks to the bottom, entirely ceases, stilling, 
quieting : At aliquando incenditur populus, — Et quidem 
8<Bpe sedatur, Cic. Sedare helium maximum, controvert 
siam, pavorem, Liv. 

626. Lentus, Flexilis, Flexibilis ; Tardus, Serus ; 
Lentitudo, Lenitudo. Lentus, tough, flexible, that which 
with ease may be stretched, extended, or bent without tearing 
or breaking, e. g. salix, habena, Flexilis, that whichi 

627. Lepos, 287 

already bent, may be bent still further, which may be used 
for twisting, braiding; Flexibilis, that which may be bent, 
flexible, pliable: Ulmus et fraxinus lentcB, sed facile pan* 
danlur: flexiles tamen. Plin., yet they may be bent straight 
again. Excogitatum est vilri temperamentum^ ut flexihile 
esset. Id. — Lentus^ slow, from want of energy, excitability, 
opp. quick (of temper), hasty: Belus amnis lentus Jluit, 
Plin. Quum publicas injurias lente tulisset, suam non tVr 
lit, Cic. Tardus^ indolent, slow from want of zeal, opp. 
active, quick: Tarda et languida pecus, Cic. Stella er- 
rantes turn celerius moventur, turn iardius. Id., they require 
much time for it. Lente gradiens asellus. Ovid., he takes 
a good deal of time for it, walking draggingly. Serus, late, 
happening or being performed after the usual or proper time, 
opp. tempestivus : Tarde, imo jam sero inteliexi. Petron., 
too late. — Lentitudo, slowness, especially in effect, long- 
suffering, which bears with calmness and indulgence the 
offences &c. of others; Lenitudo^ kindheartedness, prop- 
erly, soft or mildheartedness, which is not severe with others, 
and passes over many things from goodness of heart : Rests» 
iere iracundice, est non solum gravitatis^ sed nonnunquam 
etiam lentitudinis. Cic. Virum videri negant Peripa» 
tetici, qui irasci nesciat ; quam lenitatem nos dicimus. Id. 
627. Lepos, Sal, Facetije, Cavillatio, Dicacitas, Fes- 
TiviTAs, Urbanitas. Lcpos (not Lepor, from Ubet)^ the 
Zoueableness, amiableness, agreeableness, especially in man- 
ners, politeness, agreeableness in social intercourse, converse, 
where it is the habit to apply at the proper moment, and 
to clothe in a pleasing way, well chosen wit with delicate 
taste: Ludi parum leporis habuerunt : apparatus enim 
spectatio tollebat omnem hilaritatem. Cic. In utroqu^genere 
leporis excellens, et illo, quod in perpetuitate sermonis^ et 
hoc^ quod in celeritate atque dicto est. Id. Sal, salt, spicy, 
piquant joke, wit, the refined irony : llle delectatur Bioneis 
sermonibus et sale nigro, Hor., in the most biting and 
sharpest satire. Facetice {facetus, from fades), fine, droll, 
witty conceits, which manifest themselves in the speech and 
the whole acting and being of a person : Sale et facetiis 
Cczsar vicit omnes, Cic. Facetiis maxime homines delec' 
tantur, si quando risus conjuncte, re uerboque, movetur. Id. 
Cavillatio (cavere), that species of wit, if we substitute a 
jocose meaning to words. Liv. 10, 19, 6., especially that 
species of bantering and rallying, if we mean to say the con- 

288 628. Levare. 629. Lex. 

trary of what our words would mean in their direct significa* 
tion. This is shown or expressed by the whole speech ; but 
Dicacitas is the quickness of witty sparks, the readiness 
to surprise by hitting wit, repartees, allusions, and pointed or 
biting sallies : Quum duo genera sint facetiarum^ alterum 
aquahiliter in omni sermone fusum^ alterum peracutum ei 
hreve: ilia superior cavillatio^ hcec altera dicacitas 
nominata est, Cic. Salium duo genera sunt, unum face» 
tiarum, alterum dicacitatis : alter o utetur orator in 
narrando aliquid venuste, altero in jaciendo mittendoque 
ridiculo. Id. Festivitas {festivus, properly, where it is 
feast-like, hence that which disposes to gayety), the serene, 
jocose, happy disposition, good-natured sportiveness : Hilari» 
tatis plenum judicium ac Icetitice fuit : in quo tibi dicendi vis 
egregia, summa festivitate et venustate conjuncta proJuiL 
Cic. Urbanitas, 231, well-behaved manners, polished 
demeanor, polished pronunciation, manner of expression, 
and delicate wit, as they are found in a man of careful edu- 
cation, and one who is accustomed to the best society : J&i 
hominum face tor um urbanitatem incurrere, Cic. 

628. Levare, E — Sublevare, Tollere, Extollebe, 
Erigere. Levare, making light by lifting, propping, aZfo- 
viating the pressure of a thing, lifting, lifting off: mendn'a 
cubito. Ovid. Dies non lev at luctum hunc, Cic, diminish- 
ing that which is oppressive or molesting in mourning. JEZe- 
vare, taking away the pressure entirely, depriving a thing 
of its weight (tropically referring to the balance), diminishing 
one's weight, authority, detracting : Facere quce non possun$^ 
verbis elevant. Phsedr. Sm J Zet? are, aiding up by lifting, 
giving a lift, assisting in supporting : Centurio, a manipula» 
ribus sublevatus, murum adscendit, Eos ipse rursus e«- 
ceptans, in murum extulit, Cses. Nasidius vicinos suas 
facultatibus suis sublevavit, Cic. Tollere, 131, 386, 
lifting up : saxa de terra. Cic. Extollere, lifting out, lift- 
ing entirely from below and to a considerable height : pedem 
domo, porta: For tuna et extollere animos et minuere po» 
test, Liv. Erigere, uprighting, placing in an upright 
position, erecting : scalas ad mcmia, Natura solum hominem 
erexit, ad codique conspectum exciiavit. Cic. 

629. Lex, Institutum; Conditio; Rogatio, Populis- 
ciTUM, Plebiscitum. Lcx, 596, a law as settled, binding 
prescription of a superior authority for a certain species oi 
actions ; Institutum, institute, according to which a certain 

629. Lex. 289 

object is to be obtained by a fixed procedure ; the arranged 
order, observance, according to which a settled procedure is 
observed in certain actions: Ex instituto Ugati RomtB 
loca, latUia accipiebant. Liv. Civitatis leges^ instituta^ 
mores ^ jura nosse, Cic. — Lea?, the settled rule, specific pre- 
script, which we have to observe in the performance of an 
affair, the practice of an art, the prescribed rule of action in 
a contract: His legihu^ pacem fecerunt. Liv. Homines 
ea lege nati sunt^ ut omnibus telis fortunes proposita sit 
vita eorum» Cic, they have their destination from the time 
of their birth. Conditio {condere), condition, upon the 
fulfilment of which the validity and duration of the contract 
depends : Semproniits conditiones paces dixit, ut Par^ 
thini Romanorwn essent. Liv. — Lex, a law, of itself, with 
reference to its contents; Rogatio, as bill directed to the 
comiticR of the assembled people, whether they approve of it 
or not by the majority of votes : Velitis, jubeatis, Quirites 7 
For the bill the vole was expressed by the two letters U. R, 
(uti rogas) on a tablet ; against it, by A, {antiquo s, antiqua 
probo), hence the expressions^ Legem rogare, asking the 
people on account of a law ; /err e, laying it before them 
(bringing in a bill) ; abrogare, abrogating a law ; Legem 
s. de lege derogare, also exrogare, partially abrogat- 
ing, altering; obrogare, making a law invalid by a new 
and opposed law; legem p erf err e, carrying a law (i. e. a 
bill), causing it to be passed, adopted by the people. — Of the 
assembled people it is said. Legem seise ere, approving of 
it by majority of votes; antiquare, voting that it shall re- 
main with things as it has been, i. e. rejecting the bill ; ju- 
here, ordaining the senate to confirm or approve of the de- 
cree of the people, so that the law may have universally 
binding power. Considered as decree of the people, the law 
was called Populiscitum, if the centuries of the whole 
people approved of it ; Plebiscitum, if the tribes of the 
plebs approved of it, see 32 L M. Duilius, tribunus plebis^ 
plehem rogavit, plebesque s civ it: Qui plebem sine tribu» 
nis reliquisset, tergo ac capite puniretvr, Liv. — Of the sen- 
ate or consults. Legem sane ire, confirming a law, making 
it sacred and inviolable, sanctioning it, on account of which 
they were preserved in the state archives in the temple of 
Saturn ; pr omul g are (promulgating it), making it publicly 
known, which was done before the rogation in the comiticB^ 
for three market-days {per trinundinum), by placarding it 


290 630. Lihare. 632. Liheri. 

publicly somewhere \ figere^ placardiDg it by the senate for 
general observance, after it had been approved of. — Legem 
irrogare alicui^ asking for a lai/or resolve against some 
one at the hands of the people; Legem importer e alu 
cui^ imposing a law for observance upon some one. 

630. LiBARE, GusTARE ; LiTARE, Perlitare, Sacrificabe, 
Parentare. Lib are (Zeo, levi^ in delere^ 330.), wetting 
only the lips on the surface of some liquid, and generally 
touching but slightly the surface of a thing : Apes fiumina 
lib ant summa. Virg. Gustare^ 3S5, tasting : Vbi immo' 
latur^ exta prcBgusto Deum^ et matronarum casta delibo 
oscula, Phsedr., of the fly. — Libare^ pouring off the upper- 
most and first part of a liquid in honor of a deity, and dedi- 
cating it to it The Romans tasted nothing without first coti- 
secrating part of it to the gods ; for them a little wine was 
first poured on the table, and at sacrifices, first on the heed 
of the victim (libatio prima) ^ and afterwards on the burning 
pieces {libatio secunda) : Et summas carpens media inter 
comua setas^ ignibus imponit sacris^ libamina prima, Virg. 
Litare^ sacrificing successfully ; Perlitare^ receiving 
happy omina throughout from the sacrifice : Ea omnia sacri- 
fida Iceta faerunty primisqtie hostiis perlitatum est. Liv. 
Sacrificare^ sacrificing, celebrating a sacrifice, «and offer- 
ing the sacrifice solemnly to the gods : Turn Jupiter faciat, 
lU semper sacrificem, nee unquam litem. Plaut. Pa» 
rentare^ sacrificing to parents and relations on their tombs : 
Hostia maxima parentare^pietati est adjunctum. Cic. 

631. Libertas, Licentia, Immunitas. Libertas, 554, 
the freedom of doing and saying what one likes, without being 
limited from without ; Licentia, the want of restraint, if we 
follow our appetites without bridle, licentiousness : Amo vere^ 
cundiam ; tu libertatem loqmndi, Cic. Libertas est 
potestas Vivendi^ ut velis. Id. Deteriores omnes sumus Zi- 
ceniia. Ter. Immunitas, freedom from services and 
taxes by law, immunity : Druides militia vacationem omnium^ 
que rerum habent immunitatem. Gses. 

632. Liberi, Nati, Filii; Filius familias. Liberia 
freemen, children of freemen (the idea of freedom by birth), 
opp. Servi, Vema; Nati, issue, the children, inasmuch as 
they are issue of their parents; Filii, sons (the daughters 
included), with reference to their nearest descent from their 
parents or family. Hence, Liberi legitimi, illegitimi; but 
as to talent, PeduccBus reliquit effigiem humaniUUis et probi- 

633. Lihertus. 636. Licere. 291 

tatis su<B f ilium, Cic. Terra filius. Id. Caritas^ qucB 
est inter natos et parentes. Id. Filius familias^ a son 
under age, who yet stands under parental authority : Ilium 
f ilium familias,patre parco ac tenaci^ habere devinctum 
non potes, Cic. 

633. LiBERTus, LiBERTiNus. LihertuSy a freed man, 
i. e. manumitted slave, one with whom the act of manumis- 
sion {manu missio) had been performed; Lihertinus^ be- 
longing to the kind of the liberti, a freed man, with reference 
to his present condition. Up to the fifth year, the children 
of the manumissi were called Lihertini; their grandchil- 
dren, Ingenui (free-born), 554. Afterwards, the manu- 
mitted man was called Libertus^ as such, e. g. Phadrus^ 
Augusti libertus; but in reference to their present condi- 
tion, Libertinus, and their children Ingenui. Under the 
emperors, however, the Liberti became perfect freemen or 
Ingenuiy see Suet. Claud. 24, Trebonius heredem fecit 
suum libertum, Equiti Romano libertinus sit homo 
heres7 Cic. Me libertino poire natu)n^ Horace calls 
himself, as the son of a manumitted slave. 

634. Libra, Statera, Trutina, Lanx. Libra^ the 
pound, and the balance with two scales : Critolaus in alteram 
libra lane em animi bona imponity in alteram corporis. 
Cic. Statera^ the balance, inasmuch as by it one body is 
placed in equilibrium with another, generally the steelyard ; 
Trutina, properly the hole in which the tongue of the bal- 
ance plays, and the balance in general, in as far as it indi- 
cates that which is equal or not : Hcbc non aurificis stater a^ 
sed quadam populari t rut in a examinantur. Cic. Lanx^ 
the scale of the balance. 

635. LiBUM, Placenta. Lt&um, asmall thick cake, in 
form of a loaf, a bun, customary in sacrifices ; Placenta^ 
a thin, flat cake: Sacerdotis lib a recuso ; pane egeo^ jam 
mellitis potiore placentis. Hor. 

636. Licere, Liceri, Licitari; Licet, Fas est, Libet. 
Licere, being permitted, and being venal for some price ; 
Liceri, deponens, bidding for something ; Licitari, doing 
the same repeatedly and with zeal : Omnia venibunt, quiqui 
licebunt, prczsenti pecunia. Plant. Dumnorige licente 
contra liceri audet nemo. Cses. Quum arma hdbeatis,li' 
citamini hostium capita. Curt., putting a price upon it. — 
Licet, ii is permitted (to our will) ; Fas est, 596, it is le- 
gally permitted: Licere id dicimus, quod legibus, quod 

292 697. lAgare, 639. Liga. 

more majorum institutisque conceditur, Cic. Clodium nihii 
delectabat, quod aut per naturam fas esset^ out per leges 
licereU Id. Ltbet^ it is the pleasure, used of things to do 
which we feel inclination : Non luhet mihi deplorare vitam, 
Cic, I do not like, do not wish to, &c. 

637. LiGARE, ViERE, ViNciRE, Nectere, Nexare ; Nex- 
us, Nexum, Mancipium. Ltgare^ binding, winding a band 
round that which may be separated, that it may not separate, 
e. g. Dulnera^ bandaging; vitta II g are crines ; Viere^ 
tying tightly, lashing fast : Serunda vimina^ ut haieaSy unde 
V ten do quid facias, ut sirpeas, crates. Varr. Vincire^ 
binding, fettering, keeping firm that which resists: Catenis 
vine turn trahere. Cses. Ne ctere, knotting, entwining flex- 
ible bodies, and stringing them to one another : flares^ coro' 
nam: Deducit aranea filum, quum leve nectit opus, Ovid. 
Nexare, the same, with increased force o£ expression, 
expressing greater exertion: Serpentem retentat nexau' 
tern nodis, seque in sua membra plicantem. Virg. — Nejh 
us, us, the rightful, legal junction, and Nexum, a pos- 
session, to which, by contract, we have a right, without being 
able to consider it as our property, e. g. a mortgage, pledge ; 
hence the legal obligation of the seller to furnish guaranty ; 
Mancipium, the solemn buying in presence of five wit- 
nesses, and the right of property thus obtained ; a possession 
with perfect right of ownership, fee simple : Attid proprivm 
te esse scribis mancipio et nexo, meum autem usu et 
fructu. Cic. 

638. Lignum, Materia, Sarmentum. Lignum, wood, 
according to its nature, the substance, the firm, inanimate 
body called wood : Olim truncus eram, inutile lignum, Hor. 
Materia, wood, as useful substance, and also as fresh, green 
wood: Omnis materia et culta et silvestris partim ad caJe' 
faciendum, partim ad cedificandum- Cic. Sarmentum^ 
brushwood, copse : Galli sar mentis virgultisque fossas 
Romanorum complenL Cses., with stifi* branches and thin 

639. LiGo, Marra, Rastrum, Bidens, Sarculum, Pas- 
TiNUM. Ltgo, a long hoe with a curved iron, widening 
toward the edge: Longis pur gar e ligonibus arva. Ovid. 
Marra, a hoe used for hoeing the vineyard or other fields, 
with a curved iron, ending in a point of a triangle; JRa«- 
trum,dL mattock with one or several teeth, to sever the glebes, 
or similar work; hence, also, Bidens (the double-tooth) 

640. Limbus. 642. Liqtwr. 293 

and Sarculum^ inasmuch as it is used for breaking the 
ground and weeding: Rasiri^ quibus dentatis eradunt ter' 
ram atque eruunt. Varr. Rastri quadridentes, Cato. Sine 
hove montancR gentes sarculis arant, Plin. P astxnum^ 
vineyard hoe, with two teeth, distinguished by longer and 
stronger teeth, used by the vigneroles: Pastinum vacant 
ferramentum bifurcum, quo semina panguntur ; unde repasti' 
nari dieted vinery quae refodiebantur. Colum. 

640. LiMBus, Fimbria, Instita. Ltm5u$, a stripe woven 
in, around the bottom of a dress ; Fimbria, the fibred seam, 
fringes; Instita, the full trimming, the flounce sewn cm 
women's gowns: Indutus cMamydem Tyriam, quam limb us 
obibat aureus. Ovid. Mappa laticlavia, fimbriis, hinc 
atque illinc pendentibus. Petron. Quaqua tegis medioSy in- 
stita longa, pedes. Ovid. 

641. LiNQUERE, Re — Derelinquere, Deserere, De- 
STiTUERE, Deesse, Prodere. Linqusre, leaving: Mari' 
uSy linquens earn terram, quam servaverat, Cic. Relin- 
quere, leaving behind, leaving (by testament), leaving (a 
rest of the whole) : testamento heredem. Cic. Multis non 
modo granum nullum, sed ne palce quidem ex annuo labors 
relinquebantur. Id. Derelinquere, going away from 
something and leaving it behind, without taking further notice 
of it, neglecting, disregarding it; Deserere, separating one's 
self from something, which precedes the action of abandon- 
ing: Omnes me amid deserunt. Ter. Acddit, ut per- 
multi aratores agros fertiles desererent totasque arationes 
derelinquerenU Cic, deserting. Destituere, placing 
as destitute, placing bare, i. e. exposed, exposing : Palus 
desiitutus est in foro . Gell. Multitudo defensor es sues 
in prcecipitem locum favore tollit, deinde in ipso discrimine 
periculi destituit, Liv. Deesse alicui, 3, not existing 
for some one, i. e. denying one's services to one : Vitupera- 
bor, quod rei publicce defuerim tam gravi tempore. Cic. 
Prodere (giving forth), giving up, giving up to danger, 
betraying : conscios facinoris. Cic. 

642. LiquoR, Latex, Succus ; Liquidus, Limpidus, Pu- 
Rus; Liquet, Constat, Stat. Liquor, a liquid: Abun- 
dabat fluidus liquor. Virg. Latex (lara^), that which 
makes wet (the wet, if we could say so): Latices manare 
perennes. Lucre t. Liber liquoris vitigeni laticem wior- 
talibus instituit. Id. Succus, Q\m Sucu8,]\k\cQ,\he liquid 
in the animal body which promotes its strength and growth : 


294 643. LitercB, 645. Locare. 

Amisimus omnem sue cum ac sanguinem. Cic. — LiquiduSj 
liquid, undisturbed, pure or clear: Ignis liquidum facit as 
aurumque resolvit. Lucret. Vox liquid a. Hor., clear and 
soft, without impure and hard tones. Limpidus {lynvpha)^ 
limpid, clear and transparent, indicates a higher degree of 
clearness, also of liquids : Limus quum habuerit quo suhsidaty 
limpidior aqua fieU Yitruv. Purus^ pure, without for- 
eign addition, spotless, unsoiled : Pur a rivus aqtuB. Hor. 
Pur a mente atque iniegra^ nullo scelere imbuttts. Oic. — 
Liquet^ it is clear ; of things which one understands at once : 
Id^ de quo Panatio non liquet^ reliquis solis luce videtur 
clarius, Cic. Constat^ it is settled, as result of several 
trials or experiments, or according to the equal opinion of the 
experienced: Perspicuum est const at que inter omnes^ esse 
deos. Cic. Mihi quidem constat^ nee meam contumeliam^ nee 
tneorum ferre. Id., I am settled in my mind, I am resolved. 
St at^'ii is firmly resolved, it is the firm purpose : Stat sen» 
tentia, Ter. 


ter (By 394, the learned, scientific cultivation, as result of 
learned study; Humanitas^ the more delicate cultivation, 
which is the result of familiar knowledge of the poets, orators, 
and historians, and the effect of which is taste and cultivated 
sentiment: Communium literarum et politioHs humanita- 
tis expers. Cic. Liter atura^ elementary knowledge, the 
first instruction in language: Prima ilia liter atura^ per 
quam pueris elementa traduntur, Senec. Erudition, 367, 
learnedness, as comprehensive, extensive science : Praclara 
eruditione atque doctrina instructus. Cic. 

644. LiTus, Ora, Acta, Ripa. Lltus^ the shore or 
bank, inasmuch as it protects the firm land against the inroads 
of the water, the seashore : Timeham Oceanum^ titheham 
lit us insula (Britannice), Cic, and the banks of a river: 
Hostias constituit in litore^ut qui trans flumen essent^ w- 
dere possent. Id. Ora^ the seashore, considered from the 
land, as the rim and border to which it extends : Trihuni 
dextrorsus maritimam or am atque Antium pergunt, Liv. 
Acta (axTiJ), a littoral country extending into the sea, which 
affords a distant view and charming Residence, as near Syra- 
cuse, a foreland ; Ripa, the shore, as a rim, border, or edge, 
limiting, elevated and extending longitudinally,'as along rivers 
and brooks: Magni fluminis ripa, Cic. 

645. LocARE, Elocare, Conducere. Locare^ properly» 

646. Locidi, 648. Longus. 295 

placing a thing at a certain spot ; letting a thing, farming it 
out ; Elocare^ letting out a farm, so that the farmer has the 
thing for entire free use, e. g. fundum : Locus est, uhi loca- 
turn quid est, Varr. Virginem locare cuiquam. Plant. Ver- 
res majore pecunia quatuor columnas dealbandas^ quam ille 
omnes cBdiJicandas locavit, Cic. Conducere^ hiring, farm- 
ing, undertaking to restore something for a price agreed upon, 
by contract: Codius conduxit in Palatio, non magno^ do' 
mum. Cic. Redemtor columnam illam de Torquato coU' 
duxerat faciendum. Id . 

646. LocuLi, Marsupium, Crumena, Pera, Mantica. 
Loculi, a, little chest for money and ornaments, with divi- 
sions inside: Gemma^ loculis qua custoditur ehumis, Ju- 
venal. Marsupium^ a leathern money-bag, to put like a 
girdle round the loins ; otherwise, Zona^ Cingulum^ 202 : iZ- 
1<B piscincB potius marsupium domini exinaniunt^ quam 
implenL Varr. Zona se aureorum plena circumdedit. Suet. 
Crumena and Crumina, a purse for common expenses, 
worn round the neck: Homo cruminam sibi de collo de- 
trahit^ minas viginti miki daU Plant. Pera^ a leathern 
travelling-bag, which hung down from the shoulders to the 
thighs, or was carried on the neck ; Mantica, a saddle-bag, 
portmanteau: Mantica cui lumhos onere ulceret. Hor. 

647. Locus, Loci, Loca; Ordo. Locus, the place, 
which contains something, or where something is placed ; 
plural. Loci, certain places; Loca, place in general, coun- 
tries, regions : Cenomani, uhi nunc Brixia ac Verona urhes 
sunt {locos tenuere Lihui) considunt, Liv. Iter per agros 
el loca sola faciebat. Cic. — Locus, the place, standing, 
rank, class, to which one belongs, or which one occupies : 
Summo,haud obscuro, injimo loco natus, Cic. Ordo, or- 
der, a well arranged line according to certain relations; 
hence, a class of citizens in a state, as in Rome the three 
estates or orders, Ordo senatorius, equester, plebeius. The 
ordo in which a citizen had his place gave him his rank, 
locus: Princeps legationis adeptus est or din em senate» 
rium. Cic. 

648. LoNGus, LoNGiNQuus ; LoNGE, Procul, Eminus. 
Longus, long, in space and time, e. g. navis, iter, epistola^ 
nox ; Longinquus (for longicus V, 2. ) , stretching far out 
in length, far distant, and wearisome : Ea, quce in longin» 
quis nationibus geruntur, ignoratis. Cic, remote. LoU' 
gin quam oppugnation&in sustinere non posse. Cees. — Lon- 

296 649. Lorica. 651. LuctaH. 

ge^ loDg, far, designates the proportion to other shorter ex- 
tents : Domus a foro longe abest. Cic. Procul {pro — 
oculus)^ distant, the line from the beginning of the line of 
vision to its termination : Perseus in conspectu patris procul 
constitiU Liv. E minus {mtncBy see 230.), from a distance ^ 
the aim or distance of shooting: Utrimque eminus fundiSy 
SiOgittis, reliquisque telis pugnabatur. Cses. 

649. LoRicA, Thorax. Lor tea, a cuirass, reaching 
down to the girdle: Lorica, quod e loris de corio crudo 
pectorialia faciebant ; postea ex annulis ferream tunicam. 
Varr., also a bulwark of besieged soldiers : Turres contabu' 
lantur^ pinncB loricce que ex cratibus attexuntur. Cses. Th o- 
rax, every covering of the breast, especially the plate of 
bronze, which the soldiers wore on the breast, to do the ser- 
vice of a cuirass : Hasta volans thoraca simul cum pectore 
rumpiU Virg. 

650. Lucrum, QuiESTUs, Commodum, Compendium, Emo- 
LUMENTUM (Emolimentum). Lu cr ufTi, the gain, that which 
we obtain by attentive management of favorable opportuni- 
ties, good luck, chances, and savings: Quem sors dierum 
cunque dabit^ lucro appone. Hor. Qucestus^ the gain or 
profit which we have sought for^ i. e. meant to make, wages, 
&c., e. g. mercenariorum : In mercatu ludorum alii emendi 
out vendendi qucestu et lucro ducuntur. Cic. Commo» 
dum^ 149, the advantage, which one has above others, e. g. 
in an office: Tribunatus commoda^ demto labore milituB^ 
contemsisti, Cic. Si quid factum dicetur alicujus retinendi^ 
augendi^ adipiscendive commodi causa. Id . Co mp endi- 
Km, profit, the saving produced by careful management, opp. 
dispendium^ loss in weight, loss: Cui homini dii propitii 
sunt^ aliquid objiciunt lucri: nam ego hodie compendi 
feci binos panes in dies. Plant. Emoliimentum {molere), 
the advantage, use which we make of a thing ih using it : 
Nusquamnec opera sine emolumento^ nee emolumentum 
ferme sine impensa opera est. Liv, Emolimentum (mo- 
Ztrt), is something that is connected with much labor and ex- 
ertion, the trouble, difficulty : Neque se exercitum sine magna 
commeatu atque emolimento in unum locvm contrahere 
posse. Caes. 

651. LucTARi, Contendere. Luci^ art, ringing with an- 
other, striving to throw another to the ground by clasping the 
arms around him, despite of his resistance:, Nondum satis 
virium habes ut ego tecum luctari et congredi debeam. Cic., 

652. Lvdere, 654. Lumen. 297 

hence endeavouring to overcome difficulties with great exer- 
tion, struggling against, with : Non luctahor tecum amplius. 
Id. Contendere, 269, endeavouring, measuring one's self 
with another in a struggle : Prcdio equsstri inter duos acies 
contendehatur. Gaes. Contra vim gravitatemque morln 
contendit, Cic. 

652. LuDERE, Illudere, Ludificari. Ludere, playing: 
par impar, Hor., making game, fun of another : aliquem 
dolis. Ter. Illudere, making play, game of another, and 
making him the subject of one's wanton sport, inasmuch as 
he is the object of the game or sport: Certant illudere 
capto, Virg. Ego ie pro istis dictis etfactis ulciscar probe^ 
ne impune nos illuseris. Ter. Ludificare, making 
another the game; Ludificari, misleading another as to 
myself, if, by cunning, I deceive him as to myself, and thus 
frustrate his intentions or plans : Jugurtha belli mode, modo 
pads mora consulem lud ifi cahaU Sail., mystifying. TaC' 
farinas irriium fessumque Romanum impune ludificabu' 
tur. Tac. 

653. Luere, Pcenas dare. Lucre, washing off the guilt 
of an offence by suffering punishment, suffering for an offence ; 
Pcenas dare, undergoing punishment, as criminal, inas- 
much as the aggrieved individual thus obtains revenge (as if 
we were to say, affording punishment, granting to the other 
his revenge) : Quod piaculum commiserunt, suo sanguine et 
puhlica clade luunt, Liv. In facinore deprehensus, pcenas 
legihus et judicio dedit, Cic. 

654. Lumen, Lux, Jubar. Lumen, light, as illuminating 
substance, substance of light, as it appears in bodies which 
shed light; Lux, light, as contradistinguished from darkness, 
lightness (if we might say so ; what in German is expressed 
by Helle), the mass of light which emanates from an efful- 
gent body, by which the surrounding objects become visible ; 
hence, daylight: Soils lumine luna collustrari putatur. 
Gic. Nicias pictor lumen et umbras custodivit, ut emine- 
rent e tabulis picturce, Plin. Obscuratur et offunditur luce 
solis lumen lucemce. Gic. Luna lucet luce aliena. Id., 
hence great men and important cities are called Lumina^ 
as beaming lights; Luces, inasmuch as they give comfort, 
protection, salvation, similar to joyful and vivifying light of 
the day : Corinthus, totius CrrcecicB lumen. Gic. Roma, 
lux orbis terrarum atque arx omnium gentium. Id. Jubar 
{from juba, properly, the morning star), the effulgent bright- 

298 655. Luridus. 658. Mactare. 

ness of the heavenly bodies, poetical : NUidum jubar extu» 
Ut undis Lucifer. Ovid. 

655. Luridus, Lividus, Pallidus. Luridus (lorum)y 
pale, like death ; used of the highest degree of paleness 
(properly, like uncurried leather) : Fugit juventas et color 
reliquit ossa pelle amicta lurid a. Hor. Lividus^ 579, 
lead-color; heuce, jealous: Livid a gestat armis brachitu 
Hor. Pallidus, pale, pallid: Membra sunt cera palli» 
diora nova, Ovid. 

656. Luxus, LuxuRiA. Luxus (luerCy luxum^ solving), 
dissipation, immoderate waste in furniture, dress, food, as the 
state of the individual; Luxuria^ Luxuries^ disposition to 
splendor and delicate sensual enjoyments, voluptuousness, 
dissipation, as the quality of the individual: Domus regali 
splendida luxu instruitur, Virg. Luxu atque desidia ci- 
vitas corrupta est. Sail. Turpe est diffluere luxuria et 
delicate ac molliter vivere. Cic. 

657. Lyra, Cithara, Barbitos. Lyra^ the lyre, made 
of a turtle-shell covered with leather, and two arms attached 
to this body, and united by a yoke or saddle, so that its seven 
chords, as those of a harp, were played with the hand : At 
tUy inventor curvce fidis, septena putaris, Pleiadum numerum^ 
jila dedisse lyrce. Ovid., i. e. Mercurius. CithafUy orig* 
inally likewise a turtle-shell covered over with a skin (hence, 
also, Testudo^ Chelys)^ on which there were four chords strung 
over a bridge ; their tone was modified with the left hand, 
while the right hand played the tune, as we do with the guitar, 
Barbitos, the lute, differing from the cithara in its deepei^ 
tone and more numerous strings ; originally it had but three« 


658. Mactare, Immolare ; Macte, Euge. M act art 
(mactus), magnifying a deity by a sacrifice of animals, cele- 
brating, glorifying it: Puerorum extis deos manes mactare 
soles. Cic; hence, Ferunt laudibus, m act ant honoribus. 
Id., and making of something a sacrifice of blood and atone- 
ment, slaughtering: Mad ant lectas de more bidentes Ce* 
reri patrique LycRo. Virg. Perfidos et ruptores pacis vltioni 
et gloricB maciandos. Tac. Immolare, strewing the 
meal of sacrifice on the head of the doomed animal, and thus 

659. Magis. 660. Magnus. 299 

consecrating it to a deity, after which it was slaughtered ; 
the sacred meal (mola salsa) ^ consisting of far ^ a sort of 
wheat, and salt, was prepared by the priestesses of Vesta ; 
hence, sacrifices in general, e. g. hostias : Immanis ac bar' 
hara consuetudo hominum immolandorum, Cic. — Made 
(Vocative of mdgere, mactum, inus.)^ be praised as happy ! 
(be blessed !) an exclamation directed to the deity during 
sacrifices, €uid a formula of well-wishing in praising a person : 
Jupiter^ macte fercto esto ! Cato. Made virtvie! Cic. 
Madi virtute^ milites, este ! Liv. Euge! exclamation of 
joy : Euge, jam lepidus vocor, Ter. [Made, the same root 
with magan, old high German, making more, great.] 

659. Magis, Plus, Amplius; Maximi -estimahe, Plu- 
RiMi ^sTiMARE, FACERE. Mugis, obsoletc Mdge (ma- 
gere, 658.), more, of intensity, and in the sense of strength- 
ening the meaning, stands with reference to qualities and 
conditions; Plus, more, according to measure, is used of 
quantitative magnitudes, in reference to plurality, mass, in 
short, every thing which can be measured or increased, where 
in the positive mvltum would be used ; Amplius, more, still 
more, according to space and time, of extensive magnitudes, 
refers to circumference, extension, and duration : Nil videtur 
mundius, nee magis compositum quicquam, nee magis eU' 
gans. Ter. Roma plus triduo fuiU Cic. Virtus plus 
prqficit ad misericordiam commovendam. Id. Amplius 
sunt sex menses. Id. — Maximi astimare, esteem the 
highest, very highly, designates the value of itself, incapable 
of still greater increase; Plurimi cBstimare, facer e^ 
esteem the highest, designating the preference of the esteemed 
subject before others: Est hominis magni atque sapientis, 
maximi cBstimare conscientiam mentis suae. Cic. He- 
phcRStionem unum Alexander plurimi fecer at. Nep. 

j660. Magnus, Ingens, Grandis, Amplus, Procerus, 
Vastus, Enormis; Major, Major natu, Grandis natu; 
Magnitudo, Amplitudo, Majestas, Magnificentia. Mag- 
nus {magere, 658., XI, 1.), large, great, in general^ with 
reference to extension and power, e. g. acervus, ingenium ; 
Ingens (going beyond all of the same gens, that is, of the 
same kind), uncommonly, very, exceedingly large : De ge- 
nere omni maxuma qua vidit quisque, hac ingentia Jingit. 
Lucret. Ingenium ingens. Hor. Grandis, large, ac- 
cording to growth or cubic capacity, that is, bulk : Grandia 
mandavimus hordea sulcis. Virg., large grains. Grand em 

900 661. Malus. 

orationem pro longa dicimus. Cic. A mp lus^ wide, spacious, 
large, according to external circumference and capaciousness 
wiUiin, e. g. domus; iheatrum magnitudine (umplissimum. 
Cic. In amplissima civitate^ amplissimo loco natus. 
Id. Procerus, 64^ tall, large, as to height, and slender, 
very high, very tall, e. g. alnus, populus; Vastus^ im- 
mensely large, used of largeness which creates fear, horror, 
unpleasant feeling: Belua vasta et immanis. Cic. Vastus 
homo atque foedus. Id., colossal, clumsily shapen. In vidiu 
motuque corporis vastus atque agrestis. Id., clumsy, clown- 
ish. Enormisy irregular, beyond measure large, huge; 
met with only in later writers, e. g. hasta : Statura JuU end' 
nentiy corpore en or mi. Suet., i. e. qtu)d justam staturam 
excederet, — Major, the eldest of sons and brothers, in con- 
tradistinction to the later bom, e. g. Balhus minor, major. 
Cic. Major na^u, he who stands in higher years, older: 
Aliquot annis major natu; Ennius fait major natu^ 
quam Plautus et N(Bvius, Cic. Grandis natu, old, of 
advanced age: Grandes natu matres, Cic. — Ma gnu 
tudo, the magnitude, that is, extent or extension of whatever 
the subject may be, e. g. mundi, cBris alieni, animi, Anu 
plitudo, imposing magnitude, by its circumference (vast- 
ness) or elevation (height): Egregia corporis amplitudo 
et species. Suet. Amplitudo est potentice, atU majestatis^ 
aut aliquarum copiarum magna abundantia, Cic. MajeS' 
tas, elevation, greatness of elevated, dignified subjects, sub- 
jects worthy of our fullest consideration : Majestas est am^ 
plitudo ac dignitas civitaiis. Cic. Ea amplitudo Jovis 
templi, quce ipsius etiam loci majestate esset digna. Liv. 
Magnificentia, the greatness and elevation of character 
in our mode of thinking, acting, and arrangements : verborum^ 
(Bdium regiarum, epularmn: Magnificentia est rerum 
m^gnarum et excelsarum cum animi ampla quadam et splen- 
dida propositione agitatio atque administratio, Cic. 

661. Malus, Malignus, Malitiosus, Improbus, Pra- 
vus, Nequam ; Malum, Calamitas, Infortunium, Miseria. 
Malus, bad, wicked, physically and morally, e. g. vihumf 
animus, consuetudo ; Malignus, malign, ill-disposed, un&* 
vorable, grudging, opp. henignvs, e. g. oculi, suspicio : MHu 
tum ira ex malignitate prcedce partita, Liv. Malitu 
osus, malicious, disposed to hurt in a crafly manner, taking 
satisfaction in thus hurting : Ma litiosa juris interpretatio, 
Cic. Improbus, that which does not hold the proof, test, 

662. Mandarc 301 

e. g. merces; in general that which, according to universal 
opinion, cannot be approved, unjust, flagitious, criminal : Jm- 
proborum facta insequitur accusator^ turn judex. Cic. 
Minister improbissimce crudelitatis. Id. Pravus^ that 
which is mis-bent, crippled, e. g. membrum ; Jumenta prava 
atque deformia. Caes., deviating irregularly from the rule, 
bad as to form: Interest inter rectum et pravum. Cic. 
Prava adolescentium consilia, Caes. Caiilina fait ingenio 
malo pravo que. Sail., of innate vicious character, to which 
he remained faithful in his mode of action. Pravus signi- 
fies what we express in many cases by vicious^ when it does 
not designate full of vice, but a high degree of deviation from 
the norma, evil. Nequam, one who is fit for nothing, a 
good-for-nothing, opp. frugi, 4n^, Nequam non malum 
significaty sed inutilem, Vel. Long. — Malum, evil of every 
kind, inasmuch as it is felt or inflicted, evil, misfortune ; Ca- 
I ami t as, 296, properly, injury done by season or weather, 
a misfortune connected with great injury and loss, a calamity : 
Locus ex calamitate populi Romani et internecione exer^ 
citus nomen capit. Caes. Infortunium, the misfortune in- 
flicted by fate, hence unavoidable : Ni paret patri f litis, 
habiturus est infortunium. Liv. Miseria, misery, 
afiliction, the effect of great and enduring evil, which makes 
us feel unhappy: In miseria esse. Cic, but in malis 
esse, is being in misfortune, e. g. in poverty, disease, perse- 
cution, &c., by which the miseria is caused. 

662. Mandare, Jubere, Imperare, Pr-ecipere. Man' 
dare, 385, giving a charge, a commission with the plainest 
possible words (perhaps just as the Germans have the ein- 
kauen, in this sense, chewing the subject into small particles, 
and thus making it plain) ; ordering, commanding something 
to be done : Ccesar Labieno m and at, Belgas adeat atque in 
officio contineat. Caes. Diem memories mandare. Cic. /m- 
bere, ordaining lawfully, in virtue of law, because it is right, 
or because we have a right: Lex jubet ea, qua facienda 
sunt, Cic. Legem populus Romanus jus sit de dvitate tri- 
buenda. Id. J?» joe rare, ordain from authority, the plenitude 
of power, with supreme power and irresistibly, for absolute 
observance of the order or command : Qui bene imperat, 
paruerit aliquando necesse est. Cic. Quod ju9sus sum, 
eo tempore atque itafeci,ut appareret, invito imperatum 
esse. Id. PrcBcipere, 553, to prescribe, which one may 
do who has neither power nor the right to do it : lllud 


302 663. Manere. 665. Manus. 

prcBcipiendum fuity ut diligentiam adhiheremus in ami' 
citiis comparandis, Cic. 

663. Manere, Remanere, Commorari, Habitare, Co- 
LERE, Incolere ; Permanere, Perseverare, Persistere, 
Perstare. Manere^ remaining, not leaving a place, and 
in general not changing the condition : Manere in patria, 
in officio; Remanerey remaining behind, if others leave the 
place: Qui per caiisam valetudinis remanserunt, Cses. 
Commorariy tarrying at a place ; remaining, of longer du- 
ration; Habitare, dwelling, living at a place, having it for 
permanent residence; Commorandi natura deversorium 
nobis, non habitandi dedit. Cic. Col ere, 30, to inhabit 
a place, inasmuch as we cultivate it, or have our calling there : 
Volc<B colunt circa lUramque ripam Rhodani, Cces. In* 
col ere, 544, having one's customary residence in a place or 
country, being at home there. — Permanere, remaining 
with something, not changing in the least one's condition for 
a certain period ; Perseverare, persevering in a thing with 
firmness in one's purpose, despite of obstacles, difficulties, and 
external resistance ; continuing in a subject without paying 
attention to disturbances : Athenis jam ille mos a Cecrope 
permansiL Cic. Egregie ad ultimum in audacter com^ 
misso certamine perseveravit. Liv. Insipientis est, in 
errore perseverare. Cic. Persistere, persisting in 
something, in passion, obstinacy {Perseverare, from prin- 
ciple, and with conviction) ; Perstare, standing firm, per- 
severing in something, by no means deviating from it, or giv- 
ing it up ; it is the consequence of persistere : Pertinacissi' 
mus fmris, si in eo perstiteris, ad corpus ea, qtuB dixi, 
referre. Cic. P erst at in sententia Saturius, Id. 

664. Mantele, Mappa. Mantele, Mantile, MantC' 
Hum, a, cloth of linen, and like fustian, as towel and napkin ; 
Mappa, the proper napkin, shorter than the mantele, which 
the host furnished ; the mappa was brought by the guest : 
Attulerat mappam nemo, dum furta timentur : man tile e 
mensa surripit Hermo genes. Martial. 

665. Manus, Palm a, Pugnus, Vola ; Manus ferrea, 
Harpago. Manus, the hand, inasmuch as it can grasp 
something with the fingers, and can perform something with 
them; manum, manus conserere, to come to strokes, to 
fight man to man ; Palma, the palm, the inner surface of 
the hand, if stretched out; Pugnus, the fist: Zeno quwn 
r.ompresserai digitos pugnumque fecerat, dialecticam aiehai^ 

666. Mare. 668. Margo. 303 

quum autem diduxerat et manum dilaiarat^ palmiB illius 
similem eloqueniiam esse dicebat. Cic. FoZa, the hollow 
hand, also the hollow, vault of the foot, the bending of the 
sole of the foot. — Manus ferrea, an iron hook fastened to 
a chain; HarpdgOy a bar or pole with an iron hook fast- 
ened to a chain; both used for entering vessels: Ferreis 
manibus injectis naves religaver ant. Cses. Asseres ferreo 
unco prcejixi {harpagones vocant) ex Punicis navibus in' 
jici in Romanas coepti. Liv. 

666. Mare, Oceanus, Pontus, Pelagus, iEquoR, Salum, 
Fretum. Mdre^ the sea, in contradistinction to the conti- 
nent or land, terra; Oceanus, the ocean, which, according 
to the ancients, was a vast stream flowing around the earth ; 
Pontus, the open sea, especially some particular part of the 
sea, or some particular sea, e. g. the Mediterranean ; but by- 
way of excellence, the Black Sea was called Pontus, Pan- 
tus Euxinus : Ecce maris magna claudit nos objice pontus: 
deest jam terra fug ce. Virg. Pelagus (nsXayog), the high 
sea, depth of the sea, contradistinguished to the sea near the 
shore: Ut pelagus tenuere rates, nee jam amplius ulla 
occurrit tellus. Virg. Mquor, the plain of the sea, the 
main: Quid tam planum videtur, quam mare? e quo etiam 
mquor illud poetce vocant. Cic. Sdlum, the agitated, heav- 
ing sea: Nee tam cerumnoso navigavissem salo. Cic. jPre- 
tum, the roaring sea, pressed between two approaching 
coasts, the strait ; poetically, also, for a certain sea : JEstus 
maritimi fretorumque angustice ortu et obitu lunce comma* 
ventur. Cic. 

667. Margarita, Unio. Margarita, rarer Marga- 
ritum {fiagyagltrig), the pearl in general ; Unio, the single 
pearl, as unique on account of size and beauty : Gignit et 
Oceanus margarita, sed subfusca et liventia. Tac. ViteU 
lius ex aure matris deiractum union em pigneravit ad itinC' 
ris impensas. Suet. 

668. Margo, Ora, Crepido. Margo, the rim, margin, 
which limits something, encloses it, e. g. scuti, libri : Flumen 
per villam Jluit marginibus Idpideis. Varr. Ora, 644, 
the end of a long, thin body, the outermost broad border, 
where a surface ends: Galli or am extremce silver circumse' 
derant. Liv. Crepido, the rim as elevated, firm border, 
enchasing, as protection ; a wall near a river, high road, a 
high shore : Myoparo usque ad forum, et ad omnes urhis 
{Syracusarum) crepidines accessit. Cic, dams against the 
inroads of the sea. 

304 669. Mater, 671. Mederi. 

669. Mater, Genitrix. Mater^ the mother, who has 
given birth to children, young ones; Genitrix^ antique 
Genetrix^ the genitress, the mother, inasmuch as children 
or a race descend from her: Geminos mater ipsa inter» 
nosse non poterat^ qua illos pepererat. Plant. Mater om» 
nium bonarum rerumest sapientia. Cic. Frugum genitrix» 
Ovid., i. e. Ceres. Magna deum genetrix. Virg. 


Pr-ecox. M a turns {inetere, properly, fit to be mown), 
ripe, of fruits, which have arrived at perfection: Maturis 
albescit messis aristis. Ovid. Progenies matura milituB. 
Liv. Te mp estivus, 257, of fruits, when they have attained 
the proper age, time for maturity, untimely, somewhat like 
seasoned: Tempestivos frucius ex bestiis eapere. Cic. 
Nondum tempestivo ad navigandum mari Siciliam adiit. 
Id. Coctus^ cooked, brought to perfect maturity by the 
heat of the sun : Poma matura et cocta decidunt, Cic — 
PrcBmaturus^ premature, ripe before the proper time, tin-- 
timely, e. g. fructus cucumeris ; Prematura mors^ hiems. 
PrcBCox^ PrcBcoquis^ and Pr tcco^ mm s, ripening before 
the time, of fruits which attain to maturity earlier than others 
of the same species: Pira prcecocia. Colum. 

671. Mederi, Medicare — ri, Sanare^ Curare; Medi- 
ciNA, Medicamen, Medicamentum, Remedium. Mederij 
helping the suffering, or subduing the evil from which he 
suffers : Fuerunt, qui morbis^ alii^ qui vulneribus^ alii^ qm 
oculis mederentur. Cic. Medicare, strengthening the 
natural vital power by artificial means, adding it as condiment 
to something, dying: Semina medicant serentes et nitra 
priu^ perfundunL Virg, Medicare tuos desiste capillos, 
Ovid. Medicari, becoming physician to some one, curing 
by the application of healing means: Non Dardanice medu 
cari cuspidis ictum evaluit, Virg. San are, making scnmd^ 
the effect of mederi and medicari : Phercei Jasonis vo7nic(nn 
s an are medici non potuerunt. Cic. Curare, reestablish- 
ing health by care and attention : Vomiiione canes, purgatione 
autem alvos ibes MgypticR cur ant, Cic. — Me dicina, sd 
ars, the healing art ; sc, res, the healing means, medicine m 
both its adaptations: An medicina ars non putanda est? 
Cic. Medicinam adhibere rei publicce. Id. Medica'» 
men, a. physic, a poison, as medical substance; Me die a-» 
mentum, as medical means: Medicamine tacta dejluxere 
comcB, Ovid. Si qui medicamentum euipiam dederit ad 

672. Medius, 674. Meminisse. 305 

aquam intercutem. Cic. Remedium^ a remedy, a physic 
which is effective against a complaint, cures it : Temporihus 
hibemis ad magnitudinem frigorum sihi remadium conh 
pararat. Cic. 

672. Medius, Dimidius, Dimidiatus, Dividuus ; Medio- 
CRis, MoDicus. Medius, in the middle, at equal distance 
from both ends of opposite sides or two extremes : Verstts 
ceque prima^ et media, et exirema pars attenditur. Cic. 
Medium erat in Anco ingenium, et Numce, et Romuli me- 
mor. Liv. ilfe 6? iwm, the middle, centre: diei, campi, Di- 
midius, half, the one part of a thing divided in the middle, 
i. e. equally divided : Luna jest major, quam dimidia pars 
terrcB. Cic. Dimidium pecunice. Id. Dimidiatus, di- 
vided by halves, halved : Dimidium est, quod ex d i mi di- 
al o pars altera est, Gell. Exemit ex anno unum dimidia- 
turn que mensem, Cic. Dividuus, divided, separated, of 
a permanent state: Candida dividud colla tegente coma. 
Ovid. — Mediocris, that which holds the mean between 
two extremes, with the idea of the common, vulgar ; not un- 
like our 7nean, iWTodi cms, that which is within the propei; 
measure, just right, moderate : Mea pecunia est ad vulgi 
opinionem medi ocris ; ad meam mo die a, Cic. 

673. Membrum, Artus, Articulus. Memhrum {m^- 
vere), the limb, as movable and essential part of the body: 
Memhrorum, id est, partium corporis, alia propter eorum 
iisum sunt donata, ut manus, crura, pedes, vt ea, quce sunt 
intus in corpore, Cic. -4 r<MS, the joint, the movable con- 
nexion of the bones in animal bodies: Artus dicti, quod 
membra membris artentur, Fest., hence the larger limbs, as 
limbs united by joints : Ambusti multorum artus vi frigo- 
ris. Tac. Articulus, the joint in the narrowest se^se, in 
plants the knot, also the single joint between" two of these 
joints: Ipso in articulo, quo jungitur capiti cervix, Liv. 
Hominis digiti articulos Kabent ternos, pollex binos, 

674. Meminisse, Reminisci, Recordari. Memtnisse, 
remembering, having received something into one's memory, 
and not yet having forgotten it: Meminisse est rem com- 
missam memoricB cv^todire : at contra scire, est et sua fa- 
cere qucBque, nee ab exemplari pendere, Senec. Reminisci, 
calling back into the memory, collecting one's mind, thinking 
of something; Recordari, recalling something in one's 
mind, and meditating upon it: Memini, quid mihi turn 


306 675. Menda, 677. Mensa, 

suaserisy idque scepe ingemiscens sum recardatus. Cic. 
Quum in loca aliqua post tempus reversi sumus^ non ipsa ag* 
noscimus tantum^ sed etiam, qucB in his fecerimus^ re mini 8" 
cimur. Quinctil. 

675. Mejnda, Mendum, Vitium. Menda^ a blemish^ 
spot, which diminishes the proper qualities, e. g. a mole, 
wart, a short limb; Mendum^ such a blemish in general^ 
something faulty : Rara tamen men do fades caret: occule 
men das, Ovid. Libri sunt effecti: tantum lihrariorvm 
menda tolluntur, Cic. Vitium^ 40, a fault, by which 
something becomes defective, spoiled, a deformity or defect : 
(iuod vituperahile est per se ipsum^ id eo ipso vitium nomi* 
natum puto. Cic. Nihil est in parietibus aut in tecto vi* 
tii. Id. 

676. Mendacium, Falsum, Fictum, Vanum ; Mendacium 
DiCERE, Mejntiri, Ementiri. Mendacium {mendax, of 
lying disposition), a lie^ a false statement, invented with the 
intention to deceive: ImproH hominis f5^, mendacio fal^ 
lere, Cic. Falsum^ 427, the falsity, that which is false, the 
untruth, if something is not that which it appears to be, or if 
words do not agree with the thing itself: jpama, qv^ vert» 
addere falsa gaudet^ et a minimo sua per mendacia cres» 
cit. Ovid, jpic^ Mm, that which is fictitious; it maybe in- 
vented also by thoughtlessness, sportiveness, &c. : JPama, tarn 
ficti pravique tenax^ quxim nuntia veri, Virg. Vanumy 
108, that which is empty, vain, without sterling contents, as 
that which the story-teller, the boastful, &c. say, or he who 
makes empty promises: Mcerenti vana quadam atque ♦»- 
ama, falsa spe inductus, pollicebar, Cic. — Mendacium 
dicer e^ telling a lie, merely pronouncing it; Mentiri, ly- 
ing, with thoughtfulness : Dixeram seni mendacium et 
de hospite et de auro. Plant. Erat Epaminondas adeo verU 
tatis diligens^ ut ne joco quidem mentiretur, Nep. — 
Mentiri rem^ lying something, pretending falsely, and giv- 
ing a false appearance to a thing; Ementiri^ stronger, 
designates boldly lying, asserting with effrontery something 
radically untrue : Pullarius auspicium mentiri ausus est, 
Liv. Mentiris juvenem tinctis capillis. Martial. Vanitas 
ementiendce stirpis, Liv. 

677. Mensa, Abacus. JIfensa, table in general: Cihor 
ria apposita in mens am. Cic. SyracusicR menses, Id.y 
richly covered tables. Abacus^ a, smaller table for making 
calculations, for games, drawing mathematical figures ; espe-^ 

678. Mensura. 681. Merere. 307 

cially a toilet- table, with costly vases, &c. : Abac as omavit 
argento auroque ccelato. Cic. 

678. Mensura, Modus, Modulus. Mensura^ the meas« 
ure, as definite proportion of magnitude in a body : Mensu^ 
ra rohoris ulnas quinque ter implehat, Ovid. Modus^ the 
measure, by which a magnitude is measured : Modi,, quibus 
metiuntur rura, Varr. Modulus^ the stick, the rod with 
which we measure : Metiri se quemque suo tnodula acpede 
verum est, Hor. 

679. Mercatura, Commercium; Mercatus, Nundinje. 
Mercaiura^ trade, traffic, the exchange of commodities, as 
action of the merchant; Commercium^ the business of the 
merchant, commercial intercourse, the commerce, as the 
great branch of industry: Cives mercaturas faciehant. 
Cic. Mare magnum commercia prohibehat. Sail. — 
Mercatus^ the trading with goods as a state, the public sale, 
a fair; Nun din ce, the market-day: Ubi turn comitia habe» 
hant^ibi nunc fit mercatus, Varr. Cremona magna pars 
ItalicB^ stato in eosdem dies mercatu^ congregata^ Tac, 
Minucius f arris pretium in trinis nundinis ad assem re* 
degit, Plin. 

680. Merges, Pretium, Stipendium, Salarium, Pensio. 
Merces^ Gen. cedis {merx^ mercari)^ the agreed wages for 
services performed, the hire ; in general every compensation, 
reward, recompense for good or bad deeds: Mercede du 
urna conductus, Hor. Operis mercedem negare. Ovid. 
Pretium, price, as value of a commodity, and as a com- 
pensation in conformity to the value of a thing : Ager magna 
pretio coemtus, Cic. Magni pretium certaminis. Ovid. 
Stipendium, the pay of a soldier, and the military service 
itself: Stipendium militibus numerare; Milites, qui jam 
stipendiis confectis erant, dimisit, Cic. Salarium^ a 
pay in kind, originally in salt, later in other articles of food, 
and finally in money : Senatorum nobilissimo cuique, sed a 
re familiari destiiuto, annua sal arid constituit. Suet. 
Pensio, the payment: Carthaginienses stipendium plu» 
ribus pensionibus in multos annos debebant. Liv. 

681. Merere — ri, Dignum esse, De — Promereri. 
ikfer ere, acquiring, earning something: Nee mininum me* 
ruere {PoetcB) decus, ausi celebrare domestica facta, Hor., 
hence merere stipendia, doing military service; merere 
pedibus, equo, serving on foot, on horse ; Mereri, deserving, 
having a title to reward, or being guilty of something, e. g. 

308 682. Mergere. 685. Merx. 

laudem^ poenam: Mereri derepuhlica; male mereri de 
aliquo, Dignum esse^ being worthy of, having a claim of 
reward on account of and proportionate to certain advantages, 
merits, &c., and being proportionate as reward to these mer- 
its or recompense, &c. : Dignum esse hospitio^ honorihus, 
exsilio, (fdio ; and Qui mceror dignus inveniri in cakani- 
tate tanta potest ? Cic. Demereri^ obliging another by our 
merit: Demerendi henefido tarn potentem civitatem nun" 
quam par em occasionem dabunt dii, Liv. Promereri^ re- 
ceiving as proportionate compensation for services performed : 
Levius reiis punitus^ quam est promeritus, Cic. 

682. Mergere, Demergere, Urinari. Mergere,^ dip- 
ping into, placing a body into a liquid ; Demergere^ letting 
down something into a depth, making it sink so far that it 
becomes invisible to us (German versenken) : Brachia mer^ 
sit in aquas, Ovid. Naves demergere^ sinking them. 
Urinaria im merging, remaining for a longer period under 
the water: Si qvundo nos demersimus^ ut qui urinan^ 
tur, aut nihil superum^ aut admodum obscure cernimus. Cic. 

683. Meridies, Medius dies. Merldies, noon, ss the 
point and time when the sun stands highest, also the south, as 
region, as in many languages the south is called the noon ; 
Medius dies, mid-day, the middle time of the day: A 
meridie prope ad solis occasum pugnahatur, Cses. Me dio 
die greges ad vallem perducamus. Colum. 

684. Merum, Vijnum, Temetum. Merum, the unmixed 
wine, i. e. unmixed with water, entire wine [it is not contra- 
distinguished from adulterated wine, or otherwise mixed wine, 
as our "juice of the grape" is; but only from the mixture of 
wine and water] ; Vinum, wine; Temetum, wine, as in- 
toxicating liquor: Cras genium mero curabis. Hor. ; more 
commonly merum vinum, Mulieres Romce vino semper, 
quod temetum prisca lingua appellatur, dbstinuisse (2i- 
cunt, Gell. 

685. Merx, Mercimonium, Scruta. Merx, generally in 
the plural ilferces, ware, commodity, as the movable sub- 
ject of traffic ; Mercimonium, as good, commodity in gen- 
eral, the object of traffic in general ; Scruta, old, half-broken 
ware, somewhat like our trumpery : Prceco, ad merces tur- 
ham qui cogit emendas. Hor. Nisi mancipio acdpio, quid eo 
mihi opus mercimonio? Plaut. , of a female slave. Scru- 
ta ut vendat ^crutarius laudat, prcefractam strigilem^ soleam 
dimidiatam. Lucil. 

686. Metiri. 689. Minisirare, 909 

686. Metiri, Metari. Metiri^ measuring, e. g. mundi^ 
magniludinem^ frumenium; Metari^ determining the^ extent 
of a measured place by marks of limit, marking off a place, 
e. g. agrum : Expositis copiis Roniani casira in proximis 
tumulis metaniur, Liv. 

687. Metuere, Timere, Vereri, Formidare, Trepi- 
DARE, Tremere, Pavere. Metueve^ apprehending an evil, 
fearing, designates the apprehension of the calculating and 
cautious; Timer e^ fearing, designates the fear of the dis- 
pirited and coward {timidus) ; A me insidias metuunt, Cic. 
Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes, Virg. Fere ri^ shunning, 
from fear of evil consequences, from esteem or reverence : 
Ccesar quum ipse abesset, motum Gallia verebaiur. Cses. 
Appium metuebant servi^verebantur liberi, Citf. For- 
midare {formido, a scare-crow, an image of horror), feel- 
ing lasting and violent fear, used of fear which has risen to 
horror, with excited imagination, e. g. alicujus iracundiam. 
Trepidare, showing anxiety, running to and fro, is used 
of all manifestations of sudden fear, anxiety, and appre- 
hension : Quum victi mures artos circum trepidarent 
cavos. Phoedr. Tremere^ trembling from fear and fright, 
the effect of the violent passion upon the nervous system : 
Totus tremo horreoque^ postqicam adspexi hanc. Ter. Pa- 
vere (in German beben)^ differs from tremere by the slower 
yet greater vacillations in the inner organs, and designates 
the anxiety which causes a higher pulsation of the heart, and 
disturbs the proper functions of the soul : Navem horrisono 
frelo noctem paventes timidi adnectunt nautce, Cic. 

688. Migrare, Peregrinari, Proficisci, Iter facere. 
Migrare (meare)^ emigrating, that is, choosing another 
domicile: Lucumonem consilium migrandi ab Tarquiniis 
cepit. Liv. Peregrinari (being a peregrinus^ 32, that 
is), sojourning or travelling without the place or country of 
one's home: Peregrinari in aliena civitate, non in tua' 
magistratum gerere videris, Cic. Proficisci^ travelling, 
designates the continued progress on one's- way; Iter fa- 
cere, 590, designates only the movement, making way: 
Capua profectus sum Formias, Cic. 

689. MiNisTRARE, Apparere, Servire, De — Inservire; 
Prjebere, Suggerere, Suppeditare. Ministrare^ af- 
fording to some one the necessary aid in obtaining his object, 
serving some one : Fac ut ministres mihi^ quum mihi 
sacrijicem. Plaut, Apparere^ waiting upon another, p npear-» 

310 690. Minuere. 691. Mirari. 

ing before one^s superior to await his directions and to exe- 
cute them: Quatuor et viginti lictores apparere consiili* 
bus, Liv. Servire^ serving, doing service; properly, being 
a slave {serviis): Huic domino usque serviamus, Catull. 
Servire tempori^famcBy paying great attention to it, shaping 
one's course accordingly. Deservire^ designates the ob- 
ject of the serving person, being entirely ready to be at the 
disposition of some one : Officia mea^ operce^ vigilia deser^ 
viunt amicis^ pr<Bsto 0ant omnibus. Cic. Inservire, using 
one's service ifor another, designates the direction of the en- 
deavour: A quo plurimum sperant^ ei potissimum in ser vi- 
unt. Cic. — Minisirare^ waiting upon with something, 
offering something as servant, assistant : Ganymedes pocuTa 
ministrans. Cic. Pmhere, holding forth, out, afibrding, 
to the satisfaction of the receiver, according to his desire oi^ 
want : Corpora prcebemus plagis. Ovid. Locus lautiaque 
legaiis prcBberi jussa. Liv. Suggerere^ furnishing, more 
than our suggesting: Flamma virgea suggeritur aeno. 
Virg. Qui causas docent, argumentorum copiam sugge- 
runt. Cic. Suppeditare (pes)^ properly, footing firmly ; 
keeping one's stand bravely : Si^ omissis his rebus omnibus^ 
quibus nos suppeditamus, eget ille {Catilina). Cic, by 
which we can stand Catiline, can brave him ; hence, furnish- 
ing something in sufficient plenty, procuring : luxuries sum' 
tus. Lucret. Suppeditabit nobis Atticus testes. Cic. 

690. Minuere, Tenuare, Rarefacere. Minuere<, min- 
ishing^ lessening, according to extent, number, or intensity : 
Faces ramaliaque minuit^ parvoque admovit aeno. Ovid. 
Minuere labor em^ auctoritatem alicui; opp. augere. Te- 
nuare, thinning, i.e. making thin: AssidiLo vomer tenua» 
iur ab usu. Ovid. Tenuare iram^ weakening, the inner 
power and strength; minuere^ lessening the violence, the 
eruptions of rage. JR a re/a cere, separating the single par- 
ticles of a thing, which lie close together, rarefying, e. g. 
vapors, air: Sol radiis terrain dimovit obortis et rarefe- 
cit. Lucret., making it loose. 

691. MiRARi, Ad — Demirari, Suspicere, Stupere. 
Mirariy wondering, being in a state of wonderment, and 
admiring; Admirari^ gazing at something, showing one's 
wonder at something uncommon; Demirari^ occupying 
one's self entirely with a subject of wonder or admiration, and 
remaining thus for a time: Cervus ramosa mirans laudat 
cornua, Phsedr. Admirantur omnia^ qua magna et prcUer 

692f. Miser. 694. ModerarL 311 

opinionem suam animadverterunt, Cic. Me, propter quern 
ceteri liberi sunt^ tibi liherum non visum^ d emir or. Id. 
Suspicere, looking from below up to something great, with 
admiration, esteeming highly, opp. despicere: Eos viros 
suspiciunt,in quihus exisiimani se excellentes quasdam et 
singular es perspicere virtutes. Cic. Stupere^ properly, 
being dull, i. e. being stupefied by sudden fright, wondering, 
so that we have lost our senses for the time : Pavida puella 
stupet, Liv. Hunc versum iia agit Roscius, ui proximos 
adspiciat^ admiretur^ stupescat. Cic. 

692. Miser, Infelix, Laboriosus ; Misereri, Miserari, 
MisERESCERE. Miser^ one who suffers from an evil so 
much that he creates interest and compassion, wretched (as 
to situation) : Miser is et lahorantihus nihil negare possu' 
mus. Cic. Infelix, incapable of production, sterile ; and 
unlucky, one who does not succeed in any thing : Salsa teh 
lus, frugihus i nfe I i x, Virg. Crv>x i nfe lici et cerumnoso 
parabatur. Cic. Laboriosus, full of toil and misery, 
worried down, plagued (not tormented, for torment may ex- 
cite the energy of resistance) : Magnos ille cruciatus perfe- 
rebat : nee tamen miser esse, quia summum id malum non 
erat, tantummodo laboriosus videbatur. Cic. — Misereri^ 
feeling compassion at the misfortune and misery of another ; 
Mis ere t me, I feel the deepest pity, I pity sincerely ; ilfi- 
serari, showing one's compassion, deploring, commiserat- 
ing ; Miserescere, becoming compassionate, being moved, 
expresses the gradual growth of this state of compassion : 
llli etiam quum misereri mei debent, non desinunt invi- 
dere. Cic, passive: Commune est^ ut supplicum mi sere a- 
tur. Id . Turni sortem miserantur iniquam, Virg. Ar- 
cadii, qucBso, miserescite regis. Id. 

693. Missio, ExAUCTORATio. Missio, the mission, the 
sending away or despatching, discharge of soldiers : honesta 
s. justa, after the lawful time of service, with foot soldiers 
twenty years, with cavalry ten ; cav^aria, on account of age 
or physical unfitness ; gratiosa, by peculiar favor ; ignomini' 
osa, with disgrace. Exauctoratio, the absolution of a 
soldier from his oath, and his discharge, entire or partial, by 
the authority of the commander: Exercitum pur gar e mis* 
si nib us turbulentorum hominum, Liv. Delectus omissus 
est; exauctorati, qui sacramento dixerant. Id. 

694. MoDERARi, Regere, Dirigere, Gubernare. Mo' 
derari, moderating, giving the right measure to power, 

312 695. Modificari. 697. Mola. 

violence, rapidity ; Regere^ righting^ giving the right direc- 
tion to some activity, and keeping it therein; DirigerCj 
directing entirely right, e. g. cursum narts, steering directly 
for a point; res ad rationem civiiatis, Cic, hence rectus j 
straight, not crooked, right: Recta perge, Cic, sc, via. 
A recta conscientia non discedere. Id. Directus^ placed 
in a straight direction, running, proceeding in it, e. g. acies : 
Bucta et directed vub, Cic. Gm J er ware, properly, guid- 
ing the rudder ; influencing or changing the direction of a 
species of activity, according to circumstances, guiding it : 
Piso naves solvit^ moderabaturque cursui,, quo propius 
regrederetur. Tac, he sailed slower. Non voluptatCy sed 
officio consilia moderantes ; moderari ires, Cic. Se- 
quiiur victam, non regit arte, ratem, Ovid. Deus mundi 
modum regit atque tuetur, Cic. Rector et moderator 
mundi. Id., the ruler and guide, who assigns the true course 
to the things, maintains them in it, and who assigns the proper 
sphere to every thing, thus bringing all things into their just 
relation and proportion. Aura dahit cursum: ipse guher^ 
nab it (ratem) residens in puppe, Ovid. Fortuna motum 
ratione quadam gubernabimus, Cic. Consilio ac ^qpt- 
entia regere ac gubernare rempiMicam, Id. 

695. Modificari, Temperare. Modificari^ measur- 
ing something according to a certain measure, in order to 
bring into harmony with the whole ; Temperare, moderat- 
ing, mitigating that which is too large, too much in a thing : 
Pythagoras, quanta longinquitas corporis mensura pedis 
conveniret, mod ifi cat us est. Gel 1. , passive : Membra 
orationis modificata esse debebant, Cic. Solis turn ae^ 
cessus modici, ium recessus et frigoris et caloris modum 
temper ant, Cic. Temperare manibus, a lacrimis^ ab- 

696. Mono, Nuper. Mo d o, 379, only, just now, L e. 
past, near or close to the point of (actual or already men- 
tioned) present time ; Nuper {novus-per), lately, not dis- 
tant from the present time: Nuper homines nobHes duS' 
modi; et quid dico nuper? immo vero mo do, ac plane 
patdo ante vidimus. Cic. 

697. Mola, Pistrinum. Mola, the mill for grinding, 
which in ancient times consisted of a firm cone (meta), and a 
movable funnel (catinus) of lava; Pistrinum, the place 
where the grain was beaten in mortars, but after the inven- 
tion of hand mills, was ground : Plautus ob quarendum tticium 

698. Mollis. 701. MoH. ai3 

ad circumagendas molas^ qtuB trusatiles appellantur, 
operam pistori locavit, Gell. 

698. Mollis, Tener; Effeminatus. jtfoZZi 5, soft, pli- 
able, that which easily yields to pressure, without breaking or 
cracking: cera caseus : Gallorum mens mollis ac minime 
resistens ad calamitates perferendas, Cses. Tener, tender, 
that which can be easily injured on account of its thin, weak 
component parts: Segetum tener a herha, Virg. Tener a 
<Btas. Ovid. Effeminatus, effeminate, having become loo 
tender, spoiled, e. g. homo, vox : In actione fugiendum est, 
ne quid effeminatum aut mo lie, et ne quid durum aut 
rusticum sit, Cic. 

699. Momentum, PuNCTUM. Momentum (movere), the 
small particle or division of time within which something 
moves, happens: HorcR moment o cita mors venit, Hor. 
Punctum (pungere), point, the smallest particle of time, as 
limit : Puncto temporis eodem mihi reique puhliccB pernicies 
rogala est Cic. 

700. MoNUMEJNTUM, Sepulcrum, Tumulus. Monumen* 
turn, a. monument, a tomb, inasmuch as it reminds of a de- 
parted one ; Sepulcrum, a, vessel to preserve the ashes and 
bones of the same, a grave : Tumulus, a grave of elevated 
earth, a hill over a grave : Placet mihi eis, qui una pugnan- 
tes occiderunt, monumentum fieri quam amplissimum, Cic. 
Me quoque conde sepulcro, Ovid. 

701. Mori, Exspirare, Ob — Inter — Perire, Occi- 
dere, Cadere, Oppetere, Occumbere ; Mors, Letum, 
Nex; Mortalis, Letalis, Mortiferus. Mori, dying, 
ceasing to live; £ a? 5^ i rare, expiring, ceasing to breathe, 
breathing the last : In halneis, fervore atque cBStu anima in- 
terclusa, exspirarunt, Liv. Animam exspiravit. Ovid. 
Ob ire, appearing somewhere and at something in order to 
attend to it ; for instance, at a fixed place or time, in conse- 
quence of judgment ; hence, going to attend to the last day 
fixed by fate, — a solemn and mitigating expression ; mortem, 
diem suum: Dionysius ceger, ut somno sopitv^, diem obiit 
supremum. Nep. Inter ire, ceasing to exist, of entire 
annihilation; Perire, perishing, only of the ceasing of the 
external conditions of existence, e. g. igni, fame, naufragio : 
Vel te interisse, vel perisse prcedicent, Plaut. Occt» 
dere, visibly falling, perishing before the eyes of others: 
Sunt, qui censeant, una animum et corpus occidere. Cic. 
Eudemus prcdians occidit. Id. Cadere, l50, fallitx^^ 


314 702. Mortarium. 705. Mundus. 

only of the wounded: Cadit in prcelio adolescens, Nep. 
Oppetere mortem^ meeting death, going to meet it, seek^ 
ing it: Ajax millies oppetere mortem^ quam ilia perpeti 
maluisset, Cic. Occumbere mortem^ morti^ and moT' 
t e, succumb to death, sinking into the arms of death : Pro 
patria mortem occumbere, Cic. Cacus^ ictus eUxoa^ 
morte occubuit, Liv. Other expressions are, Decede* 
re^ Discedere^ Excedere^ Defungi, Exstingui.^^ 
Mors (the same root with the German Jkford, English mur» 
der), death, as destroyer, the severer of the soul from the 
body : Dissoluiione^ id est morte^ sensus omnis exstinguitur» 
Cic. Letum (tZf-Zere), death, as annihilator: Eodem sibi 
letoy quo ipse inierisset^ esse pereundum, Cic. Nex^ death, 
as murderer, the violent death : Latroni qu<B potest inferri 
injusta nex? Cic. — Mortalis^ mortal, subject to death, 
e. g. animal \ Letalis^ mortal, so constituted that it causes 
death (German todtlich) : Vidnus let ale in pectore accepe* 
rat. Suet. Mortiferus and Mortifer^ mortal, so con- 
stituted that it brings death : Accepit Sulla vehemens vtdnus 
et mortiferum, Cic. 

702. Mortarium, Pila. Mortarium^ the mortar, in 
which something is crushed ; Pila^'uk which it is pounded. 

703. Mucus, PiTuiTA. Mucus^ the thick slime in the 
nose; Pltulta and Piiulta (with three syllables), the con- 
sistent yet more liquid slime, also in other parts of the body : 
Abest saliva^ mucus que et mala pituita nasi. CatuU. 


ti (moles)^ many, in the sense of accumulation ; Comp lures, 
more than many, several in the sense of multiplication : JViwi 
fait orator unus e mult is, Cic. Sunt alii complures, 
qui idem fecerint. Id. Terentius still uses the obsolete com- 
parative meaning. — Mu Ititudo^ multitude, as a large num- 
ber ; Fis, as mass, referring to circumference and space 
which it occupies; Copt a, as store and provender for use: 
Nationes numero hominum ac multitudine in nostras prO' 
vincias redundant. Cic. Vim lacrimarum profadi. Id. 
Pabidi CO pi a non suppetebat, Cses. 

705. Mundus, Nitidus, Lautus, Splendidus. Mun» 
dus, 297, cleanly, neat, of surfaces on which no dirt or spot 
can be perceived: Splendet focus et munda supellex. Hor. 
Nitidus, 478, shining, polished, neat, with a pure yet feeble 
reflexion of light, e. g. ebur. Lautus, washed,, for which 
lotus is generally used ; neat, exquisite, e. g. supellex : 

706. Munus. 708. Mutare. 315 

Mensa lauta, dapibusque instructa. Martial. Lautum et 
copiosum patrimonium, Cic. Splendidus^ splendid, orig- 
inally, shining so that it blinds ; hence, shining, that is, dis- 
tinguishing one's self by magnificence, expense, talent : In 
Curii villa ac domo nihil splendidum^ nihil omatum fuit^ 
prater ipsos, Cic. 

706. Munus, Officium, Munia, Pensum, Ministekium. 
Munus^ office, as the aggregate of ordained and dutiful per- 
formance of services : PrcBtor urhanos, quod consules ahe» 
rant, consulare munus sustinehat, Cic. Officium^ the 
obligation imposed upon us by our peculiar relations, and the 
performance of duty : Ab religione officii declinare, Cic. 
Masinissa omnia exsequitur regis officia et munera. Id. 
Munia (only in the Nominat. and Accusat.), the perform- 
ances and affairs which an office requires, with the idea of 
the laborious, and requiring exertion, by which it differs from 
Munera: P aires arguehat^ quod publica munia deserS' 
rent. Tac. Pensum, the quantity of wool daily weighed 
out to the female slaves for spinning, the performance as 
task : Ad reliqua progrediar, meque ad meum munus pen» 
sum que revocaho. Cic. Mi nisterium, the office of a min* 
ister, the performance of service by way of office, or in order 
to aid some one, e. g. scribarum: Verna ministeriis ad 
nutus aptus heriles, Hor. 


SURRARE. Murmur are, murmuring, of human voices and 
all similar low tones : Fremitus murmur antis maris, Cic. 
Mu tire, Mu it ire {muttering) , uttering a weak, inarticu- 
lated, yet immediately again suppressed sound : Etiam muU 
tisl — Jam tacebo. Plaut. [in German mwcAsen.] Mussa* 
re, speaking softly, murmuring so low that hardly any one but 
the utterer can hear it : Mtoli id decretum clam mussantes 
carpebant. Liv. Mussitare, murmuring something half 
loud, checking it at the same time : Ego hcec mecum mus* 
sito : Bona mea inhiant, Plaut. Susurrare, whispering : 
Nutu pars mihi significat; pars, quid velit^ aure susur- 
rat. Ovid. 

708. Mutare, Variare. Mutare, causing that two 
things change for one another, or that the state of a thing 
passes into another, exchanging, altering : Prcedus mutare 
cum mercatoribus vino advecticio. Sail. Mutare tesiameU' 
turn. Cic. Variare, making varied, varied colored, vary- 
ing: Variabant tempora cani, Ovid. Variari voluptcu 
distinguique potest, Cic, varying the pleasures. 

316 709. Mysterium. 713. Nasus. 

709. Mysterium, Arcanum. Mysterium {fivaxi^Qiov)^ 
a secret, as something sacred, as matter of conscience ; A r- 
canum^ something secret, which nobody else shall know, a 
thing kept secret: EpistolcB tanium hdbent mysteriorunij 
ut eas ne lihrariis quidem commitlamus. Cic. Arcanum 
commissum tegere, Hor. 


710. Nam, Namque, Enim, Etenim. Nam^for^ also 
namely^ justifies the antecedent assertion by a more definite 
exposition and a statement of its reason or cause; Enim^ 
for, stands with emphasis after the word upon which the true 
point of reason rests, of the cause upon which the possibility 
or reality of the antecedent assertion is founded. Such sen- 
tences, which by their contents do not stand in direct connex- 
ion with the antecedent, are joined in the first case by Nam" 
que, in the second by Etenim, 

711. Narrare, Memorare, Commemorare. Narrare^ 
nsirrating, telling, representing an event circumstantially by 
words, in order to inform another of it: Tu isti narra omne 
ordine, ut factum sit, Ter. Me wo rare, making something 
by narration memorable to another, that is, so that he may 
remember it: Honoratorum virorum laudes in condone »ie- 
morentur, Cic. Commemorare, calling back into our 
memory, reminding ourselves or others at the same time ; 
mentioning something boastfully : Quid quoque die egerim^ 
comfnemoro vesperi, Cic. Benejicia non debet commemo" 
rare is, qui contulit. Id. 

712. Nasci, Oriri; Nativus, Natalis. Nasci, orig^ 
inating by procreation, being born, designates the beginning 
of animal existence ; Oriri, properly, rising, of stars; orig- 
inating, having its origin, designates the ground : Ipsum amare 
a se oritur et sua sponte nascitur, Cic. — Nativus, ong-* 
inated by birth and continuing as such : BelucB ad saxa na^^ 
tivis testis inhcerentes, Cic. Nativi coloris pannus, Plin., 
not dyed by art. Natalis, standing in connexion with the 
born \natvs), according to condition, e. g. dies, solum, birth» 
day, land of birth. 

713. Nasus, Naris. Nasus, nose, as prominent part 
of the face; Naris, the nostril, and the nose as olfactory 

714. Navicularius. 716. Ne, 317 

organ: Lucilius facetus^ emuncta naris. Hor., of sharp and 
fine observation. 

714. Navicularius, Nauarchus, Magister, Gubeena- 
TOR. Navicularius, sc. vir, the ship-owner, he who car- 
ries on shipping as a trade: Nauarchus, the captain of a 
ship; Magister, the person to whom the superintendence 
of the vessel, procuring of provisions, and freighting were in- 
trusted : Magistrum navis accipere debemus, cui totius 
navis cura mandata est, Ulpian. Guhernator, he who 
holds the helm, guides the vessel : Guhernator clavum te- 
7iens sedet in puppi, Cic. 

715. Navis, Navigium, Alveus, Ratis, Carina, Puppis; 
LiNTER, Scapha, Cymba; Celox, Lembus. Navis {nare)^ 
a vessel, as swimming, floating body, generally a larger ves- 
sel, as we use ship for the largest class; Navigium (navi' 
gare), a ship, as provided with oars and sails, a vessel : (^id 
tarn in navigio necessarium, quam later a, quam antenna^ 
quam vela, quam mali 7 Cic. Poetical for the same, Alveus^ 
a hollowed trunk, the hold of a vessel: Alveos navium in- 
versos pro tuguriis habuere. Sail. Ratis, a. raft, also a frail 
bark: Navibus ab Hannibale incensis, rates ad trajici' 
endiim exercitum in magna inopia matericR cegre comparat. 
Liv. Carina, keel, on which the fabric of the vessel rests : 
Navium longarum carince positce. Liv. Puppis, poop^ 
see Gubernator, 714. — Smaller vessels: Linier, a small 
bark or boat, craft without deck, of boards or a hollow trunk : 
Idjlumen Helvetii ratibus ac lintribus transibant, Cses. 
Scapha, a boat, larger than Linter: Funiculus a puppi 
religatus s cap ham annexam trahebat, Cic' Cymba, a 
small bark: Cymbarum ante oculos*multitudo, Cic, fish- 
ing barks. Celox, bl small hunting bark, with two or three 
oars only on one side (?); Lembus, a small, low vessel, 
pointed at the prow, with many oars, for swift sailing, a sort 
of cutter: Apparuit, piraiicas celoces et lembos esse, 
Liv. The other specific terms for vessels are Greek. 

716. Ne, Quo minus, Quin; Ne non, Ut; Ut ne, Ut 
NON. a. After negative sentences which express a prevent- 
ing, a standing in the way, Ne signifies that not, so that not, 
the intention that the action be entirely omitted; Quo mi' 
nus, that not, that the action be stopped in its progress ; 
Quin, that not, that the action nevertheless has happened : 
Imperatores erant impediti, ne triumpkarent. Sail. JEtcts 
non impedit, quo minus literarum studia teneamus. Cic. 


318 717. Nebulo. 719. Negare. 

Hanno prohiheri non poterat^ quin erumperet, Liv. — 
b. After the expressions of apprehending, fearing, Ne signi- 
fies that, that it may or might, the expression of a desire of 
avoiding a threatening evil. Ne non^ it might, may not, 
lest, the desire not to lose an endangered good ; Ut^ that not, 
the desire to obtain an endangered good : Verendum est, n e 
brevi tempore fames in urhe sit. Cic. Veremur^ n e heatus 
esse non possit. Id. Vereor^ ut Dolahella satis nobis pro' 
desse possit. Id. — c. Ne, that not, so that not, is used only 
to designate an object, and in an averting sense ; Ut, that, 
used as well to designate an object, an end, as also a cause 
and effect ; in both cases follows Ne, not, before a single 
part of such a sentence, which is to be taken as negative in 
an averting sense; non, not, in a negativing sense. Qiub 
ne spes eum fallat, vehementer te rogo. Cic. Non peto,ut 
decernatur aliquid novi, sed ut ne quid novi decematur. Id. 
Opera datur, ut judicia ne jiant. Id. Veteres milites di- 
mitti placuit, ita ut in singular Romanes legiones ne plus 
sena millia peditum, ireceni equites essent, Liv. Spatiwn 
relinquatur, ut gemma libera vinculo non urgeatur, Colum., 
speaking of the engrafted tree. 

717. Nebulo, Vappa, Verbero. Nebulo, he who envel- 
opes in fog, i. e. who carries on his deeds in the dark, a cheat, 
rogue, scoundrel : Nos ab isto nebulo ne facetius eludimur^ 
quam putamus. Cic. Vapp a, properly turned wine ; a de- 
generate man : Vapp <r nomen probrosum etiam, quum de- 
generaverit animus, Plin. Verbero, one that cannot get 
blows enough, an abusive name applied to slaves. 

718. Necessitas, Necessitudo. Neces sit as, necessity j 
if something cannot b^ different according to the laws of na- 
ture or urgency of circumstances; Necessitudo, the con- 
dition, the state of coercion, which originates from the neces- 
sity : Tempori cedere, id est, necessitati parere. Cic. Puto 
esse hanc necessitudinem, cui nulla vi resisti potest, quo 
ea secius id, quod faeere potest, perjiciat ; qu(B neque mutari^ 
neque leniri potest. Id. Justa causa conjungendce necessu 
tudinis. Id., the close connexion between relations and 
friends. See 48. 

719. Negare, Abnegare, Denegare, Abnuere, Renu- 
ere, Recusare, Infitiari, Infitias ire, Diffiteri. JVe* • 
gare, negativing, 561 ; hence, denying a request : Titus non 
negavit quidquam petentibus. Suet. Abnegare, declin- 
ing, denying briefly ; Denegare, denying a request entirelyi, 

720. Negotium. 319 

depriving the petitioner of hopes of grant : Rex tihi conjugium 
ah n eg at, Virg. Datum denegant^ qtLod datum est, Plaut., 
denying, that is, asserting that it is not so. Expetita collo' 
quia et dene gat a commemorat. Csbs., cf. C. Phil. 11, 8, 19. 
Ahnuere, opp. adnu^re^ manifesting our disinclination by 
signs, and Renuere^ our decided opposition against consent ; 
both refer rather to our disposition and will : Manu abnuit^ 
quidquam in se opis esse, Liv. Quum intelligas^ quid quis» 
que concedatj quid abnuat, Oic. Haud equidem abnuo^ 
egregium ducem fuisse Alexandrum, Liv. Credere me tamen 
hoc oculo renuente negavi, Ovid., of opposite opinion. 
Nullum convivium renuit, Cic. Recusare, declining 
something expected of us, from counter-reasons {causa), de- 
nying : Tim^oris causa pro se quisque id munus legationis 
recusal at. Gees. Infitiari (/oteW), not confessing the 
truth, denying something by words, in our own interest : 
Multi in tormentis mori maluerunt f ahum fat end o, quam 
infitiando dolere, Cic. Infitias ire, intending, desir- 
ing to deny something, not to confess it ; refers to the begin- 
ning of the action: Si infitias ibit, testis mecum est an- 
nulus, Ter., in prose with a negation : Nos plebis commodis 
adv ersatos esse neque nego^neque i nfi tias eo, Liv. , nor 
do I wish to deny. Diffiteri, {mis-confessing, that is,) 
making a false confession, contrary to truth : Pudor obsccmum 
diffiteatur opus, Ovid. 

720. Negotium, Res. Negotium, occupation, opp. 
otium: In otio esse potius, quam in negotio, Ter., the 
occupation or affair as the task for a free activity to obtain an 
object, especially used of an official, professional, and in gen- 
eral of a dutiful business: Negotium magistratibus est 
datum, ut currarent, ut sine vi mihi cBdificare liceret. Cic. 
Res, 190, every subject of which we can rei, that is, every 
thing which can be supposed to exist (reor is connected with 
the German reden, to speak, for speaking and thinking or 
judging coincide originally) ; the thing, as generic term for 
something, the more definite determination of which is to be 
known from its accompaniments, e. g. divina, militaris : Nan 
re ductus es, sed opinione, Cic. Rem agere, transacting, 
attending to an affair, which touches the interest of some one ; 
Negotium agere, attending to an affair, business, which 
claims our attention on account of some duty or obligation. 
Res est mihi tecum, I have to do with you, to fight it out 
with you ; Negotium^ I have something to settle with you. 

320 721. Nemo. 724. Nomen. 

[The deficiency in the English language, that we have but 
one word, things for the German Ding and Sache^ renders it 
always difRcult for one who has not entered entirely into the 
spirit of Latin to comprehend the whole and full meaning of 
res ; because, though the Latin has, like the English, but one 
word, res signifies infinitely more than the English term 

72 L Nemo, Nullus. Nemo^ nobody, no one, opp. some- 
body, some one, excludes every person ; Nullus^ none, opp. 
one, excludes every individual of a certain kind : Hominem 
neminem pluris facio, Cic. Elephanio heluarum nulla 
prudentior. Id. 

722. Neque 5. Nec, Et NON, Ac NON. Neque^or Nec^ 
and not, connects, with the antecedent, an entire sentence 
taken negatively; Et non, Ac non^ and not, connects a 
sentence in which a single notion is contradistinguished to the 
antecedent: Papiriumjerunt cibi vinique capacissimum^ nee 
cum ullo asperiorem fuisse militiam, Liv. Ea scripsi ad te^ 
qu^ et saluti tucB conducere arhitrarer^ et non alien a esse 
ducerem a dignitate, Cic. 

723. Nihil, Nihilum; Nihilo secius, segnius, mintts. 
Nihil, nothing, is the abbreviated Nihilum, a nothing, the 
nothing (if the expression be allowed) : Nihil agis, — Erit 
aliquid, quod aut ex nihilo oriatur, aid in nihilum SU' 
Into occidat. Cic. — Ni hilo secius, differing nothing, just 
so, designates equality of mode of action : Hcbc dicta nihilo 
mihi esse videntur secius, quam somnia. Plant. Nihilo 
segnius, nothing slower, as lively as : Oppidani, insolita re 
perculsi, nihilo segnius helium par are. Sail. Nihilo 
minus, notwithstanding, nevertheless, refers to equality of 
enduring force or action : Legati projiciscantur : helium nt- 
hilominus paretur, Cic. 

724. NoMEN, VocABULUM, Veebum, Vox; Prjenomen, 
Cognomen, Agnomen. Nomen, the name, by which we 
make a subject recognisable and distinguishable from others, 
the name of a person : Rehus novis nova ponenda sunt nO' 
mina, Cic. Vocahulum, the appellation of an object 
according to its marks of distinction, which it has in con^mon 
with others of the kind, the generic name or noun : Non idem 
Oppidum et Roma, quum Oppidum sit vocahulum, Roma 
nomen, Varr. Verhum, a word, a whole consisting of 
articulated sounds, which designates something thought, every 
part of speech; otherwise, Verhum designates a verb, a 

725. JVbw. 726. Noiio. 321 

word which is conjugated; Verha^ in the plural, designates 
words in connexion, as we use, likewise, words: Verbum 
non amplius addam. Hor. Vox^ the voice, the sound, which 
is breathed forth from the mouth ; a word as sound, single 
and in connexion: Sunt verba et voces^ quibus hunclenire 
dolorem possis, Hor. Hcec una vox omnium est, Cic. — 
The Koman had generally three names, see 489. JVo- 
men, the name of the gens^ e. g. Cornelius; PrcBnomen^ 
the individual name, by which the different members of the 
family were distinguished, e. g. Caius^ Marcus; CognO' 
men, the surname, or family name, e. g. Scipio, Lentulus ; 
A gno?n en, 3. surnsime given for some distinguished action, 
or by adoption, e. g. Puhlius Cornelivs Scipio Africanus, 
Mmilianus, the second agnomen of which came from his 
adopted father, L. Mmilius Paullus, 

725. NoN, Ne, Haud. Non, no, not, negation of that 
which is really, contradistinguishes existence from nonexist- 
ence ; Ne, not, that not, for the purpose that not, 716, nega- 
tion of that which is thought, intended, contradistinguishes 
that which ought to be from that which ought not to be; 
Haud, more correctly Haut, perhaps not, probably not, 
better not, entirely not, is a condition of negation, which 
leaves it to option in which sense it may be taken ; hence its 
ironical use, and before negative compounds, e. g. haud 
ignotcB belli artes : Necesse est, id aut esse, aut non esse. 
Cic. Agesilaum, quod mel non habebant, cera circumjude' 
runt. Nep., no honey; not meZ nullum, Impius ne audeto 
placare donis iram deorum. Cic. Eo proficiscentem haud 
sane quis facile retraxerit. Id. Tuum esse periclum non 
vis : haud stulte sapis. Ter. 

726. NoTio, NoTiTiA, CoGNiTio, Perceptio. Notio^ 
the making one's self acquainted with something ; the com- 
prehending of the marks perceived in an object, into one 
representation in tlie mind, the notion, e. g. veri et falsi ; 
No titia, the clear and distinct presentation of a thing, which 
originates out of the notio, the knowledge, e. g. antiquitatis^ 
sui corporis ; the acquaintance with a subject. No tio Dei, 
is the notion we form, the idea of God; No titia Dei, the 
knowledge of God, that which we know of him, to distinguish 
him from other beings. Cognitio, the obtaining knowledge 
of a thing, as art, by which we arrive at a clear and distiact 
notion of a thing, and also the knowledge thus obtained : Test 
rerum notiones non haberemus, nisi animus in rert^ugn, 

322 727. Novus. 729. Nuhes. 

^cognitione viguisseL Cic. Perception the receiving, the 
reception of the distinctions requisite for a clear notion, the 
perceiving as act of the understanding, the conception of an 
idea or a thought: Ars ex multis animi perceptionibus 
constat, Cic. Out of the cognitio and perceptio originates 
the scientia, 

727. Novus, Recens; Novicius, Tiro. Novus^ new, 
according to time, that which has hegun only a short time ago 
to exist, opp. antiquus : In epistola nihil erat novi. Cic. 
Genus pcence novum decemere. Sail. , unheard of. Recens^ 
fresh, according to condition, that which retains its perfect 
quality, is unimpaired: In prcelio integri et recentes fati' 
gatis succedebani, Cces. Recentes injuries. Id., yet fresh 
in memory. Homines recentes, newly (freshly) created; 
n w t, newly nobilitated : RecentissimcB litercB, Cic, the 
just written ones; novissima^ with reference to several 
earlier ones. — Novicius^ belonging to new things of a cer- 
tain kind or genus, generally used of slaves : Novicii servi 
emti in magna familia, Varr. Tiro, a young soldier, who 
is now only learning the service, a recruit : Veteribus militi' 
bus tirones immisceantur, Liv. Orator nulla in re tiro 
ac rudis esse debet, Cic, novice [freshman^ in its original 


Nubere^ marrying a man ; because the Roman bride, at her 
wedding, covered her face with a flame-colored veil {flam' 
meum): Venerem Syriam Adonidi nupsisse proditum est, 
Cic. Octavianus Juliam filiam Marcello nuptum dedit. 
Suet., he married her to him. Uxor em ducere, wedding 
a wife, taking a wife ; used of the husband who, on the day 
of marriage, led his bride to his home: Sextius dUxit uxo» 
rem C, Scipionis Jiliam, Cic; also, Qua ratione inopem 
potius ducebat domuml Ter. In matrimonium du- 
cere^ taking in matrimony, equally of the man, see 260. 
Dumnorix ^duus Orgetorigis filiam in matrimonium 
duxerat. Csbs. 

729. NuBEs, Nimbus, Nebula. Ntibes^ cloud, as a 
hiding mass of vapor: Aer concreius in nubes cogitur^ Au- 
moremque colligens terram auget imbribus. Cic Nubes 
pulveris, locustarum. Liv. Nimbus^ the thicker,, lower, 
dark cloud, bringing storm or rain : Subiio coorta tempestas 
tam denso regem operuit nimbo^ut conspectum ejus concioni 
abstulerit. Liv. Nebula^ fog, the thick vapor rising firom 

730. Nudare. 733. Nuntius. 323 

the ground : Fluviis ex omnibus et simul ipsa surgere de terra 
nebulas videmus, Lucret. 

730. Nudare, Exuere, Detegere, Retegere, Deve- 
LARE, Revelare. Nudare, making naked, uncovering, 
exposing, by taking away the covering, clothes : Hominem in 
medio joro nudari ac deligari jubeL Cic. Nudare gla» 
dium, Exuere^ undressing, stripping, taking off the neces- 
sary clothes: tunicam^ jugum^ mores antiquos ; hostem castris, 
Detegere, taking off, withdrawing the cover which hides 
something from the eyes of others; Retegere, pushing it 
aside, and thus making visible : Detegant conditas insidias, 
Liv. Ret eg it sacros, scisso velamine, vultus. Lucan. DC" 
V el are, taking down that which veils ; Revelare, lifting it, 
taking it away, unveiling : Capite involtUo atque ibidem re- 
velato. Suet. 

731. Numerare, Recensere. JVwmer are, counting the 
units contained in a multitude: Per digitos numerare so' 
lemus, Ovid. Qucestor pecuniam numeravit a mensa pub- 
lica, Cic, paying. Recensere, examining a number of in- 
dividuals piece by piece, mustering them, e. g. exercitum; also, 
accounting according to the whole series : Equites et pedites 
coacti recensebantur numerusque inibatur. Caes. Tolle 
animos et fortia facta re cense, Ovid. [ Telling and counting 
are ideas so nearly related (because telling is mentioning the 
single facts in their proper order), that the words designating 
these ideas are nearly related in all the original languages ; 
in German, zdhlen, counting ; erzdhlen, relating, telling. So 
does our word teller express the counter ; the same we find 
in the two different meanings of our word account,] 

732. NuMMUs, NuMisMA, MoNETA. Nummus and JVu- 
mMS, a piece of money of a fixed value, for use in traffic : 
Nescis, quo valeat nummus, qv^m prabeat usum7 Pants 
ematur, olus, Hor. Ntimisma (vofiiana), the coin, sls coined 
and passing money in the abstract : Retulit acceptos, regale 
no mis ma, Philippos, Hor. Mo net a, coin, as the coined 
metal, and the place where the metal is coined : j^ra dabant 
olim, melius nunc omen in auro est, victaque concedit prisca 
mo net a novce, Ovid, ^des atque officina Monet ce, Liv. 

733. Nuntius, Tabellarius ; Nuntiare, Indicere, Pro- 
MULGARE. Nuntius {novvs)f the news orally delivered, in- 
formation, and the messenger who brings it; Tabellarius^ 
the letter-messenger, carrier: Nuntii de Casaris victoria 
per dispositos equites sunt allati. Gees. Mercurius, deorurn 

324 734. Ob. 735. Ohedire. 

nun tins. Hor. Episiolam attulerat Phileros tabellarius* 
Cic. — Nuntiare^ communicating news, making known: 
Equites ex statione nuntiant^ magna auxilia equitum pedi- 
tumque Uticam venire, Cses., and informing, that is, pronounc- 
ing a command for future observance : Tiberius deligit cen- 
turionem^ qui nuntiaret regibus^ ne armis disceptarenL 
Tac. Indicere^ notifying, declaring, proclaiming some- 
thing fixed for execution at a certain time, so that the persons 
concerned are prepared for it ; ferias^ bellum : In diem cer* 
tarn tU ad lucum FerentincB conveniant Latinorvm proceres^ 
indiciL Liv. Promulgare^ proclaiming, by placarding, 
legem^ 629. Promulgari leges dicuntuTy quum primum in 
vidgus eduntur. Fest. 


734. Ob, Pee, Pkopteb, De, Causa, Gratia, Ergo. 
Oby on account of, 85, designates something as the objects 
Ob rem publicam suscepti labores, Cic. Per^ 570, on ac- 
count of, in the sense of dependence on something : Aliquid 
per avaritiam appetere. Cic, from avarice. Per cUalem 
ad pugnam inutilis, Csbs. Per me id Jieri licet. Id. 
Propter^ 598, on account of, in the sense of lying near, i. e, 
of a cause, motive, reason : Propter frigora fiumenta in 
agris matura non erant. Cses. Copies propter exiguitatem 
non facile diducebantur ; ob earn causam minus commode 
frumentum supportabatur. Id. De, 1. on account, in consid- 
eration of, respecting something : Mettuntur de his rebus ad 
Ccesarem legati, Caes. Causa, on account, indicates some- 
thing intentional as the cause of some action : Legdtos pads 
petendcB causa miitunt, Csbs. Gratia, on account of, 
i. e. in favor of, in consideration: JEtatis dtque honoris 
gratia hoc fiet tui, Plaut. Ergo, in fact, 588, on account 
of, in consideration of a fact: (Pausaniam) ejus victori€S 
ergo Apollini donum dedisse, 

735. Obedire, Dicto audientem esse, Obtemferarb, 
Obsequi, Parebe, Morem gerere, Morigerari, Obsecun- 
DARE. Obedire (audire), listening to some one's counsel 
or will, in order to do what he demands ; lending an ear, e. g. 
legi, imperio : Quibus rex muxim^ obedit, eos habet tntmi- 
dssimos. Nep. [The German for obeying is geharchen^ 

736. OMigare. 737. Ohsidere. 326 

which is listening with great attention ; and belonging to, is 
gehoren, to listen to, i. e. obey, over which I have free dis- 
posal.] Dicto audientem esse, 128. Obtemperare^ 
shaping one's mode of action so according to the will of an- 
other, that we do not act contrary to it, strictly complying : 
unius hominis voluntaii, Cses. Ad verba nobis obediunt 
servi, non ad id^ quod ex verbis intelligi possit, obtempe' 
rant, Cic. Obsequi, obeying with self-denial, especially 
the irregular, whimsical, imperious, severe will of another, 
yielding: JEquum est senibus obsequi, 'Ter. Par ere, be- 
ing ready to obey superior commands, obeying in the con- 
sciousness of necessity : Etiam leges latronum esse dicuntur, 
quibus pare ant, quas observent, Cic. Morem gerere^ 
manifesting by behaviour that we yield to the wish of another, 
acting according to his wish, or permitting him to act accord- 
ing to his desire: Ut homo est, ita morem geras. Nam 
quid tu hie agas, ubiy si quid bene prcecipias, nemo ob tem- 
per et? Ter. Mo rigerari, proving one's readiness by 
deed, accommodating one's self to another : Si nunc de patris 
jure concessisses paululum atque adolescenti esses mori* 
geratus, Ter. Obsecundare, favoring and seconding 
the intentions and plans of another, from voluntary resolution : 
Pompeii voluntatibus etiam venti tempestatesque obsecun- 
darunt. Cic. Respecting the declared will of another, 
Ob e dire refers to the attentive and willing person; Oh* 
temperare, to the punctually willing and ready person; 
Obsequi, to the patient and obliging person; Par ere, to 
the obedient; Morem gerere and Morigerari, to the 
ready person, who is willing to let our will be done. 

736. Obligare, Obstringere, Devincire. Obligare, 
tying up from above, dressing and bandaging, e. g. vulnus ; 
and obliging another : Orjium tua liberalitate tibi obliges, 
Cic. Obstringere, tying tightly, stringing, pinioning; 
also, obliging much, e. g. laqueo collum ; civitatem jureju» 
rando, legibus: Existimes, quibuscunque officiis Atticum oh- 
sirinxeris,iisdem me tibi obligatum fore, Cic. De- 
vincire, fettering, so that it cannot be torn, indissolubly : 
Hunc tollant et domi devinciant: Plaut. Sanguinis con» 
junctio benevolentia devincit homines et caritate. Cic. 

737. Obsidere, Oppugn are; Occupare. Ohstdere,he» 
sieging, surrounding with a camp ; Oppugnare, assaulting, 
attempting to conquer by attacks from without : Curio Uticafn 
obsidere et vallo circummunire instituit, Cses. Id oppidutfti 


826 738. Ohsonium. 741. Odium., 

oppugnare conatus, propter latitudinem fosscB murique ah 
tiiudinem^ paucis defendentilms, expugnare non potuit. Id. 
Obsidio per paucos dies magis, quam opp ugnatio fuit^ 
dum vulnus duds curaretur. Id. — Obsidere^ keeping 
garrisoned, occupied, holding: Omnes aditus armati obsu 
deb ant, Cic. Decemviri totam Italiam suis opibus obsi- 
debunt. Id. Occupare^ anticipating: Occupat Tullus 
in agrum Sabinum transire, Li v., and in seizing a thing, an- 
ticipating another, taking a place : Tiberius Gracchus regnum 
occupare conatus est, Cic. In theatro ejus est locus^ quern 
quisqu>e occupavit. Id. 

738. Obsonium, Pulmentum, Pulmentarium, Panis. 
Obsonium (o^wvtoy), 311, culinary articles except bread: 
Themistocli rex Myuntem donarat^ ex qua urbe obsonium ha^ 
beret, Nep., i. e. fishes. Pulmentum^ food prepared to 
be eaten; Pulmentarium^ something belonging thereto: 
Quod edebant cum pulte^ab eo Pulmentum, Varr. Mid» 
lum in singula minuas pulmenta necesse est, Hor., in single 
pieces. Tu pulmentaria qucere sudando, Hor. Pdnis^ 
bread, as mass and as body: Fid panis simul et obsonii 
vicem siccatcB explent, Plin. Bini panes indies. Plant. 

739. Obtutus, Adspectus. Obtutus^ the firm direction 
of the eyes to one point, the fixed look; Adspectus^ the 
looking at ; the glance, passing, in order to see what is there : 
Obtutus oculorum in cogitando ; obtutum in aliqua re 
figere. Cic. Natura oculos fecit mobiles^ ut adspectum^ 
quo vellent^ facile converterent. Id., passive, the look of a 
figure, i. e. that which we see : Britanni horridiore sunt in 
pugna adspectu. Cses. 

740. OccASio, Opportunitas, Ansa. The execution of 
an enterprise and realization of a plan are facilitated by Oc" 
casio (falling together), coincidence of favorable circum- 
stances, opportunity which offers itself: JJt primum occasio 
data est,, rem publicam defendi, Cic. By Opportunitas^ 
the convenience of locality, time, and other circumstances : 
Fluminum opportunitates. Cic. By Ansa^ 175, the oc- 
casioning, the motive, which we take or receive from some- 
thing for an action : Optandum est, ut quam sapissim^ peccet 
amicus, quo plures det tamquam ansas ad reprehendendum, 

741. Odium, Simultas, iNiMiciTiiE ; Odiosus, Invisus, 
Offensus. Odium, hatred, strong dislike against a person 
on account of his displeasing moral qualities, opp. amor : In 

742. Odor. 327 

odium alicujus adducemur, si quod ejus spurce, superhe, mU' 
litiose factum prof eretur, Cic. jSimttZ/ as, the reserve be- 
tween two persons who, with the appearance of friendship, dis- 
agree, without being precisely enemies ; also, grudge, deep, 
but secret, hostile disposition: Hi perpetuus' controversias inter 
se habebant et de loco summis simultatibus contendehant, 
Cses, Inimicitice, enmity, disposition to injure another, 
from hatred, opp. amicitia: Inimicitia est ira ulciscendi 
tempus observans, Cic. Thus in the singular in this place 
only. Inimicitias per annos multos vobis ipsis graves et 
atroces geritis, — Hasut hodie fniatis simultates (ill-will), 
qucBsumus vos universi, Liv. — Odiosus, hated, odious, that 
which is the object of violent dislike: Odiosum genus ho» 
minum^ qfficia exprobrantium, Cic. /wuisus, that which we 
dislike to 5ee, displeasing : Lepidus adeo est invisus mihi^ 
ut nihil non acerbum putem, quod commune cum illo sit. Cic. 
Offensus (offensive), he who has offended against others, 
and is consequently disliked: O invidiosum ojfensumque 
paucorum culpa atque indignitate ordinem senatorium ! Cic. 
742. Odor, Nidor, Suffimentum, Fcetor, Odoratus, 
Olfactus; Odorari, Olfacere, Olere, Fragrare. Odor^ 
the scent, which is smelled : Odor ieterrimus oris. Cic. ; in 
the plural, Odores, fine scents, fragrant scents: Incendere 
odores. Id. Nidor^ the smoke and smell of roasted, 
burnt, especially fat substances: Recens exstinctum lumen 
acres nidor e offendit nares, Lucret. Suffimentum^ 
frankincense, by which pleasing scents are produced : Lau- 
rus suffimentum est cadis hostium et purgatio. Plin. 
FcBtor^ stench, the smell which creates disgust, e. g. oris. 
Odoratus, the smelling, if we draw the scent of a body in, 
and the organ of smell, tile smell : Pomorum jucundv^ gustn- 
tus et odoratus. Cic. Insecta habent odoratum. Plin. 
O If a ctus, the scent by which a body affects the olfactory 
nerves : Ccepe o If a ctu ipso et delacrimatione oculorum ca- 
ligini medentur. Plin. Piscibus foramina tantum ad olfac- 
tus, sine naribus. Id. — Odorari, perceiving something by 
smelling, the short inhalation, in rapid succession, suspecting : 
Odor or, quam sagacissime possum, quid existiment judi- 
ces. Cic. O If a cere, smelling, perceiving a smell : Res 
sensibus percipiuntur ; eas gustamas, olfacimus. Cic. 
Olere, issuing, sending forth a scent: Male olet ornne 
ccmum. Cic. Fr agrari, exhaling a strong, agreeable scent '. 
Redolentque thymo fragrantia mella. Virg. 

328 743. Offendere. 746. Omnis. 

743w Offendere, Violare. Offendere^ 577, offend» 
ing, causing, by a wrong or fault, the feeling of unoierited 
injury in another, e.g. contumelid aliquem; Violare^ ill- 
treating, with violence: JustiticB partes sunt^ non violare 
homines; verecundice^ non offendere. Cic. Virtutemsus^ 
picione violare. Liv. 

744. Officium, Studium; Officia, Merita, 'Beneficia. 
Officium, 706 (properly, the doing toward one, the coming 
forward to one in acting), the return of kindness ; in general, 
every thing to which we feel bound, to correspond to our re- 
lations to another ; Studium^ the interest we take in a sub- 
ject, zeal and endeavour of obliging another, and favoring his 
wishes in every manner: Nullum officium referenda gra- 
tia magis necessarium est. Cic. CcBsar facere potitem insii' 
ttdt: magno militum studio paucis diebus opus effieUwr, 
CsBs. — Officia^ kind turns, services ; services from a feel- 
ing of duty, friendship, &c. Merita^ services, the value of 
which is acknowledged, acts of importance done for another : 
Magna sunt LamicB in me, non dico officia^ sed merit a^ 
Cic. Beneficia^ benefices, free actions, from pure good- 
will, for the benefit of another: Magno beneficio Lamics 
magnoque merito sum obligatus. Cic. 

745. Omen, Ostentum, Monstrum, Portentum, Pro- 
DiGiUM. Owen, 134, an indication, sign, to which we. may 
or may not pay attention: Nee omen abnuit Mneas. Vii^. 
Express signs, as extraordinary phenomena, are, Ostentum, 
something premonitory, as a hint of the deity : MuUa ostefi' 
tis admonemur. Cic. Monstrum^ something unnatural, 
exciting horror, indicating evil ; hence, a monster : PolypJiC" 
mtts, monstrum horrendum, informe^ ingens, cui lumen 
ademtum. Vii^. Portentum^ something exciting fright: 
Horribili visu portenta. Virg. Pro dtgium^ something 
miraculous and indicating a great event, which may also re^ 
fer to happy occurrences: Multa scepe prodigia vim Ce- 
reris numenque declarant. Cic. 

746. Omnis (Unusquisque), Totus, Cunctus, Univer- 
SITS. Omnis^ every one ; plural, Omwe^, all, inasmuch as 
all separate and separately thought as units, taken together, 
form a whole: Non omnem arborem in omni agro repe^ 
rire possis. Cic. ; hence, entire, separately from all others, 
existing for itself: Quod omne est ^ id non cemitur ex alio 
extrinsecus. Id. Gallia omnis in partes divisa tres, Cses^ 
(But Unusquisque^ is every one, i. e. each one of a certain 

747. Opinio. 748. Orare. 329 

kind, e. g. unusquisque regum. Cic.) Totus^ entire in 
respect to its parts, complete : CcBsar^ equitatu prcemisso, stib' 
sequebatur omnibus copiis : post eas to tins exercitus iwi- 
pedimenta collocarat. Caes. Cunctus, altogether; plural, 
Cuncti, all taken together; of assembled, actually united, 
or thought as such, opp. sejuncti ; hence, in the singular it is 
only used with collectives : Senatus cunctus consurgit, Cic. 
Datamem unum pluris, quam se omnes fieri videbant aulici: 
quo facto cuncti ad eum opprimendum consenserunt. Nep. 
Universus (properly, turned toward one), all, without ex- 
ception ; of equal participation in the same subject, opp. sin- 
guli: Hcec loquor de universis ; nihil excipio, Cic. Nee 
pars, nee universi postea tentaverunt tale pugnce genus, 

747. Opinio, Sententia. Ojot?ito, 94, opinion, the judg- 
ment of something according to reasons of probability : Opi' 
nionibus vulgi rapimur in errorem, Cic. Bellovacorum 
civitas maximam habet opinion em virtutis, Caes., he stands 
in the reputation, see kTu dicium, 93. Sententia, the opin- 
ion which we happen to have, our view of the matter, the 
opinion we give upon a subject : Aperte odisse magis ingenui 
est, quam occultare sententiam, Cic. De amicitia tres 
video sententias ferri. Id. 

748. Orare, Verba facere ; Rogare, Qujeso, Obse- 
CRARE, Obtestari, Supplicare, Precari ; Oratio, Lingua, 
Sermo, Contentio ; Orator, Rhetor. Orare (os), speak- 
ing solemnly, in an oratorical delivery : capitis cav^am. Cic. 
Verba facere, speaking at large, in detail, on something: 
Verba apud senatum fecit ; docuit, ad se nihil pertinere, 
Cic. — Orare, begging loudly and earnestly: Id parentes 
suos liberi orabant, ut levaretur cruciatus suus, Cic. jRo- 
gare, 576, begging in asking, leaving the accomplishment 
of our request to the favor of the other, requesting : Te rogo, 
si opus erit, ad CcBsarem meam causam agas, Cic. ; hence 
only, Rogo atque oro; rogat oratque te. Id. QucB' 
so, I beg, expresses an urgent request, with claims upon the 
kind fulfilment : Has ut hodie, ut in isto temple finiatis si' 
multates, qucesumus vos universi. Liv. OJsecr are, beg- 
ging by all that is sacred, conjuring : Obsecravit per fra- 
tris sui cinerem, per nom£n propinquitatis, Cic. Or at atque 
obsecrat. Id. Obtestari, begging, conjuring, in calling 
on God as a witness, by every thing that is dear to us : J^er 
omnes deos te obtestor; Vos obsecrat obtestatur^^ig, 


330 749. Orhare. 750. Ordo. 

per senectutem ac solitudinem suam. Cic. SupplicarCy 
519, begging with bent knees, humbly begging, in the con- 
sciousness of the great power of him to whom we beg, and 
our own great misery : tft prostemerent se et populo Romano 
fracto animo atque humili supplicarent Cic. Preco' 
riy begging, praying, as we pray to God : Perseum sorortm 
dedisse PrusicB precanti ac oranti, Liv. — Oratio^ 
speech, as gift of speaking, distinction of man : Fera sunt 
rationis et orationis expertes, Cic. Lingua^ the tongue ; 
the language peculiar to an individual or a tribe or nation : 
Lingua Latina locupleiior est^ quam Graca, Cic. SermOy 
the simple^ calm language, as that of common life, of daily 
intercourse : Sermo nan potest in una homine esse solo^ sed 
ubi oratio cum altera conjuncta, Varr. Contention 62, 
the language of an orator, full of effect: Sermo est oratio 
remissa^ et finitima quotidiancB locutioni: contentio est 
oratio acris, et^ ad confirmandum et ad confutandum ^ccom- 
modata. Ad Herenn. — Orator^ the orator, speaker, who 
delivers publicly a speech ; Rhetor^a. teacher of rhetoric : 
Quid^ si rhetor ille te disertum facere potuissetl Cic. 

749. Orbare, Privare, Viduare ; Orbus, Pupilltts. 
Orhare (the root of this word, orh^ is the same with roh)^ 
depriving another of his nearest and most natural aids, making 
one lonely and helpless: Or hat us filio^ patre, luce^ spe 
salutis, Privare^ properly, making single, placing out of 
connexion with something; emptying of, depriving of: Pri' 
vare dolor e^ vita, Ea philosophia spoliat nos jvdicio, pri^ 
vat approbatione^ orbat sensibus, Cic. Ft d ware, making 
a widow, lonely and forlorn : Servilia^ marito in exsilium 
pulso viduata desolataque, Tac. — Orbus (belongs to or^ 
bis), the parentless orphan : Censa sunt civium capita prater 
orb OS orbasque, Liv. Pupillus, the orphan under age: 
Pup ill us relictus sub tutorum cur a. Senec. 

750. Ordo, Series, Tenor. Ordo, the order, the agree- 
ment of the parts of a whole in their local relations according 
to some rule ; hence the whole series arranged according to 
a common rule : Ordo est compositio rerum aptis et accom» 
modatis locis, Cic. Temo consurgunt or dine remi, Vii^. 
Series, a row, the sequence of several things of the same 
kind, e.g. laborum: Fatum appello or din em seriemque 
causarum, Cic; or din em, because they take their proper 
place one by another; seriem, because they form a consec- 
utive series, row. Tenor, the equal, even drift, tenor, in 

751. Omare. 754. Pactum. 331 

which something proceeds consecutively: Literrumpi teno' 
rem rerum^ in quibus peragendis continuatio ipsa efficacissu 
ma esset, Liv. 

751. Ornare, Comere, Concinnare. Ornare^ prop- 
erly, making light, i. e. bright, shining ; ornamenting and 
equipping, furnishing with something, which serves for orna- 
ment, support, or completion : sepulcrum Jloribus ; rem laudu 
bus; classem ornare atque armare, Cic. Comere {coma) 
combing, ornamenting the hair: Secto comeniem dente ca» 
pillos. Martial. Concinnare^ 245, laying, placing right, 
so that all parts fit properly: Concinnavi tihi munuscu^ 
lum. Cic. 

752. OscuLUM, Basittm, Suavium. O senium, kiss, in 
general ; derived from the contraction of the mouth (little os, 
mouth), in kissing: Oscula Jigere, Virg. Basium^ kiss 
of tenderness : Jactat basia tibicen, gratulari fautores pu» 
tat. Phaedr., throwing kisses at one another. Suavium^ kiss 
of love, producing sweet sensations : AtiiccB, quoniam hilaruLa 
est ^ meis verbis suavium des, Cic. 


753. Pacare, Pacificaee; Pacatus, Placatus. Paca» 
re, reestablishing peace and quiet, bringing, reducing to 
peace: His rebus gestis omni Gallia pacata, Caes. J*a- 
cificare, making peace, concluding it; Pacificatum 
legati a Volscis venerunt, Liv. — Pacatus^ peaceable, 
where no war or civil commotions exist : Eloquentia in p a- 
catis tranquillisque civitatibus prcBcipue floruit, Cic. Pla- 
ca/!^ 5, calmed, respecting violent passions: Ilium scepe in» 
censum ira vidi^ scspe placatum, Cic. 

754. Pactum, Conventum, Inducije, Pax, Sponsio, Pac- 
Tio, FcEDus. Pactum, that which is settled and mutually 
promised by several persons after previous agreement, to the 
performance of which they bind themselves according to law ; 
the formally concluded contract, which has become legal: 
Pactum est, quod inter aliquos convenit, quod jam ita jus- 
turn putatur, ut jure prcestare dicatur, Cic. Conventum^ 
that on which people agree for the present, without having 
settled and fixed it unalterably; an agreement, an under- 
standing: Fides est dictorum conventorumque consta:9^%a 

332 755. Pagus. 756. Palam. 

et Veritas, Cic. Pactum conventum^ a stipulation, ac- 
commodation, settlement agreed upon. Induct a (inducere) 
8C, ferice, armistice, when, according to agreement, the open 
war is suspended for a fixed time : Inducia sunt belli Jh' 
ricB, Varr. Pax, peace, as well the settled agreement 
that henceforth war between the respective parties shall cease, 
as that slate of quiet in which we are protected against hos- 
tilities : Consules pacem cum Samnitibus fecerunt, Cic. 
Pace tua dixerim. Id., with thy permission. Sponsio^ the 
wager, a compact, alliance concluded by mutual agreement 
of the commanders of armies, without approbation or confir- 
mation of superior authorities; P actio, the formally con- 
cluded and legal contract, on which litigating parties have 
agreed; Fmdus^n. public alliance of two or more nations 
for social purposes, confirmed by the authority of the state 
and people : Consules, quum de feed ere victor agitaret, «c- 
garunt injussu populi fcedus fieri posse, nee sine fetialihus 
ccBrimoniaqus alia sollemni, Itaque non feed ere pax Ccm^ 
dina, sed per sponsionem facta est, Liv. Si res ad pac- 
tionem non venit, longius helium puto fore, Cic. 

755. Pagus, Vicus, Platea. JPa^ws (;pan^ere), a num- 
ber of dwellings built closely together, a village, borough, 
with their inhabitants; and a number of farmed districts 
contiguous to one another, with villages and towns, a district, 
canton: Pagus agalfestum: pagumlustratecoloni, Ovid. 
Omnis civitas Helvetia in quatuor pagos divisa est. Cses. 
Vicus, a. part, ward of a town, separated by a street from 
the rest: Nullum^ in urhe vicum esse, in quo Miloni non 
esset conducia domu^. Cic, and a village, as smaller commu- 
nity, contradistinguished from pagus : Reliqui omissis pagis 
V ids que in silvas disperguntur, Tac. Platea, a wide 
road between two rows of houses, a street: Si te in platea 
offender 0, quod dicas, iter hac habui, periisti. Ter. 

756. Palam, Aperte, Publice, Vulgo. Pal am, pub- 
licly, before all the people, so that every one can perceive it, 
opp. cZam: Luce, palam in deorum hominumque conspectu 
est occisus, Cic. Aperte, open, openly, known by every 
one, and without reserve or dissimulation, opp. occulte : 
Aperte falsum, Cic. Tum palam pugnare poteraiis, 
quum hostem aperte videretis. Id. Publice, under pub- 
lic authority, caused by or with the knowledge of the state 
or some authority, opp. privatim : Navis cBdificata est puh» 
lids operis, publice coactis, eique cedificanda publico 

757. Palumhes, 761. Pandere. 333 

senator prcefuiL Cic. Vulgo^ general, by every one: VuU 
go loquebantur, Antonium mansurum esse Casilini. Cic. 

757. Palumbes, Columba. Pdlumhes^Si large species 
of ring-dove, which travels from one country to another, fol- 
lowing the crop; Columba, the smaller, domesticated one, 
or pigeon. 

758. Palpebrje, Cilium, Supeecilium. Palpehra^ 
eyelids ; C ilium, eyelashes ; Super cilium, eyebrows, 
^Iso used for dark graveness, pride, overbearing: Palpe- 

hrce sunt tegmenta oculorum, munitceque sunt tamquam vallo 
pilorum. Cic. Ira contractis superciliis, tristitia deduC" 
tis, hilaritas remissis ostenditur, Quinctil. 

759. Palus, Sudes, Stipes, Sublica, Ridica, Valltjs. 
Palus, the straight, thin pole or post, to hold firm that which 
is tied to it: Servi ad palum alligantur, Cic. Sudes, a 
post to stick in the ground : Ripa erat acutis sudibus pr<S' 
Jlxa. Cobs. Stipes, a post as thick as a tree, rough, driven 
firmly and deep into the ground: In fossis sudes stipi- 
tesque prceacutos dejigit, Caes. ; hence, stupid, like a stick, 
a stick (in stupidity) : Consul tamquam truncus atque stipes, 
Cic. Sublica {sublevare, making lighter, easing), a prop- 
ping post, which supports a weight, a pile of a bridge : Pons 
sublicius. Liv. Ridica, Bl stick in the vineyard, split and 
cornered, while the palus is round : Vinea stabiliendoe melior 
est ridica palo ; prcscipua est cuneis Jissa olea, quercus et 
suber, Colum. V alius, the camp or fortification post, with 
branches, 51 : Romanus hifurcos et trium aiU quaiuor ramo» 
rum vail OS ccedit, Liv. 

760. Pampinus, Palmes, Flagellum, Sarmentum. Pa«i- 
pinus, the young sprout of leaves of the vine, the foliage of 
a vine : Uva vestita pampinis, Cic. Palmes, vine, and 
a sprout of a vine : Palmiium duo genera sunt : alteram^ 
quod ex duro provenit, alteram, quod ex anniculo palmite 
procreatur, Colum. Flagellum, the thin, fragile points of 
a vine, the creepers: Vitem vocant minorem flagellum; ^ 
majorem, unde uvcb nascuntur, palmam, Varr. Sarmentum^ 
the part of the vine which bears leaves alone : Vitem ferro 
amputat, ne silvescat sarmentis, Cic. 

761. Pandere, Aperire, Reserare, Recludere, Fate- 
FACERE. Pandere, opening, by expanding, unfolding, e. g, 
brachia; -4per ire, opening something covered, hidden, so 
that it may be seen, uncovering, discovering, opp. operi're : 
caput involutum, ostium, ararium, res latentes; Reserair ^^ 

334 762. Pangere, 765. Parens. 

pulling baak the bolt, unbolting : Zfrhem alii reserare ju» 
bent et p and ere portas Dardaiiidis. Virg. RecluderCy 
unlocking, and thus making that which is well kept and pre- 
served accessible, e. g. portas: Ebrietas operta recludit, 
Hor. Pat efa cere, opening wide, leaving ajar : Dransfossa 
pariete iter in urbem pat efa cere, Liv. Viam aperirCj 
opening, breaking a way, removing that which impedes ; p o- 
tefacere, making it practicable. 

762. Pangere, FiGERE, CoNFiGERE, Defigere. P an- 
ger c, packing f inserting firmly, and attaching firmly : Pari'- 
gi ramulum placuit. Suet., planting. Fig ere, fixing, affix- 
ing, attaching : mucrones in hoste, Cic. Clavum pangere^ 
beating firmly in', fig ere, beating in, so that it remains in; 
Legem, tabulam figere. Cic, fixing it to something, like a 
handbill, placarding. C on/i^ ere, piercing : capras sagiU 
lis; Defigere, thrusting into something: sicam in corpore 
consulis, Cic. 

763. Papyrus, Charta, Membrana. Papyrus (rarely 
papyrum), the Egyptian papyrus plant; Charta, paper 
made of the fine inner layers of the same, glued together 
with the thick Nile water : Papyrum nascitur in palustrihus 
Mgypti. Prceparantur ex eo charter, diviso acu in prate' 
nues philuras. Plin. Membrana, 309, skin prepared and 
smoothed for writing, parchment : Homeri carmen in mem- 
bran a scriptum, Cic. 

764. Parare, Adparare, Comparare, Acquirere. Pa* 
rare, making ready, placing in readiness; Nervii turres^' 
falces testudinesque parare ac facere cceperunt Csbs. Ju-^ 
mentis Gallia delectatur, eaque impenso par ant pretio. 
Ca3s., procuring. Adparare, obtaining all that is necessary 
in order to efFect and execute a certain thing, making prepa- 
rations for something : Agesilaus oJicini$, armorum institutis^ 
magna industria bellum adparavit, Nep. Comparare^ 
getting something ready, by bringing together all requisites : 
Principes senatus suadendo sex tribunos ad intercessionem 
comparavere. Liv. Ornare et apparare convivium, 
Cic, preparing the viands beforehand. A cquirere, obtain- 
ing by the application of pains, exertion, gaining with labor: 
Sibi, quod ad usum vitce pertinet, acquirere. Cic. 

765. Parens, Pater, Genitor ; Patres, Senatobes, 
Majores; Patricius, Nobilis, Novus homo. Pdrens^is 
the father, inasmuch as the son derives his existence from 
him ; hence, Parentes, parents. Pa^er, is the father, as 

766. Pardus.. 768. Pars. 335 

the procreator, nourisher, and provider, hence used in the 
civil sense ; Genitor^ sls procreator, in the physical sense 
alone, see 669. Romulus^ parens urhis, Liv. Ingermo 
patre natus. Hor. Homine nihil ah opiimo et prttstanHS" 
simo genitore melius procrealum. Cic. — P aires, ances- 
tors, from whom we descend, up to tie founder of the race 
or family; Mhjores, ancestors, inasmuch as they have 
lived before us (German Vorfahren) ; the English /orefa^Aers 
is often used for majores ; frequently majores designates the 
earlier ancestors, contradistinguished from the later ones ; 
hence, apud p aires nostras, pair um memoria, at the time 
of our fathers ; more majorum concessum est, according to 
old usage, custom. — P aires, the title of the assembled 
Roman senators, in contradistinction to populus and plebs ; 
Senaiores, as old and experienced people : In agris erant 
turn senaiores, id est, senes. Cic. Patricius, one of 
the hereditary nobility, i. e. a descendant from an old x sena- 
torial family ; Nobilis, one whose ancestors had been vested 
with high offices ; what in modern Europe would be called 
nobility of merit, contradistinguished from hereditary nobility. 
As since the year 346, A, U. C. plebeians could obtain high 
places, they could likewise become nohiles ; but they did not 
obtain thereby the privileges of the patrician and the patron- 
age connected with it. If a plebeian obtained a high political 
dignity, and was the first of his family who did so, he was 
called Homo novus: Romulus centum creat senaiores, 
P aires ah honore, pairicii que progenies eorum appellati. 
Liv. Videmus, quanta sit in invidia apud quosdum homines 
nohiles novorum hominum virtus et industria, Cic. 

766. Pardus, Panthera. Pardus, leopard, panther; 
Panther a, the female of the same. 

767. Paries, Maceria, Murus, Mcenia. Paries, the 
wall, which separates (sepdrare, from which the word) a room 
or house from the other space : Nam tua res agitur, paries 
quum proximus ardet. Hor. Maceria {mdcer), a garden 
or vineyard wall: Dehent horti esse clausi; quihus copia 
suppetit, macerias luio et lapide excitant. Pallad. Mu- 
rus, a wall for protection, with the idea of height, firmness ; 
Mcenia, city wall, especially the highest part of it, as bul- 
wark, fortification : Circumjecia multitudine hominum toils 
mcenihus, undique lapides in murum jaci ccepti sunt, mU' 
r us que defensorihus nudatus est. Cses. 

768. Pars, Portio. Pars, part, refers to the whol^ lo 

386 769. Parum. 770. Parvus. 

which it belongs: honorum^ corporis; hence, partes^ parts 
of a drama, which fall to an actor, his part, e. g. primas par* 
tes agere ; and the obligation we have taken upon ourselves : 
Taum est hoc munv^^ ttuB partes. Cic. Portio^ part, in- 
asmuch as he that divides means to bring it in a certain pro- 
portion to the whol^ Mamertinis frumentum pro porti' 
one imperahatur. Cic, their proportionate part; but Aliqvid 
opisfortasse ego pro mea^ iupro tua^ pro sua quisque parte 
ferre potuisset. Id., every one for his part, what every one 
was able to do, according to his ability. Only with later 
writers is P or tio used for portion, or share which belongs 
to some one, or is destined for him : Festinat decurrere hrt" 
vissima vita p or tio. Juvenal. 

769. Parum, Paulum, Modice ; Parumpee, Paulispes. 
Pdrum (belongs to parcere), little, too little, not enough; 
designates lack of sufficiency, opp. nimium : Satis ehquentim^ 
sapienticB par um. Sail. Paulum {navsiv)^ little, not much, 
and Paululum^a, very little, in the sense of yielding, opp. 
multum: Paulum dbfuit^ quin Varum interjiceret Fabius, 
Caes. ; also, haud multum ahfuit. Hcbc paulum immutata 
cohcBrere non possunt. Cic. Mo dice^ 672, a little, not par- 
ticular, in a little degree : MincB Clodii modice me tangurU. 
Cic. — Parumper, for a short time, in the sense of short- 
ening, abbreviating; Paulisper, during a short period, in 
the sense of quietly persevering: Discedo parumper a 
somniis, ad qua mox revertar. Cic. Paulisper mane, 

770. Parvus, Exiguus, Brevis, Minutus, Pusillus. 
Parvus {parcere)^ sparingly, small, in the sense of not full, 
entire; hence, parvi^ the little ones: Ex par vis scspe 
magnarum momenta rerum pendent. Liv. Exiguus (ca»- 
gere, that which must first be searched out from among oth- 
ers), inconsiderable, puny, e. g. mus : Agesilaus statura fidt 
humili et corpore exiguo. Nep., unimportant appearance. 
Exiguum^ sed plus quam nihil illud erit. Ovid. Brevis^ 
short, small as to circumference, length, and width : Previa 
vada. Virg., shallow fords. Riis breve. Ovid. Statura 
brevis. Suet. Minutus, most puny, hardly observable, 
in the sense of detracting: Myrmecides, minutorum opuS' 
culorum fabricator. Cic. Pw si ZZms, very small, dwarf-like, 
in the sense of the crippled : Pusillus testis processit. Hie 
Granius : Perpusillum rogabo . Ridicule. Sedebat ju* 
dexy brevior ipse, quam testis. Cic. 

771. Passim, 774. Pair onus. 337 

771. Passim, Hue illuc, Ultro citro. Passim (pan- 
dere), here and there, far and wide, strewn about : Milites^ 
alii agmine, alii palati passim per agros^ Canusium per^ 
fugerunt, Liv. Hue illuc^ hither and thither, now in this 
direction, now in that direction, refers to a movement opposite 
in direction to the speaking person: Ne cursem hue illuc 
via deterrima, Cic Ultro citro, the other side and this 
side, i. e. to and fro, hither and thither, refers to the change 
of a locality remote from the speaker, and the opposite point 
near him; Internuntii ultro citro que missi, Cic. Bene- 
Jicia ultro citro data accepta, 

772. Patere, Porrigi ; Patens, Patulus, Propatulus. 
Pat ere, standing open, being opened : Apud Germanos JioS' 
pitibus omnium domus patent. Cses. ; of a country lying 
open before one, so that it may be viewed, and extending : 
Planities circiter millia passuum III in latitudinem patC' 
hat. Id. Ars ea late patet et ad multos pertinet, Cic. 
Porrigi, 406, extending, of countries which draw along, as 
it were, far out before the eye of the observer : Pars Suevo- 
rum in secretiora GermanicB porrigitur. Tac. — Patens^ 
standing open, as an accidental thing : Cmlum ex omni parte 
patens aique apertum. Cic. Patulus, wide open, extend- 
ed, wide asunder, as enduring circumstance or quality, e. g. 
aures : Patulis iniit tectum fenestris. Ovid., always open; 
patens fenestra, on the other hand, that which happens to 
be open. Platanv^ ad opacandum hunc locum patulis est 
diffusa ramis. Cic. Propatulus, open into the wide dis- 
tance, so that everybody may see or go thither; of free, 
open places of considerable length and breadth: In pro pa- 
tulis epulati sunt. Liv., in the open street. 

773. Patina, Lanx, Magis, Catinus, Patella, Scutula. 
The larger dishes on the tables of the Romans were : Pdtt' 
na, wide and deep, also with a cover; Lanx, deeper, sweep- 
ing out; Mdgis, idis, and Magida, ce, similar to the 
Lanx; Cdtlnus and Caiinum, a. basin or similar vessel 
for semi-liquids, gravies, &c. Smaller were the Patella, 
and the four-cornered Scutula or Scut ell a. 

774. Patronus (Cliens), Advocatus, Causidicus, Cog- 
NiTOR, Procurator ; Patrocinium, Clientela, Tutela. 
Patronus, in the early times, a patrician, who, as protector, 
had received a plebeian, in order to defend him in every legal 
cascj for which the latter, as Cliens, honored him as father, 
served him with his fortune and even life ; neither was p^t- 


338 775. Patruus. 

mitted to act in any way hostilely against the other. At later 
periods, a similar relation existed in Rome between the mas- 
ter, as Patronus^ and his manumitted slave, as Cliens; 
in the Jtis applicaiionis^ if a foreigner attached himself to 
one of the Roman magnates as client, or entire places or 
countries placed themselves under the patronship of a power- 
ful family, as the Sicilians had the Marcelli for patrons, 
through whom their affairs were carried on. We have seen 
something not quite unlike, though but passing, with reference 
to Canada and some members of Parliament. Hence, in gen- 
eral, a protector, and the legal assistant who spoke in court 
for the client : Clarissimi viri nostra civitatis hoc sihi am» 
plissimum ducebant^ ah hospitibus clientihusque suis inju' 
rias propulsarc eorumque fortunas defendere. Cic. Tanto 
opere apud nostros justitia culta est^ ut^ qui civitates out na' 
iiones devictas hello in fidem recepissent^ earum p'atroni 
essent more majorum. Id. Ego huic causes patronus ex- 
stiti^ uti ne omnino desertus esset Sex. Roscius, Id. Advo» 
catus^SL legal assistant, counsel, who made himself useful tu 
a party in an action, by his presence and advice in court. 
The Advocati sat by the accused while the accuser spoke, 
until one of them rose to speak (Patronus) : Or at reus^ 
urgent advocati, *ut invehamur. Cic. Causidicus, a 
common lawyer, who is no good speaker, a talker : Inutilem 
litium advocatum, quern causidicum vulgo vocamus, 
Quinctil. In judiciis privatis, the Cognitor was the agent, 
mandaiarius, who managed in court the case of a party pres- 
ent; Procurator, 303, of a party not present. — Patro- 
cinium, the business, the paternal protection of a, patronus ; 
in general, protection, if we interest ourselves for an affair, 
e. g. aquitatis. Clientele, the relation of a cliens to his 
protector ; in the plural also for the clients themselves : Se 
in fidem et clientelam alicujus conferre. Cic. Scis, quam 
diligam Siculos, et quam illam clientelam honestam judi» 
cem. Id. Tut el a, the protectipn, as care and watching over 
the protected: In alicujus fide et clientela esse, Cic, be- 
ing some one's client. Sit in ejus tut el a Gallia, cujus vir- 
tuti commendata est. Id., standing under the superintendence 
and protection ; hence, the guardianship, the legal authority 
to take the person and property of a minor under protection 
and superintendence : Tut el a ad eorum utilitatem, qui com' 
missi sunt, gerenda est, Cic. 

775, Patruus, Avunculus ; Frater patruelis, ger- 

776. Paucus. 778. Peculatus. 339 

MANUS. Patruus^ brother of the father, uncle; Avuncu* 
Zu 5, brother of the mother, uncle; Avunculus magnus^ 
major^ brother of the grandmother : Ne sis pair uus mihi. 
Hor., meaning a moralizer, on account of the severity of the 
uncles compared to the indulgence at the hands of the fathers. 
Octavianus Ccesaris cognomen assumsit testamenio majoris 
avunculi. Suet. — Prater (soror) ^? air we Zi 5, son of the 
patruus^ used of the children of two brothers; Prater ger- 
manus {soror germana), the brother, if children have the 
same parents, or at least have the same father or mother : 
Ihia noMscum erat L. Cicero^ f rater noster cognatione pa* 
truelis^ amore germanus. Cic. Marcus, the father of the 
orator M. Cicero, and Lucius, father of L. Cicero, were 
brothers, sons of the elder M. Cicero. 

776. Paucus, Rarus. Paucus^ generally in the plural 
Pauci (belongs to paidum^ 769), few, in no considerable 
number, opp. muLti; Rarus, standing singly and far apart, 
opp. densus^frequens; rare, not frequently occurring : PaU' 
CIS temeriias est bono, muliis malo. Phaedr. Britanni nun- 
quam conferti, sed rari magnisque intervallis prcdiahantur, 
Caes. Raros colligis hinc et hinc capillos. Martial. 

777. Pauper, Indigus, Egenus, Inops, Mendicus. Pau^ 
per (for pavher^ belongs to paulum^ properly, he who has 
been reduced to the very ceasing), the poor, who has not 
much for his support, and has to limit his expenses, opp. di- 
ves : Mqua lege pauperi cum divite non licet, Plaut. /n- 
dtgus, 177, in great want, one who has a distinct, specific, 
urgent want, for which, in prose, indigens: Canes ColO' 
phoniis erant fdelissima auxilia, nee stipendiorum in dig a. 
Plin. Egenus, 177, indigent, he who suffers want in the 
necessary, or at least in the indispensable, things of life ; more 
common eg ens, opp. ahundans : Eg en a aquarum regie. 
Tac. Inops, helpless, one who stands in need of help and 
assistance : In op s auxilii humani, Liv. Samniies, coacti 
in opes ad opulentiorum auxilium confugere. Id. Mendi- 
cus {menda), poor, like a beggar, a beggar, of the highest 
degree of destitution: JEqv^ mendicus atque ille opuleu' 
tissimus censetur mortuus* Plaut. 

778. Peculatus, Repetundje. Peculatus {peculari^ 
embezzling or otherwise unlawfully appropriating common 
property), a theft of state property, originally of cattle (be- 
longing to the community), later also of money ; hence. 
Peculator and Depeculator, who embezzles public. 

340 779. Pejerare, 78$^. Penetrare. 

and also private money, one who keeps it faithlessly : Ssster' 
Hum sepiies millies averlisse Antonium pectmice pMicce judi' 
cavistis. Num fraude poterit carere peeulatus? Cic. 
Peculator' Veientance prcedce reus /actus. Liv. Repe- 
tundcB^ sc. res, pecunice, extortions by Roman magistrates in 
the provinces ; when they had levied unlawful taxes, accepted 
presents, arrogated precious articles and other things of value ; 
if they were convicted of this offence, they were obliged to 
refund: Siliu^ et uxor Sosia repetundarum criminihus 
harehant. Tac. L. Piso Frugi legem de pecuniis repe- 
tundis primus tuUt. Liv. 

779. Pejerare, Falsum jurare. Pejerare^ also Per» 
jurare, being perjured, or becoming so, knowingly taking 
a false oath, or breaking an oath ; Falsum jurare, swear- 
ing something false without intention or knowledge, affirming 
with an oath an untruth which we consider true : Qui mentiri 
soletf pejerare consuevit, Cic. Non enim fa I sum jura- 
re perjurare est; sed, quod ex animi tui sententia 
juraris, id non facer e perjurium est. Id. 

780. Pellere, Fugare. Pell ere, pushing, thrusting, or 
driving away, e. g. possessores suis sedihus : Hostium acies 
pulsa atque injugamconversa est, Csbs. i^Mg are, putting 
to flight, chasing away: Hostes fusi etfugati, Cic. Si 
mihi defendendum sit, eum, qui pulsus fug atus que sit^ 
non esse dejectum. Id. 

781. Pendere, Pensare, Pensitare, Trutinari. Pen-' 
dere (dis - pennere, tentering), keeping in a pending posi- 
tion, weighing, weighing out, see 706 ; paying (which con- 
sisted originally in weighing out) : THbutum populo Romano 
pendere, Liv., and intransitive weighing, having a certain 
weight : Talentum ne minus pondo octoginta Romania pon- 
deribus p end at. Tropical, estimating, judging : Te ex vir» 
tute tua pendimus ; Res spectatur, non verba pen dun- 
tur, Cic. Pensare, Pensitare, weighing out and oflT, 
with greater accuracy and care : Centurionem, pensantem^ 
aurum, occiderent. Liv. Monent, ut ex factis, non ex dictis^ 
amicos pens en t. Id. Concilia, pens it an da magnis ani- 
mis atque ingeniis. Id., weighing (in the sense of the German 
erwdgen). Trutinari, 634, weighing a subject with the 
finest observation : Exporrecto truiinantur verba labdlo, 

782. Penetrare, Permanare, Pervadere. Penetrare^ 
entering with exertion, arriving at the inner space of a thing, 

783. Per. 341 

by exertion against the resistance offered by the sides of a 
thing, penetrating : Ostium Ponti viderunt^ et eas angustias^ 
per quas penetravit Argo. Cic. Res penetrat in ant' 
mos. Id. Permanare^ fiotoing through a passage, arriving 
at a place, as far as that place ; is used of gradual, progressive 
motion in a certain course : Ex alvo succus is^ quo alimur^ 
permanat ad jecur per quasdam vias. Cic. Pervadere, 
penetrating through and as far as a place, working through 
difficulties : Arminio GalliccB cohortes signa ohjecerunt ; nisu 
tamen corporis et impetu equi pervasit, Tac. Fama urbem 
pervasit. Liv., diffusing. 

783. Pee, Trans. Per, through, of a motion along the 
inner space of a thing, from one end to another, refers espe- 
cially to the centre of the space to be penetrated, the passage, 
transit ; Trans, on the other side, beyond, of a motion as fkr 
as, and to the end of a thing on the other side, the obtaining 
of this final pomt, and the beginning of that which is beyond, 
the getting over, beyond : Erat iter nnum per Sequanos^ vix 
qua singuli carri ducerentur. Cses. ; also over^ if we speak 
of surfaces, on which much space remains on both sides of 
the course of him who passes over them ; otherwise the mere 
Ablative is used: Iter per Alpes patefacere, Caes. Hostes 
circumventi se per munitiones dejicere et fuga salutem pe- 
tere intenderunt. Id. In foro pompa constitit^ inde vice 
Tusco Velahro que^ per Boarium forum in <Bdem Junonis 
perrectum, Liv. Servium elatum e curia in inferiorem par» 
tern per gradus dejicit. Id., down the stairs. Velitemi sunt 
jvssi trans Tiherim hahitare. Id. Nuntii trans mare 
missi, Cic. Multas aves frigidus annus trans pontum ju- 
gat. Virg. 

In compounds, per signifies sometimes the continuation of 
an action up to its completion, e. g. peragere^ perorare ; some- 
times the highest degree of perfection, as our through and 
through, throughout, e. g. pervelle, pemegare ; sometimes to 
the carrying out of an action until the entire destruction of its 
object, e. g. perdere^ perimere^ perjidus. Trans retains its 
meaning unchanged, and shows it by orthography ; but, if its 
own meaning unites with the radical significaticm of the verb 
in such a manner that a new idea is produced, the sounds of 
this particle likewise are fused with the verb ; hence we have 
only iranscurro, transgredior^ generally also, transmitto^ 
transveho ; but trado^ trano, trajicio^ and, with Cicero now 
and then, tramitto^ traveho^ traoerto, 


342 783. Per. 

1. Perfuga, deserter, from faithlessness and bad inten- 
tion; Transfuga^ from dissatisfaction with his party, or 
thoughtlessness: Perfuga, qui societatem cum ipsis adver- 
sariis coiit. Cic. Numidce specie transfugarum in cas" 
tra venerunt^ ut inde, tempore capto, abirent. Liv. — 2. Per" 
ftdus, perfidious, faithless, who intentionally acts contrary 
to his obligation voluntarily entered upon, and thus injures the 
rights of another; Infldus, unfaithful, who abandons or de- 
viates from a voluntary obligation, in general not to be de- 
pended upon in words or deeds : Perjidos amicos vlciscar 
nihil credendo atque ojnnia caveiido. Cic. Tarquinium exsU' 
lantem ferunt intellexisse, quos Jidos amicos habuissetj quos 
infidos^ quum jafn neutris gratiam referre posset. Id. — 
3. Permutare^ changing throughout, exchanging in barter- 
ing; Commutare^ changing for another thing; by Per^ 
mutare^ the places of two things are changed; by Commu- 
tare, the one thing is placed on the spot of the other; 
Immutare, altering, designates the passing over into another 
state: NumidcB appellaii Nom^des a permutandis pahu- 
lis. Plin. India cb& et plumbum gemmis suis ac margaritis 
permutat. Id. Ftires earum rerum, quas ceperunt, signa 
commutant. Cic. Adjuncti verhi primam literam prapo^ 
siiio commutavit^ut suffugit, summutavit. Cic. Regth 
lusde captivts commutandis Romam missus est. Id. Non 
exspectata a Fahio senatus auctoritas est in permutandis 
captivis. Liv., there they should be exchanged, here they 
were ransomed. Plato negat mutari posse musicas lege9 
sine immutatione legum puhlicarum. Cic. , giving a differ- 
ent form befitting to that which has been changed. Vestes 
mutare, putting on different, generally mourning dress; 
commutare or vestem cum aliquo mutare, exchanging 
dress with one another : lllico Amphitruo fio et vestUum i«n- 
muto meum. Plaut., changing them. — 4. Perspicere^see^ 
ing through a thing, to the ground of it; Prospicere^ see- 
ing out into a distance, foreseeing a thing : Sepes effeceratUj 
quo non modo intrari, sed ne perspici quidem posset. Csbs. 
Ex vultu meum erga te amorem perspicere potuisses. Cic. 
Ex superiorihus locis prospicere inurhem. Cses. Pro' 
spicere futura. Ter. Consulite vobis, prospiciie pa^ 
tri<B. Cic, watching over. — 5. Pervertere, reversing, so 
that something perpendicular is placed in an oblique, wrong 
position, upsetting : Coqui aulas pervertunt, ignem restiti' 
guunt aqua. Plaut. Ccesar omnia jura pervert it propter 

784. Percellere. 786. Perdere, 343 

principatum, Cic. Pervertere aliquem^ throwing down, 
ruining. Evertere, 339. Suhvertere, subverting, up- 
setting, by exertion from below upward : GalbcB imagines 
discordia temporum suhversas^in omnibus municipiis re- 
colijussit. Tac. 

784. Percellere, Percittere. Percellere^ throwing 
to the ground by a severe, violent blow, thrust : Ventus plauS' 
trum oneratum percelliL Cato. Duodecim adolescentU" 
lorum paucitate perculsa est Lacedcemoniorum potentia, 
Nep. ; hence, Perculsus, surprised, Stupefied, embarrassed 
and stupefied by sudden and violent impressions, e. g. pavo' 
re J metu, clade^ deorum ira : Grcecia jam diu suis conciliis 
perculsa et affiicta est, Cic. Percutere^ 523, shaking 
through and through by one blow or thrust; Percussus^ 
hit, of a more transitory, acute impression : Percussus vir- 
ga ; turres de codo percusses. Cic. Fortunce gravissimo 
perculsus vulnere. Id., al. percusstis. Non dubito^ quin 
tales viri, suspicione aliqua percussi repentina^ de statu 
suo declinarint. Id., al, perculsi, 

785. Percussor, Interfector, Sicarius, Homicida, Par- 
RiciDA. Percussor^ murderer, who kills by thrusts, pon- 
iard : Percussor^ab isto missus, deprehensus cum sica, Cic. 
Interfector, one who kills violently: Cum interfecto» 
ris gloria interfici, Cic. Sicarius, an assassin, bandit, 
who only used the dirk, stiletto: Vetus sicarius, homo 
audax et scepe in cade versatus. Cic. Homicida, a man- 
slayer, a homicide (as person) ; Parrictda,Si father-slayer, 
parent-slayer, and in general, every malefactor who commits 
crimes as black as parricide : Fateor Brutos et Cassios, nisi 
liber atores populi Romani sint, plus quam sicarios, plus 
quam homicidas, plus etiam quam parricidas esse: 
siquidem est atrocius patria parentem, quam suum ocddC' 
re, Cic. 

786. Perdere, Pessum dare ; Perike, Pessum ike ; Per- 
DiTUs, Profligatus. Perdcrc, spoiling, ruining: Jupiter 
fruges perdidit, Cic. Rem patemam luxuria perdere. 
Plant., wasting, squandering. Pessum {foot-ward, i. e. 
downward, to the bottom) dare, allowing a thing to go to th^ 
ground, destroying it: Ita pessum dare alteram vult, ut 
etiam navem perforet, in qua ipse navigat. Cic. Animus ad 
inertiam et voluptates corporis pessumdatus est. Sail. 
Per ire, 101, perishing ; Pessum ire, goingXo destruction : 
Pompeius, Scipio fxde perierunt; at Cato prceclare^ Cic 

344 787. Peristroma. 790. Peroratio. 

In quibusdam stagnis ne lapides quidem pes sum eunt. Se- 
nec. Pes sum ituros fecundissimos Italia compos^ si a«u 
nis Nar superstagnavisseL Tac. — Perditus^ ruined, lost 
without hope, respecting fortune or morality : Plane perdu 
tus are alieno egensque. Cic. Adolescens perditus ac 
dissolutus. Id. Prof lig a tus, 419^ throwa to the ground, 
ruined to exhaustion, abandoned: Moerore qfflictus et pro* 
fligatus, Cic. Nemo est inventus tarn profligatus^ tarn 
perditus, tam ah omni non modo honestate, sed etiam simu' 
latione honestatis relictus. Id. 

787. Peristroma, Stragulum, Tapes *. Tapetitm, Pe- 
RiPETASMA, AuLJEUM, SiPARiUM. Peristromu {negioTov 
/ua), and Stragulum, Stragula vestis, a cover, which 
was spread over the bed, generally costly : Lecti conchyliatis 
peristromatis strati, Cic. Tapes, Tapetum^ a car- 
pet, generally woolly, with colored figures woven in, to cover 
tables, walls, floors, &c. Est et hirtce lance pilo crasso in 
tapetis antiquissima gratia. AUter Jusc Galli pingtmt^ 
aliter Parthorum gentes. Plin. Peripetasma, an orna- 
mental carpet for walls and floors : Ilia Attalica tota Sicilii 
nominata peripetasmata. Cic. Aulaum, the curtain or 
drop in the theatre : Mimi est jam exitus, non faJndtB : au^ 
IcBum tollitur. Cic, rises; at the beginning of the piece it 
was let down. Stpdrium, the curtain in the comedy: jS^ 
parium, quo in scenis mimi utuntur. Fest. 

788. Perna, Petaso. Pern a, the ham, as hind-quarter; 
Petdso, as fore-quarter, down to the knee: Olus fumoBa 
cum pede perna. Hor. 

789. Pernicies, Exitium, Ruina. Perntcies (nev), 
the violently destroying, that is, ruining of a living being, the 
making it perishing, opp. solus; Exitium, the end and exit, 
the tragical end, destruction, also of inanimate bodies ; Ru' 
in a, the breaking together, downfall, fall which is accompa- 
nied with the destruction of the thing falling, e. g. condoms ; 
Verres, lobes atque pernicies provincia Sidlia, Cic. Len- 
tulus de pernicie populi Romani et exitio hujus urhia 
acerhe crudeliterque cogitavit. Id. Ruina sfortunarum tua^ 
rum impendere tihi proximis Idihus senties, k1. 

790. Peroratio, Conclusio, Epilogus, Claxtsitla. The 
last, especially elaborate part of a speech, according to the 
rules of art, is Peroratio, inasmuch as the oration is now 
carried through ; Conclusio, a.s conclusion, which compre- 
hends the chief points and moments ; Epilogus^ as aadU 

791. Ferversus, 794. Petere. 346 

tion, after-speech: Conclusio {et quasi per or alio) est 
exitus et determinatio totius orationis, Cic. Orator in epi* 
logo misericordiam movet. Id. Clausula^ the concluding 
formula, e. g. of a letter ; also a short passage in a document, 
which is peculiarly excepted, or receives a peculiar destina- 
tion, e. g. edicti: Utar ea clausula, qua soleo. Cic. 

791. Perversus, PRiEPosTERUS. Perversus^ 783, 5, 
reversed, not as it should be ; oculi, unnaturally turned ; per' 
verso more. Cic, perverse, wicked. Prceposterus^ihaX 
which ought to be behind, or at the end, if it is not there, out 
of order, in a perverse manner, said or done at a wrong time, 
preposterous, e. g. gratulatio : Prcsposteris utimur coh^ 
siliis et acta agimus, Cic. 

792. Pervigil, Pernox. Pervz^tZ, very, always watch- 
ful : Gustos opaci pervigil regni canis. Senec. Pernox^ 
lasting through the whole night: Luna pernox erat. Liv. 

793. Pestis, Pestilentia, Lues, Contagio, Contagium, 
Pestis (belongs to pejor, hestia), every pernicious, disastrous 
evil, bringing ruin ; in concreto, imagined as fiend, angel of 
death ; Pestilentia, pest, and every similar malignant and 
devastating malady in the abstract, also as a quality of places, 
atmosphere, and weather, which creates such maladies, pesti- 
lence : Alii alia peste absumti. Liv., i. e. clade. Ilia fu' 
ria ac pestis patrice. Cic, i. e. Clodius, Pestilentia 
eo anno aliarum rerum otium prcebuit, Multa duumviri 
avertendcE a populo pestis causa fecere. Liv. Lues, the 
widely diffused, impure, and slowly destroying substance of 
malady, infection: Gravem populis luem sparsura pestis. 
Martial. Contagio, poetical Contagium (tangere), the 
contagious substance: Nee mala vicini pecoris contagia 
IcBdent. Virg. 

794. Petere, Postulare, Flagitare, Poscere. Pile- 
re, desiring, striving to reach, obtain something, and, in this 
sense, begging, e. g. consulatum, honores, asking for a thing ; 
A te opem petimus. Cic. Per literas ille precihus a 
Sulla petit, ut. Id. Reliquum est, ut te hoc rogem et a te 
pet am, ne temere naviges. Id. Postulare {poscere), de- 
manding with reasons of right and equity, making claims, 
postulating: Quum tempus necessitasque postulat, decertan' 
dum manu est. Cic. Darius postulabat magis, quam pe^ 
tebat, ut, accepta pecunia, suos sibi restitueret. Curt. Fl di- 
git are, demanding urgently, impetuously, admonishing: 
Postulatur a te Jam diu, vel flagiiatur potius his* 

346 795. Piare. 796. Pigel. 

toria. Cic. Qui metuo ne te forte flag i tent: ego auUm 
mundavi^ ut rogarent. Id. Poscere^ demanding something 
absolutely, in the expectation that it must be granted, fur- 
nished, &c. : Nemo inventus est tarn audax^ qui illud argeU' 
turn tarn nohile posceret; nemo torn impudens, qui postu» 
laret^ut venderet. Cic. Iste unus inventus est^ qui parentes 
pretium pro sepultura liberum posceret. Id. Ex strength- 
ens these meanings: Expetuntur divitice ad usus vit<B 
necessarios, Cic, desiring strongly, 301. Vix tu ah aliquo 
hoc expostulare auderes^ et impetr are posses. Id., earnest- 
ly, urgently asking. Vester honos petit us,, nee diuiumis 
precibus ejflagiiatus esse videtur. Id., assaulting with 
demands, forced out by begging. Admetus^ quum Themia* 
iocles ah Atheniensihus exposceretur pMice^ supplicem 
nan prodidit. Nep., urgently asking for delivery. 

795. Piare (Piaculum), Expiare, Procurare, Lustra- 
re. Piare, showing one^s self as pious, religious, and thus 
endeavouring to avert the wrath of the gods : Principes fid' 
gura pianto, Cic. Silvanum lade piahant, Hor., recon- 
ciling ; hence Piaculum^a sacrifice of atonement : Pyrrhus 
cum magno piaculo sacrilegii sui manuhias retulit. Liv. 
Expiare, reconciling by a sacrifice, freeing from sin : Mori 
omnia, qiuB violata sunt, expiari putantur. Cic. ProcU' 
rare, taking care that the evil consequences of a bad omen 
be averted : Prodigia parum credita, quia, per quos ea pro' 
curarent, aruspices non erant, Liv. Lustrare (lucere)^ 
properly, shedding light upon a thing, viewing; purifying 
something by a sacrifice of purification, which sacrifice was 
led around the object to be purified : Rex instructum exercUum 
omnem suov etaurilibus lustravit, Liv. 

796. PiGET, PCENITET, TjEDET, PuDET. PlgCt (bcloUgS 

to pangere), it is mortifying, causes displeasure, distaste: 
Referre pi get, quid crediderint homijies, Liv. Ne quid 
faxit, quod nos post pig eat, Ter. P(£nitet,\\\a painful, 
it makes us regret, repent: Sapientis est, nihil, quod pceni' 
tere possit, facere, Cic. ( Milites) pcenitet in posterum 
diem dilatum certamen, Liv., they felt pain from impatience 
and desire to fight. Tcb det, it disgusts, efiect of surfeit, dis- 
taste at uniformity: Tee det quotidianarum harum forma' 
rum, Ter. Tcedet audire eadem millies. Id. Pudere^ 
being ashamed, used of the feeling of displeasure at our ex- 
posure, in whatever way : Me non solum pi get stuitituz me^ 
sed etiam pudet. Orat. p. Domo. 

797. Pila. 801. Placet, 347 

797. Pila, Follis, Globus, SpHiERA. PtZa, a ball in 
general, especially for game: Pila ludere. Cic. Follis, 
properly, bellows ; the balloon or ball filled with air, which 
was propelled by the arm or the fist: Ego te foil em pugi' 
latorium faciam. Plant. Globus^ a ball, as firm, round 
body, globe : Globus terrcB fixus in medio mundi loco, Cic. 
Sphcera^ a perfectly round globe, especially an artificial 
globe of the earth or heaven. 

798. PiLEus, Petasus, Galerus, Apex, Tutulus, Cu- 
cuLLUS. Pileus^ a. cap of felt, similar to the half of an egg, 
used as general name: Servi ad p ileum vocati, Liv., the 
sign of manumission. Petasus {niTaaog)^ a travelling hat, 
with a wide rim: P etas at i veniunt iabellarii, Cic. Ga- 
lerus, a cap of fur: Lupi de pelle galeros tegmen habent 
capiti. Virg. Apex^ 89 {apere^ apisci)^ a high, conical hat, 
provided with a small stick at the top : Apex sacerdotum in' 
signe, Fest. Tm/mZws, a woollen cap, similar to a pyramid 
{meta)^ as the Jlamines and pontifices wore; Cucullus, a 
cowl, pointed, and fastened to the dress : Tempora Santonico 
velas adoperta cucullo. Juvenal. 

799. PiNGERE, Adumbrare, Delineare. Ping ere (be- 
longs to pangere), putting colors on, painting: Britanniam 
ping am coloribus tuis, Cic. Ping ere acu. Ovid., em- 
broidering. Adumbrare, throwing shade upon something, 
taking the shade of something, that is, making a hasty draw- 
ing, sketching, as to the chief traits : Consectatur non eminen- 
tern effigiem, sed adumbratam imaginem, Cic. DelinC' 
arc, making a sketch : Apelles, arrepto carbone, imaginem 
in pariete delineavit, Plin. 

800. PiNGUis, Opimus, Obesus. Pinguis (pangere), 
fat, of thick, solid mass of flesh, opp. macer, e. g. agnus : 
Ager pinguis ac IcetuSi Colum. ; hence heavy, clumsy: 
CordubcB nati poeta, pingue quiddam sonantes ac perigri' 
num. Cic. Agamus pingui Minerva. Id., not taking it too 
nicely. Opimus, of healthy fulness, plump, e. g. boves : 
Non tam habitus corporis dptmos, quam gracilitates conseC' 
tantur. Cic Opimum et tamquam adipale dictionis genus. 
Id., very clumsy, Spolia opima, arms which a general 
had taken from his enemy. Obesus, corpulent, well-fed, 
thick and round: In equo generoso brevis alvus obesaque 
terga. Virg. 

801. Placet, Libet. Placet, it pleases, it is found 
good, designates pleasure in something which we recognise as 

348 802. Plag(2. 803. Plaga. 

right; Lthet, designates pleasure in something which we 
desire: Placet milii^ monumentum fieri quam amplissimum. 
Cic.| I am for. Placitum^ ut epistola nomine PrinHpis 
scriherentur, Tac, it was found well, it was resolved. Nan 
lihet plura scribere. Cic. I do not like, have no disposition* 
Libitum est vobis ad hcBc impellere. Id., it has been 

802. Plagje, Retia, Casses ; Verriculum, Everriculum. 
Pldg{B^a smaller, strong hunter's net, to catch larger ani- 
mals, in hollow roads, passages; properly, the ropes with 
which the Retia was put up ; Retia {Rete^ obsolete Retis^ 
a net of gridiron form in general), is a larger net with wider 
meshes, for game of all kinds, birds, &c. ; Casses, a, net, so 
arranged that larger animals would entangle their head : Aut 
trudit cane apros in obstantes plagas ; aut amite levi rara 
tendit retia, turdis edacibus dolos, Hor. Decidit in caS' 
ses prcBda petita meos. Ovid. — Verriculum, generally 
Everriculum, a net, seine, a net surrounding a large part 
when the ends are drawn together or out on shore, to catch 
fish ; Rete and Rete jaculum^ a throwing net, also called 
Fund ay of the form of a funnel, with leaden balls at the 
wider end, which in pulling out could be drawn together by a 
string : Everriculo in litus educere pisces. Varr. In piS" 
cinam rete qui jaculum parat, quando abiit rete pessum^ 
turn adducit sini^m. Plant. 

803. Plaga, Vulnus, Cicatrix, Ulcus; Plagje, Ictus, 
Verbera. Plaga, the blow, stroke, stripe, thrust of him 
who gives them, and the wound caused thereby; Vulnus^ 
ancient Volnus (vellere), the open wound (in the wounded 
person) : Ccedebaiur virgis, quum interea nullus gemitus inter 
dolor em crepitumqv,e plagarum audiebatur, Cic. Vu Inus 
obligare. Id. ; hence, an acute injury, disgrace, loss, and 
grief about it, as we use the word in the same way : FlamV' 
nius cecidit apud Trasimenum cum mdgno rei publiccR vul' 
nere. Cic. Cicatrix, the wound grown over, scar, seam, 
cicatrice : Luculentam mirmillo pi a gam accepit, ut declarat 
cicatrix, Cic. . Ulcus, an ulcer hid under the skin, a 
wound, the matter of which extends deeper and further : Si 
parum medicamenta proficiunt, totum ulcus usque ad sanam 
camem excidi oportet, Cels. — Plaga, wee the blows, inas- 
much as they injure, wound : Ictus, inasmuch as they hit 
(tell) ; Verbera, stripes, with reference to the instrument, 
which is swung: Aliquot plagis Eumenes vtdneraiur. Nep. 

804. Plaudere. 807. Pluma. 349 

Ah ictu telorum tuti remiges, Caes. Hos non Centaufus 
ictus corpori infiixit meo. Cic. Nudari juvenem juhet^ 
verb era que adferri, Liv. 

804. Plaudere, Plangere, Explodere, Supplodere. 
The beating together of two surfaces, producing a sound, is 
called Plaudere^ clapping, if it indicates joy ; Plangere 
(pldga)^ beatings if it indicates mourning : Manus in plau* 
den do consumer e. Cic, manifesting approval or satisfaction 
by the clapping of hands. Morientes adspicit Alphenar^ 
pectora plangens, Ovid, Explodere^ driving away by 
clapping, stamping ; hence, showing dissatisfaction in the 
theatre, &c, what we call hissing. Explosa sententia^ 
thrown aside ; Supplodere^ stamping strongly. 

805. Plenus, Refertus; Im — Com — Opplere. Pie* 
nus, full ; Refertus (farcire)^ crammed full, entirely full : 
Aquam ingere^ fac plenum aenum sit. Plaut. Numerus 
plenus; adolescens ingenii plenus, Cic. Cupce tceda ac 
pice refer tee. Caes. Insula referta divitiis. Ci&. — Im» 
plere^ filling something that is empty, hollow : mero pate^ 
ram. Virg. C o mp I ere, filling completely : cavernas 
milite. Virg. Omnia clamore ac Jletu. Caes. Opplere, to 
the very brim, overfilling, and covering some surface by fill- 
ing something: Nives omnia oppleverant, Liv. Vetus 
opinio GrcBciam opplevit. Cic. 

806. Plerique, Plurimi ; Plerumque, Plurimum. Pie* 
rique (as quisque, vierque), most of them, the largest num- 
ber, or very many, in the meaning of insulation; see Com- 
plures, 704. Plurimi, most of them, taken together, as 
the largest number referring to smaller ones ; it is the super- 
lative of multus': Multi nihil prodesse philosophiam, pleri- 
que etiam obesse arbitrantur. Cic, imagined separately; 
hence, Quod plerique omnes faciunt adolescentuli, ut 
animum ad aliquod studium adjungant. Ter., inasmuch as to 
all constituting the largest number, the same can be ascribed, 
but not plurimi omnes. Anseribus supponuntur ova pauds* 
sima septem, plurima quindecim. Colum. Deum ipsum 
multi perhibent Msculapium; quidam Osirim, plerique 
Jovem, plurimi Ditem patrem conjectant. Tac. Accord- 
ingly, Plerumque, generally, very often : Fit plerumque 
casu, stBpe naiura, Cic. Hac ipsa fortuita sunt: plerum^ 
qu^e enim, non semper eveniunt. Id. Plurimum, mostly: 
Purpura vivunt annis plurimum septenis. Plin. 

807. Pluma, Penna, Pinna. PZttma, thedown-feathex: 


350 808. Pluvia. 811. Polliceri. 

Plum<B versicolor es columhis data sunt. Cic. Penna^ the 
larger wing-feather, also the wing itself: Pulverem pennis 
deter gere, Plin. Gallin<B pullos pennis fovent, Cic. Pin- 
na, a thick, stiff, and longer feather : Galli caudis magnis, 
frequentibus pinnis. Varr. Pinna data pisctbus, Plin., 

808. Pluvia, Imber, Nimbus. Pluvia^ sc, aqua^ rain- 
water, the rain, inasmuch as it is moistening, irrigating : 
Aquas pluvias arcere. Cic. Tenues pluvia, Virg. /m- 
ier, the heavy, pouring shower, which is violent, but does 
not last long: Vehemens imber Jit impete venti: at pluvia, 
longum morari consueruni, Lucret. Nimbus^ 729, the 
gushing rain from dark clouds, with storm : Pensi Jvnduntur 
ab athere nimbi, Ovid. 

809. PoETA, Vates. Poet a {noulv)^ the poet, who 
makes, produces, creates poems; Vates^ properly, a proph- 
et ; the poet, as inspired person : Hac conjicta arbitror a 
poetis esse, Cic. jSic honor et nomen divinis vatihus 
atque carminibus venit, Hor. 

810. PoLiRE, LiMARA, DoLARE, Levigare. Pdlirc, 
making smooth, polishing, making bright by rubbing and pol- 
ishing, e. g. arma; Orationem polire, Cic, polishing, by 
the removal of every thing defective and objectionable. Lu 
mare^ filing: gemmas, Plin., grinding. Homo urbanitate 
limatus. Cic. [The Germans use, in this case, precisely 
their word for ground,"] Dolare^ hewing, lopping, with an 
axe or similar large instrument, or similar exertion : rohur. 
Cic, of a less degree of smoothness than is indicated by poli' 
re: Ccdiusnon tractu orationis leni et aquabili perpolivit 
illud opus^ sed ut homo neque doctus neque maadme aptus ad 
dicendum, sicut potuit, dolavit. Id. Lev are and Livi^ 
gare, smoothing, removing roughness and unevenness : Le^ 
vigatur falce truncus, Plin. 

811. Polliceri, Promittere (Condicere), Sponderb, 
Despondere, Stipulari, Recipere. Polliceri^ promis» 
ing, in the sense of ofiering one^s self to something from a 
free action of the raind : Operam suam alicui pollieerii is 
the offer with words ; offer re^ the offer of prompt services 
in deed. Promittere^ promising for Uie future, and 
obliging one^s self to some performance, in contradistincticm 
to the prompt performance : Atticus^ quidquid rogahatur^ 
religiose promittebat; quod levis arbUralur^ pollicB^ 
riy quod prastare non posset, Nep. Polliceri 

812. Pomum. 813. Pondus. 851 

nates only willingness; promittere, the realization of the 
promise, but delayed for some future period. Promittere 
alicui ad ccenam^ accepting an invitation for the cmna; con» 
dicer e^ inviting one's self, without invitation on the part of 
the other, sending word that we will take our dinner with a 
friend. iSj9owd ere, vowing, solemnly promising or engag- 
ing, with guaranty and legally binding power ; pro aliquo^ 
becoming bail for another, guaranty, e. g. in money matters. 
Sttpulariy asking another, in a legal form, whether he is 
willing to promise something legally and formally, making 
another solemnly promise: Phcedromus. Spondesne^ 
miles ^ mihi hanc uxorem ? Mi les» Spondeo, Plant., by this 
the contract was legally binding. Fenoris tui^ quod stipU' 
lanti spoponderam tibi^ reliquam pensiunculam percipe. 
Colum. Despondere (properly, giving away from one: 
Cives desponderant animos. Liv., giving up, away, the 
courage), giving a formal, solemn promise, used in matrimo- 
nial vows, when, after proper asking {stipulatio)^ the father 
of the bride promised {spondehat) the hand of his daughter, 
and thus gave her away (despondehat) ; and when the per- 
son who wished to marry accepted (despondehat) the promise 
of the father; hence it can never be said despondere adO' 
lescentem: Tvlliolam Pisoni despondimus. Cic. Comi' 
jicius adolescens Orestill<B Jlliam sibi despondit. Id. jRe- 
cipere alicui^ taking something upon one's self for another, 
giving the assurance that we will stand guaranty for the ful- 
filment of the promise or engagement of another, guaranty- 
ing : Promitto in meque recipio^ fore Varronem tihi et 
voluptali et usui. Cic. 

812. PoMDM, Malum, Bacca. Pomum^ every edible 
tree fruit: Pom a mensis non interdicta secundis, Ovid., 
nuts. Mdlum^ larger fruits with kernels, apples, pomegran- 
ates, peaches, lemons, with the exception of pears ( pirum) : 
Puero aurea mala decern misi. Virg., quinces. Bacca^ 
ancient Baca^ berry, every smaller sort of round berry of 
trees and shrubs, olives, fruit of cedars, juniper, &c. : Lauri 
bacccB, Virg. 

813. Pondus, Pondo, Momentum, Onus. Pondus^ a 
body which has weight, gravity, as weight to measure, and 
the weight or measure of heaviness of a body : In terram fc" 
runtur omnia nutu suo pond era, Cic. Pondo (indeclina- 
ble), pounds and as Ablative, in weight ; it is only measure 
of weight: Auri quinqvfi pondo abstiUit. Cic. Momen^^ 

3^ 614. Pone. 816. Popina. 

tum^ 699, the body which, placed in one of the balanced 
scales, gives the preponderance to the latter: Chtysippua 
omnia verhorum momentis^ nan rerum ponderibus ex» 
aminat, Cic. Onus^ burden, the weight, inasmuch as it 
weighs upon the supporter, ofiering resistance to it : Asellius 
grooms dorso subiit onus, Hor. 

814. Pone, Post, A. Pone, behind, only of locality, in 
the back, rear of a subject, obsolete; Post, afler, behind, 
local of order and rank, and of time ; A, afler, from behind» 
only in the sense of distance : Animal et ante et pone pro» 
cedehat. Cic, backward. Pone castra pabulatum ibarU, 
Liv. Post tergum adorire hostem, Cses., in the rear, in 
the back, designates the position of the attacking behind the 
enemy; a tergo adoriri, Id., the situation of the enemy 
endangered in the direction of his rear, QuariiLs a vie» 
tori a mensis. Tac, after, since, from the victory. 

815. PoNERE, Deponere, Reponere, Collocare, Sta- 
TVERE. Ponere, putting, placing, assigning a place, per- 
manent for some time, to a thing, e. g. mensam, pedem, arma^ 
laying down arms ; the expression deponere arma is stronger. 
Deponere, placing, depositing at a certain place for safe 
keeping, e. g. pecuniam apud aliquem: Tabula testamenti 
qvum in arario poni non poiuissent, apud Pompeium aunt 
depositee. Cses. Reponere, replacing something in its 
proper place, and depositing, placing something in a certain 
place, that it may rest there : Grues in tergo pravolantium 
capita reponunt, Cic. Collocare, 64b, placing a thing 
on a selected spot, proportionate to the thmgs around it, 
making it take its proper, respective place : sito quidque in 
loco; Ponere ccw^ra, establishing a camp ; Zo care, select- 
ing a fit place for it, locating it. Propugnatores in portis 
ponere, Liv., placing; milites in acie locare, drawing up 
the lines; in summo jugo duas legiones c olio cat, Css., 
posting them by each other. Spem ponere in aliquo, firm 
hope, with confidence; collocare in incerto temporis 
even^t^, calculated on circumstances; jS^ a ^k ere, giving the 
stand to a thing : Captivos vinctos in medio statuit. Liv. 

816. Popina, Caupone, Taberna. Popina, a cooking 
and eating shop, in the neighbourhood of a bath, where cooked 
victuals and delicacies were sold; Caupona, properly a 
wine-house; a tavern on the road; Taberna, a drinking- 
booth, where, however, a person might likewise find meus 
and lodging. 

817. Populus. -819. Posse. 853 

817. Populus, Plebs, Vulgus ; Populari, Vastaee, Vex- 
AHE. Populus, the whole people of a city, a capital with 
its territory, of a whole country, as state, that is, political so- 
ciety, 489, in contradistinction to their magistrates {princeps^ 
senaius) ; and as commons, the aggregate of the citizens, in 
contradistinction to the commonalty {plehs) : Populum 
Campanum in vestram^ P aires Conscripti, populique Ro' 
mani ditionem dedimus, Liv. Plebs, ancient Plehes, Gen. 
plebei, the common people, opp. populus and patricii, 765 ; 
also, the rabble, in the sense of contempt: Tribunum non 
populi, sed pi eh is magistratum esse. Liv. Vu Igu 5, the 
large, rude multitude, in contradistinction to the educated and 
nobly born: Sapientis judicium a judicio vulgi discrepat, 
Cic. — Populari, devastating a place, fields, e. g. agros ; 
Vast are, laying waste, making it unfit for man to dwell 
there: Omnia ferro ignique vastantur. Liv. Vexare^ 
ill-treating, causing injury and misery: Populatam, veX' 
atamque provinciam. Cic, sc. a Verre. 

818. Porta, Janua, Fores, Valvje, Ostium, Limen; 
Janitor, Ostiarius. Porta, the gate, the entrance or gate 
to a city, camp: Ante portas est helium, Liv. Jdnua^ 
entrance to the house, house door; Foris, the door which 
turns on hinges, and opens toward within, e. g. cuhiculi; 
plural Fores, a folding door, e. g. portarum: Fores in 
li?ninihus profanarum cedium janua nominantur, Cic. Va Z- 
vcB, a. door consisting of two parts, which could be placed one 
over the other: Bifores valvcB. Ovid. Ostium (for ositi» 
um, from os), the opening, mouth, e. g. jluminis; the door, 
as opening of an inner room: Aperto ostio dormire, Cic. 
Limen, the threshold, also the door, the entrance: Extra 
ostium limenque carceris. Cic. — jdwi tor, door-keeper, 
who was chained by his legs to the door : Heus ! ecquis hie 
est janitor? Aperite, Plant. Ostiarius, the servant who 
opened the door, waiting at the door. 

819. Posse, Quire, Pollere, Valere ; Potius, Satius. 
Posse (infinitive of I can), designates the possibility of ef- 
fecting something, which possibility is founded in the speaker 
himself; Quire, the possibility offered to him from without, 
if it is not prevented from thence ; something that is possible 
according to circumstances ; finding one's self in the position 
and situation to do a certain thing: Non queo reliqua scri^ 
here, tanta vis lacrymarum est, Cic. Maritimus hostis ante 
adesse potest^ quam quisquam venLurwn esse suspicari 


854 820. Potestas. 82L Praceps:. 

queat. Id. P oiler e^ being able to do much, efiect a great 
deal, of superiority, of power and means compared to othera : 
Plus pallet potior que est patre, Cic. Valere^ 129, des* 
ignates the existence of the full measure of strength for feel- 
ing well, or in order to effect something: Nos hie valemus 
recte, Cic, feeling well. Peeunia^ armis^ gratip. p oiler e, 
being superior toothers; Quamvis ingenio non valet^ arte 
valet, Ovid., proving efficient — Potius^ rather, better, des- 
ignates choice ; Satius^ better, more satisfactory, designates 
satisfaction, used only as adjective : Depugna potiuSy quam 
servias. Cic. Mori satius fuit^ quam ejusmodi neeesHiu^ 
dini obtemperare. Id. 

820. Potestas, Potentia ; Magistratus ; Impskivm^ 
DiTio. Potestas {potis)^ power for, over something, as a 
subjective quality ^ according to which we have the capacity 
and right to act: Petis a me, quod in tua potest ate est^ 
Cic, i. e. quod potes. Interrogandi tibi potestatem fa- 
dam. Id. Potentia (potens)^ power, as state and circum- 
stance, the capacity of effecting something : Plebis opes «m- 
minutcB^ paucorum potentia crevit. SalL — Potestas^ the 
power (authority) through which a person is authorized to da 
certain acts ; hence, the power of the state, a power of the 
state which exercises legally certain rights, e. g. patria ; tri^ 
bunida; Magistratus^ 535, a public office, the aggregate 
of lawful performances, duties and privileges of an officer : 
Magistratum petere^ capere^ gerere, Cic — Potestas^ 
the power with which a magistrate is invested ; Imperium, 
535, the power which a commander-in-chief exercises as 
such : Erit consul Hortensius cum summo imperio ei po^ 
testate, Cic The consuls, dictators, and prsetors had both ; 
the adiles^ qucestores^ tribuni plebis^ had only potestas, Dt- 
tio (more correctly Dicio^ from dicere^ conmiand, like 
legio)^ the territory subject to the same airthority (as the 
Germans use in the same sense the word Gebiet, from 
gebieten^ to command), the power and authority of a master 
over others under him ; the territorial extent of the authority 
of a court: Sub populi alicujus ditione aique imperio 
esse, CsBs. 

821. Pr-eceps, Declivis, Devexus, PKifiRUPTUS, Abbup- 
Tus, Abscisus (Abscissus). PrcBceps (see 326), head^ 
foremost, dashing down, precipitating: se pracipitem da^ 
re, Hor. ; and where one may be precipitated from, steep r 
Viam pracipitem et lubricam planm et siaJbUi prap(mar$^ 

822. Pracipuus. 823. Pradictio. 355 

Cic. DecZevts, sloping: In declivi ac prcecipiti loco 
incitatos equos sustinere. Cses. Devexus (see 244) , sloping, 
with less inclination, perhaps, downward, coming down : Am» 
nis devexus ah Indis. Virg. A steep surface is designated 
\yy Prmrwptus^ if there are rough protuberances and eleva- 
tions on it: Diffidlis et prceruptus descensus. Cses. Ah' 
rupius, properly, torn off, more perpendicular: Locus^ jam 
ante prceceps^ lapsu terra in pedum M altitudinem ahrup» 
tus erat. Liv. il is ciSM«, properly, cut off; if the surface 
is almost as if produced by a cut : Petra in altitudinem emu 
net^ undique ahscisa et ahrupta. Curt. {Ahscissus^ 
violently severed, torn off, with a maiming, lacerating instru- 
ment, e. g. caput,) 


SERTiM, Inprimis, Cumprimis, Apprime, Cum maxime. 
Prcecipuus^ that which we have in advance of others, ex- 
cellent : Propriam fortunam et prcecipuam posiulare^ 
communem reeusare. Cic. Princeps (pri-capere)^ he 
who occupies a forward place, or makes the beginning in a 
thing, especially as to rank : Principihus placuisse viris 
non ultima laus est. Hor. Exordium princeps omnium 
esse debet. Cic. Primarius^ belonging to the kind or 
species of the first, of the first rank and dignity : Plotius sena- 
tor^vir primarius. Cic. — PrcRcipue^ particularly, sep- 
arately from and before others: Nihil sihi appetit prcBci* 
pue. Cic. PrcRsertim^ especially, distinguishes more 
accurately, and heightens the effect : Non m& sapienticefama 
delectat^ falsa prcesertim. Cic. Imprimis^ Cumpri' 
mis^ among the first, with the first, chiefly, in preference of 
all others : Omnes hoc cupimus^ ego in primis. Cic. Homo 
domi su<2 cum primis locuples. Id. Cum maxime^ as 
much as it possibly can be: Cum maxime volo te dare 
operam ut fiat. Cic. 

823. Pr^dictio, Vaticinatio, Vaticinium, Oraculum, Re- 
SPONSUM. Prcedictio^ prediction ; Va ticinatio^ proph- 
esying, as action: Hahet fidem nostra pradiciio. Cic. 
Vaticinationes SihyllimE. Id, Fa/icintutn, the proph- 
ecy according to its contents : Plena vita esthis vaticiniis. 
Plin. Oraculum^ something spoken by the gods, is called 
Responsum^ when the oracle was given by the priests as 
answer to the person who asked the advice, permission, &c. 
of the gods (consulentibus) : Scitatum oraeula PhcM mit^ 
timus. Virg. Testimonia divina^ ut oraeula^ ut respotua 
sacerdotum, haruspicma* Cic. 

356 824. PrcBditus. 827. PnBJudickm. 

824. Prjeditus, Instructus, Obnatus. Praditus^ 
gifled, by nature or good fortune, e. g. opibus^ virttUey uuda» 
cia^ auctoritatej magistratu; Instructus^ furnished with 
something for use, and generally for any object : doctritiiSi, 
a philosophia^ a jure civili ; instructus ad ccBdem. Cic. 
Ornatus (see 389, 751), provided with things which serve 
for greater beauty, dignity, or perfection : Domicilia ornata 
signis atque picturis, in struct a que rebus iis omnibus^ qui' 
bus abundant ti, qui beati putantur. Cic. 

825. Prjeesse, Prjesidere ; Frjeficere, Pr^fonebe ; 
Prjefectus, PRiETOR, Legatus. PrcBCssCy being the head 
of an institution, with superintendence; PrcBsiderCj with 
judicial authority and protecting superintendence : Qtium kuic 
quastioni judex prceesses. Cic, as prsBtor, who superin- 
tended the trial; Vobis armatis et huic jvdicio prasiden* 
tibus hcec tanta virtus ex hac urbe expelletur7 Id. Centu- 
rions and soldiers, who have placed themselves around the 
court, shall prove their authority. — Prceficerey appointing 
as superior, superintendent, commander, designates the activ- 
ity ; Prceponere^ the rank of the place for which a person 
is appointed: Sacerdos prcepo&ita oraeulo, Cic. DemC' 
trius sepulcrorum procurationi certum magistratum prafe» 
cerat. Id. Prcefectus, a superior, in general: moribus 
or morum; (srarii, classis^ equitum, Prcetor^ was origin- 
ally the name of ihe consul ; from the year 387, A. U. C, 
the chief judge or justice ; with the Greeks, the Romans called 
the axqaxriyoq praetor: Prcetor Atheniensium et Dioxippus, 
prcefectus cohortis auxiliorum. Liv. Legatus^ 623, a 
public ambassador, deputy ; the highest assistant and repre- 
sentative of a commander-in-chief or governor of a province, 
a general second in command : Pompeius Hispaniam proving 
damper legates administravit. Cic. 

826. PRiEFERRE, PRiEPONERE. Prceferrc^ carrying be- 
fore one, preferring, used of the selection according to rea- 
sons ; Praponere^ of the actual execution, 825. Se prce» 
ferre aliis propter abundantiam fortuna. Cic. Sulpicius 
salutem rei publicce vitca sues praposuit. Id. 

827. Pr^judicium, Opinio prjejudicata. Prcejudici» 
tim, a preliminary opinion, one we have made up preceding 
another yet to be formed more accurately, impression : De 
Verre non pr a judicium^ sed plane judicium jam factum 
videtur. Cic. Op inio prajudicata^ having a prejudiced 
opinion of a thing before proper inquiry into it, a prejudice : 

828. Pr<2sepe. 832. Prisms. 357 

Tantum opinio prcejudicata poterat^ ut etiam sine ra* 
tione voter et auctoritas, Cic. 

828. Pr^sepe, Stabulum. Frees epe^ PrcBsepes^ a 
fold, pen, a place fenced in, to keep cattle within : Pasti re- 
petent prcesepia tauri. Virg., especially the manger, rack. 
Stdbulufn, a place where cattle standi whether it be cov- 
ered and shut up or not: Ardua tecta petit stahulL Virg., 
of the hut of the shepherd. 

829. Prater, Trans. Prater^ past, of a motion by or 
past the front side of a thing and away from it ; and Trans^ 
783, over, from a point this side over a thing, to a point on 
the other side, in compounds: Prceterire terram^ passing 

a country, leaving it to the side ; trans ire, passing through . 
it, beyond its frontier on the other side. Rem silentio pra» 
terire, leaving it aside, not mentioning it, neglecting itf 
trans ire, passing over in silence, passing over, in order to 
arrive at something else. Tempus prcBteriit, the time is 
past as to fit opportunity as well as to its existence ;tr awa- 
it <, it is past, as to its duration, beyond which we are now; 
hence, transire modum, going beyond the measure, not 

830. Pr^termittere, Omittere, Relinquere. Pr<E^ 
termittere, leaving aside, with consciousness neglecting, 
6. g. occasionem; Omittere (allowing something to pass 
above), giving up, considering not any further, e. g. tristitiam: 
Libo discessit a Brundisio^ obsessionemque o mi sit, Cees. 
Omit to, quid ille tribunus fecerit. Cic, not mentioning. 
Relinquere, 641, Cades relinquo, Cic, not mentioning, 
in the sense of letting them alone, 

831. Primores, Proceres, Optimates. Prtmores, the 
first, who among the highest or foremost occupy the first 
place ; the noblest, most distinguished, and most esteemed or 
honore d : Brutus Patrum numerum , primoribus equesiria 
gradus lectis, explevit, Li v. Proceres {procus), the no- 
bles, who, by their rank, occupy places above others, top 
above them : Proceres Latinorum, cum quibus Servius rex 
hospitia junxerat, Liv. Op timdtes, the patriots ; in Rome, 
those of the party for the senate : Qui ita se gerebant, ut 5tia 
consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur. 

832. Priscus, Pristinus, Antiquus, Vetus, Vetustus. 
Priscus (pris, see Pridem^ 360), belonging to the earl^ 
age : Credendumest veteribus et priscis^ ut aiunt^ vir^^ 

858 833. Privatus. 834. Prius. 

qui se progeniem deorum esse dicehant Cic. Pristinus-, 
former, that which existed earlier than that which now exists : 
Fac vt tuam pristinam dignitatem conseqtuire, Cic. An» 
tiquus^ old, belonging and conformable to a period preceding 
the present one : Tres epistolas tuas accept. Itaque anti» 
quissimcB cuique primum respondebo, Cic, everyone, ao 
cording to its arrival before the succeeding one. Civitates 
in antiquam imperii fonnulam redigere. Liv., not pristi^ 
nam, which excludes quality and only relates to time. Coins, 
antiquissima familia natits, Ca^s., not prisca^ which 
would exclude continuance to the present day. Vitus (deias), 
old, respecting the length of time, existing k)ng since, e. g. 
vinum: Vet us est maceria, later es si veteres ruunt. Plaut. 
Senatores veteres et nioris antiqui memores. Liv. Fc- 
iustus, that which, despite of its long duration, still continues 
to exist, e. g. templum ; Hospitium vetus, founded long since;* 
vetustum, existing long since, and maintained, supported^ 

833. Privatus, Peculiaris, Proprius, Suus. Privatus^ 
confined to a single individual, belonging to it, distinguishes 
that which belongs to the individual from public things: Pe- 
culiaris, peculiar, distinguished in its kind, selected and 
separated from the common; Proprius, own, exclusively 
belonging to a person, separate from what may be possessed 
in common with others; Suns, his, that which is his, that 
which is due and belongs to an individual of right, distinguishes 
from others or individuals that have nothing to do with it : 
Privatus illis census erat hrevis, commune miOgnum. Hor. 
Servum dedit gnato suo peculiarem, Plaut. Exoritwr 
peculiare edictum repentinum, Cic. , quite a particular, relat- 
ing to this subject alone. Redeas ad consuetudinem tuam 
solivs ac propriam. Id. Prcedia Capitoni propria tra- 
duntur, quce hodie possidet. Id. In suam rem aliena eon»- 
vertere. Id. Sua cuique virtuti laus propria deic- 
tur. Id. 

834. Prius, PoTius, Antiquius ; Citius, Ocius. Prius, 
prior, according to time and rank ; Poiius, preferable, with 
regard to choice : Nihil prius, nee potius, visum est. lav. 
Antiquius, that which in my opinion is preferable to all 
others, lies nearest to my heart, more urgent : Nihil ei an* 
tiquius amisitia nostra fuit. Cic . — Prius, ere, sooner, 
previous: Prius tua opinione adero. Plaut ' Citius, 
quicker, according to willingness and exertion: ViHnum ct* 

835. Pro. 836. Prohare. 359 

tins adjuveris, quam fratrem, Cic. Ociws, soon, with the 
least possible delay: Serius ocius, Hor., later or earlier. 
Ocius omnes surgimus, Ovid., quickly, speedily. 

835. Pro, Loco, Vice, Numero, Nomine ; Pro, in com- 
pounds. For instead stands Pro^ 85, referring to a relation ; 
Loco, 647, in the place of, refers to representation, taking 
the place of something else; Vice^ to exchange, when one 
thing is substituted for another ; Numero^ under the number, 
refers to rank, relative place; Nomine, under the name, 
title, exchange of denomination : Liberum appellare pro 
vino. Cic, intentional; loco, by mistake. Pro prcemio 
accipere, to view it as reward; in prcemii loco, as real re- 
ward. Esse pro cive, being considered ; pro hosts hahere^ 
considering as an enemy, and treating as such ; patris loco 
habere, having in the place of a father. Stipulis ligni vice 
uti, using instead of wood, letting it take the place of wood ; 
more common in vicem, e. g. Befatigatis in vie em intC' 
gri succedunt. Cses. Tibi parentis loco fait, he took the 
place of your father ; parentis numero, he stood with you 
in the rank of a father; thus. In liostium numero habere^ 
in hostium numero loco que ducere. Cic. Omnia, qua 
mulieris fuerunt, virifiunt dotis nomine. Id. , as dowry. — 
Pro, in compounds, see 85, fore (as in forefather) : Prod' 
vus (fore-grandfather, i. e.) great-grandfather, his father and 
grandfather Abdvus, and his father Atdvus, — Instead of, 
of the representative of an officer, what we express by acting : 
Promagister societatis, the vice-director of a society of 
farmers general. Pro consvles, Pr opratores. Pro quissto' 
res, were the respective magistrates, when, after their one 
year's official term as consul, &c., they became governors of 
provinces; but pro consule, pro prcetore, is used when the 
preposition is connected with the predicate, and has an em- 
phatic meaning: Nee legionem proconsul ejus anni P, 
Dolabella retinere ausus erat, Tac. L. Volumnium pro 
consule ducem consulibus adjidunt. Liv. 

836. Probare, Adprobare, Comprobare ; Probatus, 
Spectatus. Probare, making a thing proof, so that it 
gives satisfaction, proving, and declaring a thing to be such, 
approving of: Idbros meos tibi probabo. Cic. Judicibus 
prohabo, Verrem contra leges pecuniam cepisse. Id. Cen» 
sores vUlam publicam probaverunt. Id., declaring free of 
blame. Video meliora pro bo que. Ovid. Adprobare^ 
making something worthy of approval with others, making 

360 837. ProcUvis. 840. Pronus. 

another satisfied with it : officium suum alicui. Cic, and pay- 
ing one^s approval to something: Approhata hmdataque 
CottcR sententia. Id. Comoro iare, giving entire approba- 
tion, used of several, and confirming something by one's ap- 
probation : Omnium assensu comprobata est orotic. Liv. 
Honor em meum sententia tua comprohahis, Cic. — Pro» 
hat us, that which has stood the proof and received approba- 
tion, of proved value ; Spectaius, accurately viewed , exam- 
ined, without the idea of approving opinion : Ceterarum 
homines artium spectati et prohati, Cic. 

837. Proclivis, Propensus, Phonus. Pro cZir is, lean- 
ing forward and down ; descending, of the walker (decliviSj 
821, refers to the mountain itself). Dictu est proclive, 
Cic, easy. Tropical, proclivis, favorable, natural inclino' 
tion, susceptibility for something; Propensus, properly, 
hanging forward, used of a stronger degree of inclination, 
disposition of the faculty of desiring, of the appetite ; Pro' 
nus, 840, the decided, still stronger inclination and disposition 
for something: Ut aliquis natura ad aliquem morhum pro» 
clivior, sic animus alius ad alia vitia propensior. Cic. 
In obsequium plus cequo pronus. Hor. 

838. Prcelium, Pugna, Acies, Ceetamen, Dimicatio. 
Prmlium, engagement, battle, designates the fighting of the 
many, the animated battle, to and fro ; Pugna, the fight of 
two armies, considered as the two great bodies; Acies, 19, 
the order of battle, inasmuch as both the armies are drawn 
up; Certamen, 62, as contest, struggle for victory ; Dimi» 
catio, 355, as contest, the end of which is yet undecided. 
Prcelium committere, conserere. Liv. In prcelium rutmt, 
priusque pugna ccepit, quam signum ah ducibus daretur. Id. 
Triplici instructa acie. Caes. Consul cum Hannibale acie 
conflixit. Obscura ejus pugna fama est. Liv. Fit prce» 
Hum acri certamine. Hirt. Nos jam in aciem dimu 
cationemque descendamus. Cic. 

839. Progenies, Proles, Suboles. Progenies, the 
race or house, as the series of descendants from one founder 
and forefather : Memoriter progeniem ah avo atque aiavo 
prof er ens. Ter. Proles (the sprout: olivce), as branch, 
successors : Brutorum. Sail. Proles ilia faUirorum Aontt- 
num. Cic. Suboles, more correctly than Soboles{& sprout 
from the root : Suboles ex imo stirpe nata. Colum.), as in-' 
crease: Expulsa omnis suboles juventtUis. Cic. 

840. Pronus, Sufinus^ Cernuus. Pronus^ leaning 

841. Propago, 845. Proverhium, 361 

forward to fall, inclined to sink : Imponere equo puerum pro* 
n urn in ventrem. Varr. ; the contrary is Supinus^ bent 
backward, or lying so : Ebrius cubat in faciem^ mox deinde 
supinus, Juvenal. Cernuus, turned with the face toward 
the ground : Equus incumbit cernuus armo, Virg. 

841. Propago, Malleolus, Viviradix, Talea, Stolo. 
Propago, properly, the propagator; a shoot of a vine, any 
layer ; Malleolus, a sprig without roots, used for planting; 
Viviradix, a seedling with roots; Tale a, a little sprig 
from a branch, used for planting; Stolo, a sucker, a scion, 
torn off with the radical fibres, and used for planting. 

842. Prope, Propemodum, Pene, Fere, Ferme, Tan- 
TUM NON. Proj9c, near, nearly, and Proj9emodMm, near- 
ly wholly, designates an approach to completion; Pene, al- 
most, to the completeness of a state ; Fere {ferre), about, 
generally, almost, pretty nearly, to the full meaning of an 
expression, if the same is not taken quite accurately ; Ferme, 
generalizes this meaning; Tantum «on, I will not say so 
much, that is, almost : Prope annos XC natus, Cic. Quid 
est sors ? Idem propemodum, quod micare. Id. Flumen 
pene totum oppidum cingit. Cses. In oratore verba prope 
poetarum, gestus pene summorum actorum est requirendus» 
Cic. Eodem fere tempore, Caes. Vulgus quid absit a per- 
fecto, non fere intelligit, Cic. Haud fere quisquam in* 
teritum talem effugit. Id. Ah extemis ferme bellis otium 
fuit. Liv., pretty generally. Tantum non jam capta La," 
cedmmon est. Liv. 

843. Prorsus, Omnino, Penitus. Prorsus, Pror- 
sum, forward, straight forward, throughout : Prorsum oh' 
litus sum mei, Ter. Omnino, in every thing, so that nothing 
is wanting, entirely ; in general, through and through : Laho- 
ribus aut omnino, aut magna ex parte, eram liheratus, Cic. 
Penitus, Xo the innermost, from within and without, out and 
out: Res penitus perspectce planeque cognitce, Cic. 

844. Proturbare, Propellers, Protrudere. Protur- 
hare, 255, driving away before one, with impetuosity and 
disorder; Pr op eZZer €, pushing and beating; Protrudere, 
by pushing and forcibly pressing the hesitating : Telis missi' 
libusque saxis proturhare hostes, Liv. Propellere na- 
vem remis, Cic. Protrudere cylindrum; aliquem foras, 

845. Pro VERBiuM, Abagium. Pr ov erbium, bl proverb, 
as a maxim well proved by experience in the mouth of evexy- 


362 846. Provoeare. 849. Pulcher. 

body; Addgium^as a rule of life, or containing a useful 
principle : Trilum sennone prov erbium. Cic. Vetus ado* 
gium est^ Nihil cum fidihus graado, Gell. 

846. Provocare, Apellare. Provoeare^ calling forth, 
making application, that a case be adjudged before a higher 
court, with reference to the opponent, who is called before a 
superior court : Lex est^ ut de vi et de majestate damnati ad 
populum provocent. Cic. App ellare^ asking protective 
aid from a superior person, with reference to the judge 
who was appealed to, that is, petitioned for help or revision 
of judgment : Trihunos plehis appello et provoco ad 
populum. Liv. 

847. Prudens, Sapiens, Cordatus. Prudens^ prudent, 
intelligent, and consequently acting with circumspection and 
considerately: Vir natur a per acutus et prudens. Cic. Vir 
ad usum ac disciplinam belli peritus^ ad consilia prudens. 
Id. Juris prudens^ the theoretic lawyer ; juris peritus^ 
367, the practical, well-practised lawyer. Sapiens (prop- 
erly, he who has taste, sense), wise, he who has discovered 
the reasons of truth and moral actions, and therefore subor- 
dinates the dictates of prudence to the higher objects of mo- 
rality : Sapientis est proprium^ nihil^ quod pcmitere poS' 
sit, facer e^ nihil invitum. Cic. Sapiens, is the practical 
sage ; Philosophus, the speculative thinker. Cordatus^ 
sensible, honest, man of probity, both of worldly prudence and 
morality: Egregie cordatus homo. Enn. 

848. Publicare, Vulgare, Divulgare ; Proscribebe. 
Publicare, communicating something to the public (the 
community), for its use or benefit: De Aventino publican^ 
do lata lex est. Liv. Publicare librum. Plin. Vulgare^ 
bringing something among the common people, making it 
common to all : Cereris ritus profanis. Ovid. Vulgatur 
rumor. Liv. Divulgare, diffusing into all directions. — 
Publicare, making a thing state property, confiscating: 
Sunt multi agH lege Cornelia publicati. Cic. Proscri- 
bere, making known by public handbill, placard, especially 
that the goods of a person condemned to confiscation are to 
be sold publicly : Mancipium venale pros crib ere. Cic. 

849. Pulcher, Formosus, Venustus, Speciosus, Bel- 
Lus; Venustas, Dignitas. Pulcher, beautiful, exciting 
pleasure to admiration by its p'ferfections and advantages : ar^ 
gentum, domus, vastis, dies; Formosus, 448, well-formed, 
by its external form and formation, especially causing pleasure 

850. Plus, 852. Pyra. 363 

by its soft transitions and regular proportions of undulating 
lines; hence, not formosa or alio ^ vestis : Formosus homOy 
ail deformis. Cic. Nihil est virtute formosius, nihil puU 
chrius. Id. Venustus, pleasurable in a high degree, full 
of charm, of attracting beauty, also in works of art : Fuit in 
Sulpicio gestus et motus corporis ita venustus. Cic. AdO' 
lescentula vultu modesto et venusto, Ter. Sp eciosus, as 
extremely beautiful, striking the eyes, looking ; it designates 
a higher degree of beauty than formosus : Se quoque del 
populo mulier speciosa videndam, Ovid. Diciu speci- 
es a. Liv. Bellus, fine, handsome, of the agreeableness 
which borders closely on the beautiful {pulchrum) : Vasa 
Jigurd hella, Varr. Puella hellissima, Cic. — VenuS' 
tas, charming beauty, attractive by grace, especially in the 
features and movements of female beauty : Ex Venere v e- 
nustas dicta est. Cic. Z)i^wi^ as, dignified beauty, which 
lends appearance to a thing, proper to its character and that 
pleases, especially the beauty of man: Pulchritudinis 
duo sunt genera: venustatem muliebrem ducere debenvas^ 
dignitatem virilem, Cic. 

850. PuLS, Polenta. PmZs, a thick pap, which in early 
times took the place of bread (as we find to this day with 
many Indian tribes of North America) : Pulte, non pane^ 
vixisse longo tempore Romanos manifestum, Plin. Polenta^ 
a dish made of roasted barley, pounded and then moistened, 
with the Greeks (entirely different from what is now called 
polenta in Italy). 

851. Purpura, Murex, Ostrum. Purpura, the purple 
snail, with rounded opening and an elongated beak ; Murex^ 
with wider opening, and without elongated mouth, near Tyre ; 
Ostrum,\he juice or blood of these animals; generally used 
of the purple dye and substances dyed therein : Affers pur- 
pur a VI Syriam, Cic. Murice tinctce lance, Hor. Ostro 
perfuscB vestes. Virg. 

852. Pyra, Rogus, Bustum. Pyra^ a pile of wood put 
together to be lighted, a funeral pile, pyre, poetical ; in prose, 
Rogus: Inscendere in rogum ardentem, Cic. Bustum 
(urere), the place where the dead body was burned and 
buried: Bustorum Gallicorum nomine insignem locum fa' 
cere, Liv. If the dead body was buried in another place, the 
spot of combustion was called Ustrina, Fest. 

964 853. Quando. 854. Querciu. 


853. Quando, Quum ; Quandoque, Quandocunque. 
Quando^ when once^ designates an indefinite point of time 
in the past or future, and is used interrogatively, indefinite^ 
and relative as a particle indicative of time as well as cause : 
Quando me ista cogitasse arbitramini? Cic. Num quaw 
do vides aliquem de Catone gloriari? Id., perhaps, perhaps 
upon a time. Non intelligitur^ quando obrepat senectus. 
Id., when. Quando non potest fieri^ quod viSy id vdiSj 
quod possit, Ter., i. e. since^ as cause originating from casual 
circumstances. Quuniy ancient Quom^ when, designates 
with its predicate a real fact as secondary circumstance of a 
definite time, which may be simple (when, at the time that), 
or repeated (so often as), and is only used relative as indica- 
tion of the time of another occurrence, or as causative parti» 
cle for then: Zenonem^ quum Athenis ess em, audiebam 
frequenter. Cic. Verres quum rosam vi derate tunc tn- 
cipere ver arhitrahatur. Id., as of\en as. Quid verba audiam^ 
quum facta videam ? Id. , since. — Quando que^ stands in 
distributive sense relative for whenever ^ and indefinite for etieh 
time whenever ; Quandocun quells used in a generalizing 
sense, relative for whenever ^ may that be at any time^ and tn- 
definite^ sometime^ whenever ^ be this whenever it may; in 
Quandoque^we leave to the accident, to casual occurrence, 
each imagined point of time separate; in Quando cunqucy 
all points of time are taken together, and we leave to casualty 
the selection of one of these : Indignor^ quandoque bonus 
dormitat Homerus, Hor. Ego ibi commorabor^ quoad ille 
quandoque veniat. Cic, whenever, some time or other. 
HostibuSy quandocunque se moverinty ab ter go erimus. 

854. QuERcus, Ilex, iEscuLus, Robur. Quercus^ the 
common European forest oak, with the largest acorns : glan- 
difera, Cic. /Z 6 a?, evergreen, with oval, edible acorns, and 
oval leaves: Civica corona fit e fronde querna^ quoniam 
dbus victusque antiquissimus quernus capi solitus sit: 
etiain ex ilice, quod gevvus superiori proximum est, Grell. 
^sGuluSy the winter-oak, prospering in the mountains, with 
acorns with short pedicles, and broad leaves with long pedi- 
cles ; according to others, the oak with narrower leaves and 

855. Questus, 856. Qui, 365 

sweet acorns attached close to the branch : Civica iligna prU 
mo fait ^ postea magis placuit ex cbscuIo Jovi sacra, Plin. 
Robur^ the stone-oak, with small acorns and very firm 
wood, indestructible in water: Innata rupilms altis r oh or a. 

855. Questus (Querela, Queremonia), Lamentum, 
Plangor, Planctus, Gemitus. Questus, complaint, ex- 
pression of dissatisfaction and suffering, stating grievance at 
pain, external pressure and oppression, injustice, and the like, 
as state of things : Qui questus, qui mceror dignus inveniri 
in calamitate tanta potest ? Cic. (Querela, complaint, ac- 
cording to its external condition, inasmuch as words, tone, and 
expression have a peculiar character in proffering it : Cycni 
quum tollant luguhrivoce querelam, Lucret. Quid intuis 
Uteris fait prcBter querelam temporum 7 Cic. Queri" 
monia, the complaint of itself {in abstracto), as utterance of 
words of a certain meaning : Versibus impariter junctis que-- 
rimonia primum indusa est, Hor. MuUcb querimonice 
ultro citroque j aetata, Liv.) Ldmentum, expression of 
painful sensations and affliction by sounds of complaint and 
words ; it is the expression considered of itself ; the act of 
lamenting, Ldmentatio, lamentation :< Solon se negat velle 
suam mortem dolore amicorum et lament is vacare, Cic. 
Plangor, 804, the beating of the breast and other parts, as 
sign of affliction, inasmuch as it is something perceived by 
others through hearing; Planctus, the same, as continued 
state of the afflicted : Plangore et lamentations imple* 
vimus forum, Cic. Iterasti pectore planctus, Stat. Ge- 
mitus, sighing, the natural vent of a heart oppressed by pain, 
secret grief: Quid faciam infelix? Gemitus dolor edere 
cogit. Ovid. 

856. Qui, Quis ; Quidam, Quisquam, Quispiam» Ali- 
Quis ; Quilibet, Quivis, Quicunque, Quisque, Unusquis- 
QUE, QuisQuis. Qui, qucB, quod, who, which, designates 
one undetermined subject of the number of a kind, or adjec- 
tively, indefinite, one, some one ; interrogative, which ? and 
relative, who, that ; Quis (quce), quid, who, designates one 
indeterminate, in general and without reference to the kind, 
only indefinite, some one, something, and interrogative, who ? 
what.^ Qm is, in the Nominative, hence it is generis cont'- 
munis, and quceis only used in this case when the sex is dis- 
tinctly to be understood ; as likewise the indefinitum, qua^'m 
the Nom. sin. as feminine, and Nom. Ace. plural, as neuter» 


366 857. QttL 

points more distinctly at the kind : Si qui rexj si qua noHo 
fecisset aliquid ejus modi, Cic. Acies^ qualis qua insiruC" 
tissima esse potest, Liv. Si quod est admissum f acinus^ 
Gees. Si quce in memhris prava sunty occultant homines,. 
Cic. Danda opera est^ ne qua amicorum discidia Jiant, Id» 
Qui cantus dulcior inveniri potest? quod carmen aptius? 
Id. Si cui naviganti deus quis dixerit. Id., i. e. one who 
is a god. Quis rex unquam fuit^ quis populus, qui non 
uteretur prcedictione divina 7 Id. Quis tu es muHer^ qum 
me nuncupasti? Varr. Relinquesne amicum? qucB ista ami* 
dtia est? — Q w t d a m, a certain (neuter quoddamyBL cer- 
tain, quid dam, something certain, some certain thing) one 
of a certain kind or species, whose characteristic distinctionsr 
as individual are of no importance to the matter. Without 
reference to the kind, is Quisquam, one, if he exist any- 
where, relative and in the negative sense ; Quispiam^ in a, 
positive sense, one who exists somewhere, opp. nemo, nihil ^ 
AH quis, another than quis^ i. e. one who has more or lesa 
of the distinctions, considered in general only, of a multitude,, 
some one, many a one : Accurit quid am, notus mihi nomu 
ne tantum, Hor. Esine quisquam omnium, de quo melius 
existimes tu? Cic. Hereditas est pecunia, qtuB morte alu 
cujus ad quempiam pervenit jure. Id. Aude aliquid 
carcere dignum, si vis esse aliquis, Juvenal., one of con- 
sideration. Est aliquis, qui se astimare fasHdiat, Liv., 
many a one. — Quilibet, any one you choose, if the choice 
is left to mere inclination; Quiv is, every one you choose,, 
if the choice is determined by will; Quicumque^ any one^ 
no matter who, expresses indifference at the choice of the in- 
dividual from among its kind; Qut^^t^e, each one, refers 
to each individual as unit of a multitude; Unusquisque^ 
746, every single one in the whole number, every single one 
taken singly; Quisquis, any one, is used if no distinction 
is made between the individuals of the number: Apud majo' 
res nostros adhibehatur peritus, nunc quilibet, Cic. Fm- 
trum quivis formidat malum. Plant. Spe tu,'quicunque 
casus est faturus, carere non debes, Cic. Sibi quis que 
ruri metit. Plant. Signiferi orbis unaquaque pars alia 
alio movet immutatque ccelum, perinde ut quaque steUa in 
iis finitimisqv^ partibus sunt quo que tempore, Cic. O ado* 
lescens, salve, qui me servasti, quisquis es, Plaut, as an 
address to utterly unknown persons. 
857. Qui, QuoMODo, Quemadmodum, Ut^ Sicirr, Vxiin ;i 

858. Qtties. 859. Quin, 367 

Quasi, Sicuti, Veluti, Tamquam, Ceu. a. To designate 
comparisons absolutely expressed, there are used: Qui (an- 
cient Ablative of quis)^ as, taken entirely general, interrogat- 
ing ; Quomodo, as^ compares with the mode of an existing 
state the mode of something already formed; QuemadmO" 
dum^ as, the mode of a thing yet to be formed or to be 
taken into consideration; Ut^ tlti^ as, compares condition in 
general ; Sicuti^ such as, the relation of the condition of a 
state to that of another already existing, at which the speaker 
points ; Velut^ FeZwH, as, for example, compares the dif- 
ference of the condition, i. e. the similitude of the present 
case with one arbitrarily taken for example's sake from real 
existence : Qui Jlt^ vt ego nesciam^ sciant omnes ? Cic. Me 
consulem iia fecistis^ quo mo do pauci facti sunt. Id. 
Quern admodum sunt in se ipsos animati^ eodem modo sunt 
erga amicos. Id. Ut res gesta est, narrdbo ordine. Ter. Me 
si cut alterum parentem diligit, Cic. Bestice aquatiles, qiuB 
gignuntur in terra, vein ti crocodili. Id. — b. For compar- 
isons expressed conditionally, are used : Quasi {quam-si, as 
if, i. e. about), about as, as if, compares a state of things with 
another, according to a merely seeming similitude ; Sicuti^ 
as, like, refers to a fact ; Veluti, similar to, such as, gives an 
instance ; Tamquam, as much, as well as, according to de- 
gree, by pointing at an equal effect in something similar; 
Ceu, as, as if, compares similar things in general, but it is 
used only with poets and later writers : Quasi decern fisci. 
Cic, about. Fuit olim, quasi ego sum, senex. Plant. Tu^ 
quasi concessum sit, ita deliheras. Cic, as if. Gloria vir^ 
tutem tamquam umbra sequitur, Cic Ta mquam de regno 
dimicaretur, ita concurrerunt, Livi Situ^s picece in exceUo 
montium, ceu maria fugeret, Plin. 

858. QuiEs, Requies; Quietus, Tranquillus. Quies^ 
the rest before labor, rest of itself; Requies, rest as recrea- 
tion, with reference to previous exertion : Mors Idborum ac 
miseriarum quies est, Cic. Animus defatigatus nunc re^ 
quiet em qucerit ex magnis occupationibus. Id. — Quietus^ 
quiet, calm, being at rest, in contradistinction to exertion; 
Tranquillus, still, tranquil, without violent motion: Otiosa 
atas et qui eta sine ullo labore et contentions Cic. Gentet 
agitare quietas, Virg. Maris tranquillitas. Cic 
Tranquillus ad quietem locus. Id. 

859. Quin, Qui — Ut — Cur non? Quin, who not 
(qui " ne), and, that not {qui - ne), annihilates again the effect 

368 860. Quippe. 863. Quoius. 

of an antecedent negative sentence upon the following subor- 
dinate ; the 'same effect has Qui non^ who not, o^ly with 
stronger negation, and Ut non^ that not, indicating an efiect 
or consequence: In condone adest nemo, quin vitia in di- 
cente videat, Cic. Nihil dbest, quin sim miserrimus. Id. 
Nullus annus est, quo non acie dimicetur. Liv. Nonpoiu^ 
isti facere, u i miki epistolam non mitteres, Cic. — In sen- 
tences which do not depend upon others, Quin (qui ne), 
expresses an urgent, impatient desire, with the apprehensioa 
that the addressed person be unfavorably disposed, interroga- 
tive and indefinite for why! eh! Quin igitur expergisd" 
mini I Sail., how not? i. e. well, don't you wake? Quid hie 
conterimus operam f rostra 7 quin abeo 7 Ter., well, don't I 
go? Pamphilus, Jam hoc opus est (argento), Davus. 
Quin jam habeo. Id., why, I have it already. Cur non? 

860. Quippe, Utpote. Quippe, of course, certainly, 
confirms in ceding; Utpote (with qui and qvum), as, since, 
explains the possibility of an antecedent assertion in giving a 
reason : Sol Democrito magnum videtur, quippe homini eru» 
dito. Cic. Pater mens puerulo me, utpote non amplius no- 
vem annos nato, in Hispaniam profectus est. Nep. 

861. Quod, Quia, QuoNiAM. Qwod, that, because, gives, 
with reference to an expressed or implied demonstrative, the 
real cause of an effect, or the nearest ground of a consequence 
arising directly out of it; Quia, because, gives the more re- 
mote reason, which causes the consequence; Quoniam 
(quom-jam), because, a reason taken from circumstances of 
the present time : Non ea res me deterruit, quo minus literas 
ad te mitterem, quod tu ad me nullos miser as, sed quia nt- 
hil, quod scriberemy reperiebam, Cic. Quoniam. jam nox 
est, in vestra tecta discedite, Cic. 

862. QuoTiDiE, Singulis diebus. In dies singtjlos. 
Quotidie, daily, when something is omitted or interrupted 
on no day, quotidian ; Singulis diebus, on every day of 
a certain number of days, each one taken singly ; In singU' 
los dies, fox every single day, distributed for every day of 
a certain number: Quotidie, vel potius in dies singu^ 
los breviores literas ad te mitto. Cic. Flavins singulis 
diebus ediscendos fastos poptdo proposmt. Id. 

863. QuoTUS, QuoTusQUisQUE. Quotus^ which in num- 
ber of rank and order? (in Germeui, der wie viehte.) Quo» 
tusquisque^ of how many one^if you ditide a number imo 

864* Radere. 867. Ratio. 369 

several equal parts ? or, of how many one in this whole num- 
ber ? (in German, der je toie vielste 7) distrihuiipe^ i. e. how 
few! Hora quota est? Her. Quotusquisque disertus 
est ? Cic. To each man in a company the question quotus 
would apply ; if, after a mutiny, it had been decreed that 
each tenth man should be executed, the question quotilsquiS' 
que would apply. 


864. Radere, Scabere, Rodere. Radere^ scratching, 
scraping, e. g. genas : Margine in extremo liter a rasa, Ovid. 
Modo tender e (with the pincers) modo radere barbdm* 
Suet., with the razor. Scabere^ shaving (not of the beard), 
shearing, grating : Laminas scab en do purgare. Plin. R a- 
dere makes a surface rough; Scabere, smooth. Rodere^ 
gnawing, grating off, as it were, with the teeth, something of 
a solid body: Caput scaberet vivos et roderet ungues, 

865. Ramus, Surculus, Termes. RamuSj the larger, 
stronger branch ; Surculus, the tender sprig, an engraffing 
twig; Termes, the fruit-branch: Avulsus e palma termes 
cum fructu, Gell. 

866. Rapina, Prjeda, Furtum, Latrocinium. Rdpina^ 
the robbery, as the act of robbing, and poetical for that which 
is robbed, i. e. goods hastily, violently, and unlawfully taken 
from the possessor; Free da, booty, the gain of the hunter 
and the plundering warrior : Spem prcedcB et rapinarum 
sequi. Cic. Fur turn, theft, clandestine removal of foreign 
property, and the stolen property, without violence: Fur to 
obsides subduxistis. Liv. Cogi a magistratu fur turn red» 
dere, Cic. Latrocinium, highway robbery, robbing in 
the open street or on the highway with violence : Fines suos 
ab excursionibus hostium et latrociniis tueri, Cic. 

867. Ratio, Modus; Rationem habere, Respicere. 
Ratio, 190, properly, the calculation; the rational proce- 
dure in an affair, calculated, that is, reasoned according to 
sufficient grounds; Modus, 450, the proper measure, the 
way and manner of proceeding : Existima, modo et ration e 
omnia Romce Ncevium fecisse, si hoc rede atque ordine fac- 
tum videtur. Cic, where the last sentence explains the &ral. 

370 868. Re. 871. Reddere. 

Fictoris rail one ei modo^ formarum varietate locos dis» 
tinguent is» Id. — Rationem habere^ counting over, making 
account ; hence, having regard, paying attention to something, 
taking it into calculation, e. g. famce sucb: Haberi ratio' 
nem oportet hominwn^rei teviporis ne quidjocus de gravitate 
decerpat, Cic. Respicere, looking back, retrospectively ; 
considering something in the calculation of a thing (precisely 
as the Germans have Riicksicht^ literally translated, back- 
sight), taking care of some one, e. g. commoda alicujus : 
JSisi qui deus nos respexerit, Cic. In consilio capiendo 
omnem Galliam respiciamus^ quam ad nostrum auxilium 
concitavimus. Cees. 

868. Re, Retko. J?e, back, backward, in compounds 
designates a direction opposite to that of forward, as in pror^ 
sum rursutii^ forward, backward ; in verbs which in them- 
selves express a going forward, or indicate this direction,. re 
indicates a repetition of the action, because repetition is the 
coming back once more to the same thing, as in repetere^ rC' 
quirere^ reverti; Retro^ backward or returning motion or 
situation toward a point, from which the motion started ; hence 
we find retro respicere: Pergeret protinus: quid retra 
atque a iergo Jleret, ne labor aret, Cic, behind, behind him. 
Marcellus retro, unde venerat, Nolam redit. Liv. 

869. Recidivus, Redivivus. Rectdivus^onethaifaUa 
back, returns, e. g. febris ; that which after its fall is rees- 
tablished, which rises out of its own ruins: Recidiva 
posuissem Pergama victis, Virg. Redivivus (re-vtinw, 
as redhibeo), that which, as old and worn out, is used anew, 
e. g. old building-materials : Columnam efficere ab integro 
novam nullo lapide redivivo, Cic. 

870. Recte, Bene, Rite. Recte, 694, right, in straight 
line: Atomi suo nutu recte ferentur. Cic, perpendicular, 
opp. oblique, Recte atque or dine exque re publica faceref 
Id. Bene, well, good, to satisfaction: Bene facis^ quod 
me adjuvas. Cic Rite, in proper manner, according to ob- 
servance, custotn, usage: Sacrijlcio rite perpeirato, Liv. 

871. Reddere, Restituere. IJedd ere, returning what 
we have received, giving back: depositum, mutuum; Resti" 
tuere, replacing something in its former place, reestablishing 
something in its former state : Si cedes corruerunt, heres re- 
stituere non debet, nee rejicere, Cic. Ccssar hospUemy 
ereptum e manibus hostium, sihi restitutum videbat. Gses. 
Reddere, is merely giving back; restituere^ returning it 
in the former state. 

872. Redemptor. 874. Regio. 371 

872. Redemtor, Manceps, Publicanus. Redemtor^ 
the undertaker, in its primitive sense (French, entrepeneur), 
one who undertakes, for a sum stipulated by contract, to praise 
a building, to procure provisions, or any thing, a contractor : 
Redemtor ; qui columnam de Torquato conduxerat facien-^ 
dam, Cic. Manceps^ 637, the person who buys articles, 
&c., at auction, obtains by the highest bidding, the farming 
out of things, with a view to make profit upon these things : 
Ccspit cogitare^ si res ahiret ah eo mancipe, quern ipse ap' 
posuisset^ sibi nullam prcRdam esse, Cic. PuhlicanuSya. 
farmer- general of state revenues ; they were Roman knights, 
who, joined in a societas^ partly as mancipes, partly as con- 
tractors, partly as prcedes, who became guarantees for the 
former, obtained the farming out of duties and imposts of a 
province. There were other members still of these societies, 
called socii^ connected with the others as partners for com- 
mon gain and loss. When any sort of revenue is farmed out, 
the farmer pays a fixed sum to government, for which the 
revenue is signed over to him. It is still done in some Euro- 
pean countries ; nowhere, however, where the finances are 
regulated and organized as they ought to be : Flos equitun 
Romanorum^ puhlicanorum or do, Cic. 

873. Redire, Reverti ; Rediens, Redux ; Reditus, 
Proventus. Redire^ going back, to the place from which 
we started ; Reverti^ returning, from the place away toward 
which we had moved, e. g. ex itinere, Ccesar eodem^ unde 
redierat, revertitur. Caes. Ad interregnum res rediit. 
Liv., came back to it. Brutus reditu vel potiv^ rever* 
si one mea IcBtatus est, Cic. Reditus supposes the reach- 
ing of the object; reversio, change of intention. Mecum 
rediit in gratiam^ reconciling ; revertit, changing one's 
hostile intention or disposition. — Rediens^ the returning 
one, coming back; Redux^ the fortunately returned one^ 
from a distant journey, danger, captivity : Video rare rede' 
untem, Ter. Tihi reduces socios classemque relatam 
nuntio, Virg. — Reditus, rewenue whioh the owner enjoys 
(the idea of returning, i. e. from the outlay, is likewise ex- 
pressed in our revenue); Proventus, produce of landed 
property, &c., that which comes /or^A: Re di turn hominihus 
conjfice. Cic, obtain for them an income. Annus proventu 
onerat sulcos. Virg. 

874. Regio, Provincia, Plaga, Tractus. Regio, re- 
gion, a country according to its direction, situation, Umits* 

372 875. Relaxatio. 878. Rqforare. 

before the eyes of the observer: Ccepi regiones eircum' 
circa prospicere. Cic. Provincia, a. country without Italy 
proper, as Roman conquest : Sidlia primo omnium provin^ 
cia est appellata, Cic. PZd^ a, the zone, as a hand defined 
in the heavens or on the earth, as a stripe^ e. g. septemtriona^ 
lis: Codi scrutantur pi a gas, Cic. Tractus^ a tract, a 
space extended longitudinally, of indefinite magnitude : Totua 
ille tr actus Venafranus^ tota ilia aspera et montuosa re* 
gio. Cic. 

875. Relaxatio, Remissio. Relaxation the making 
loose that which is fastly tied; Remissio^ the makijig 
yield, or slackening that which is drawn tight, e. g. the 
cord of a bow : Animi relaxation is recreation by leisure ; 
remissio animi, is recreation by a cheerful occupation, 
game, &c. 

876. Religio, Superstitio. Religion properly the 
scruple of conscience ; the awe and fear of that which is 
sacred, holy ; religion, externally as well as internally ; Cum 
pietate simul et sanctitatem et religionem tollere, Su- - 
perstitio (superstes, that which has remained of olden 
times), ancient usage, traditional custom in sacred rites ; an- 
tiquated belief, ancient superstition: In superstitions tn- 
est timor inanis deorum, religio deorum cultu pio conti' 
netur, Cic. 

877. Remus, Remulcus, Contus. Remus, the oar; 
Remulcus, or Remulcum, a tow-bai^e, the contrivance 
by which one vessel was pulled along by other vessels with 
oars : Navem remulco quadriremis trahi jussit, Liv. Con" 
tus, a pole, for poling a vessel : Acuta cuspide contos ex^ 
pediunt, Virg. 

878. Reparare, Recuperare ; Reficere, Recreahe. 
Repdrare, reprocuring something we have possessed be- 
fore: res amissas; Recuperare, ancient RectperarCj 
receiving again what was lost, obtaining again something in 
the same number and measure : erepta, libertatem. Cic. — 
Reparare, repairing, replacing in the former state, reestab- 
lishing entirely : collisumvas, S nee. He/I cer«, re-making, 
repairing of dresses, &c., effecting reestablishraent gradually, 
repairing, strengthening : naves, ades labentes. Hor. Vires 
reparare, renovating for new, fresh exertions, when the 
strength had sunk entirely: cibo reficere, re-strengthening, 
refreshing afler exhaustion. Recrearo, causing that one 
comes to strength again, reviving, refreshing: Ego re ere» 

879. Rependere. 883. ReHdere. 373 

at? t (ifflictos anitnos honorum^ wrwmquemqne confirmans^ ear- 
cUans, Cic. Me reficii et re ere at tuns in me amor. Id, 

879. Rependere, CoMPENSARE. Eej!?<?nd ere, weighing 
out with equal weight, requiting, retaliating ; C o mp ensare^ 
weighing one thing with another, counting one against the 
other, restoring, compensating: Ingerdo fomuB damna re» 
pen do mea. Ovid. Compensabatur cum summis dolo» 
ribus IcBtitia, Cic* 

880. Repere, Serpere* Repere^ creeping, moving 
along on the belly: Per angustam vulpecula rimam repse» 
rat in cumeram frumenti, Hor. MurcmcB in sicco repunt. 
Plin. Serpere^ glide, of animals without feet, and more 
slow, noiseless, and imperceptible movement: Videmus ser» 
pere anguiculos, Cic. Simulaiio serpebat in dies. Id. 

881. Reprobare, Repudiare, Respuere, Rejicere. Re- 
probare^ rejecting as being insufficient, unjust, or by way 
of disapprobation : Ipsa nalura reprobat dolorem, Cic. 
Repudiare^i thrusting away as worthless, hateful; disdain- 
ing : tixorem^ repudiating* Non repudiabis in honore^ 
quern in periculo recepisti, Cic. Respuere^ thrusting away 
with contempt, dislike, disgust : Cibi reliquia^ quas natura 
respuit. Cic. Respuere defensionem et pro nihilo pu" 
tare. Id. Rejicere^ declining, not allowing something to 
take place: Indices reus rejecit, Cic. 

882. Resciscere, Comperire, Certiorem fieri. Ee- 
sciscere^ learning again, receiving information of something 
disagreeable, which was not expected : Primus sentio mala 
nostra: primus rescisco omnia. Ter. Comperire^ re- 
ceiving information upon undeniable evidence: Comperi 
ex iis^ qui fuere conscii. Ter.; hence, Compertus, known 
from proof, certain: Fitcinus manifesto compertum atque 
deprehensum. Cic . Certiorem fieri^ becom in g more cer- 
tain than we were before, receiving certain intelligence: 
Ccesar ab exploratoribus certior /actus est^ Ariovisti 
copias non longe abesse. Cees. 

883. Residere, Residere ; Residuus, Reliqitus, Sitper- 
STEs ; Restare, Superesse. Residere^ sitting down, sink*' 
ing down: Mediis residunt adibus. Virg. Si monies 
residissent. Cic. Residere^ sitting firmly, remaining 
sitting : Ut^ quum in mentem veniret^ resideret^ deinde spa-» 
tiaretur. Cic. Residet spes in virtute tua. Id. — Resu 
duus^ that which remains sitting, settled, that which remamti, 
arrears: Residua pecmda txatia, Liv. Rellquus^ r^« 


374 884. Respondere. 887. Ridere. 

maining, that which has been left, which has not yet been 
taken up: Religua dispiUationis cursum teneamus, Cic 
Reliquas pecunias exigere^ getting, exacting the rest or 
arrears of a sum. Superstes, surviving : Vita et dignitO' 
tis sua sup erst it em relinquere, Cic. — J2e« tare, remain- 
ing behind at a certain place : Reliqua conjuratonun iu^ha^ 
qui restiterunU Cic, who remained behind, and did not 
follow the commander-in-chief. Longa sunt, qua restanU 
Id., what yet remains to be treated. Superesse^ being over 
and above, of abundance ; hence, also, of that which we have 
yet in readiness, opp. deesse : Cut tanta erat resj et super- 
erat, Ter. Partes^ qua mihi supersunt^ illustranda oro- 
tionis, Cic. 

884. Respondere, Responsare, Referre. Respon^ 
dere, answering a question, giving explanation, information : 
Ad ea, qua quasita erant^ respondehat, Cic. ; hence, cor- 
responding, answering, in the sense of satisfying certain given 
conditions : Paribus paria respondent. Id. Respon" 
sare^ answering spitefully: Ancilla responsanL Plant., 
being saucy; hence, opposing, defying: Fortuna superba. 
Hot. Refer re, replying, meeting or refuting an objection : 
Anna refert, etc, Virg. 

885. Restis, Funis, Rudens, Retinaculum. RestiSy 
a cord, a thin rope, line : Restim cape ac suspende te. Plant. 
Funis, stronger, hence Junamhuli : Demissum lapsiper fu» 
nem. Virg. Rudens, a ship's rope, sail ropes: Canscen" 
dcre antemnas, prensoque rudente relahi. Ovid. Retina* 
culum,SL rope by which something is held fast, back {halter) : 
Ut pelago suadente retinacula solvas» Ovid. 

886. Reus, Nocens, Sons. Reus, a person accused 
before a court; Nocens, 557, he who injures, guilty of an 
evil deed , offence : Reis, tarn innoxiis, quam nocentibuSy 
absolutiones venditare. Suet. Sons, the punishable person : 
Punire sontes, Cic. Quid fiet sontiy qwun rea laudis 
agar? Ovid. 

887. Ridere, Renidere, Cachinnari. Ridere^ laud- 
ing, laughing at {aliquem) : Crassus semel in vita risit. 
Cic. Apollonius irrisit philosophiam atque contemsiL Id. 
Omnes istos deridete atque contemnite. Id., deriding, scoffs 
ing. Suhridens hominum sator atque deorum vviUu* Vuv., 
smiling. Renidere, smiling forcibly and maliciously : Eg- 
natius, quod candidos hdbet denies, renidet. Catull. Tar* 
vus out fcdsum renidens vuUu. Tac. Cdckinnarif 

888. Rima. 893. Rusticus. 375 

laughing loud, right out, so that the laugher is shaken : Ru 
dere convivce: cachinnari ipse Apronius, Cic. 

888. RiMA, Hiatus, Rictus. » Rima^ crag, fissure of a 
solid body lengthwise and into the depth of it : Fissiis erat 
ienui rima paries. Ovid. Hiatus, the cleft, wide open 
and deep: Repentini terrarum hiatus, Cic. Cibus oris 
hiatu caper e. Id. Rictus, nnazard , wide-open jaws : RiC' 
tus ad aures dehiscens. Plin. 

889. Rostrum, Proboscis. Rostrum, beak and snout 
or trunk to dig up, uproot: Rostro vultur ohunco. Virg. 
iSm5 rostro si humi A literam impresserit, Cic. ProhoS' 
cis, the trunk of the elephant : Proboscidem elephantorum 
amputare. Plin. 

RES. Rot are, wheeling, turnfng like a wheel: Learchum 
rapit et per auras more rot at fundce, Ovid. Rotundare, 
rounding, i. e. giving the form of a ball, making it spherical : 
Deus mundum ad voluhilitatem rotundaviU Cic. Tor» 
nare, making round with the turning tool (tornus), turning, 
e. g. versus: Mundum ita tornavit, ut nihil effici possit 
rotundius, Cic. Rotundus (wheel-like), round, globular: 
Mutat quadrata rotundis. Hor. Teres, rounded off and 
smooth, of thick and long bodies, opp. angular, rough : Te- 
retes siipites, feminis crassitudine. Coes. 

891. Ruber, RuFus, Russus, Purpureus. Ruber, red, 
blood-red, e. g. sanguis ; Rufus, light-red, fox-red, both of 
natural color : Aurora rubra. Prop. Rufam illamvirgi' 
nem. Ter. Russus, red , of artificial color : Lutea russa^ 
que vela, Lucret. Purpureus, purple-colored, brilliant 
and shining; hence, in general, of beautiful, splendid colors: 
Pallium pur pur eum; Purpurei olores, Hor. 

892. Rupes, Scopulus, Pet^a. RUpes, the steep rock, 
appearing like torn off or broken off: Ex magnis rupibus 
nactus planitiem. Caes. Scopulus, cliff in the sea, from 
which we may see far: Remigurh pars ad scopulos allisa. 
Caes. Petra, rock, as rocky mass, and as the hard stone ; 
only with later writers : Alga in petris nascitur. Plin. 

893. RusTicus, Agrestis, Vicanus. Rusticus, rural, 
being in the country and conformable to it, e. g. prcBdium ; 
hence, one who cultivates the country and inhabits it, and 
who has manners accordingly simple ; also, by way of blame, 
clownish: Homo imperitus morum, agricola et rusticus, 
Cic. Agrestis, that which is in the field, growing wHd^^ 

876 894. Sacer. 895. Sacerdos. 

e. g. palma ; hence, morally wild, boorish, immoral, unciv- 
ilized : Sollicitant homines imperiios ipsi rustici atque 
agrestes. Gic. ; ru^lici, of intellectual rudeness; agres^ 
tes^ of moral. Rustica vox et agrestis quosdam delec* 
tat. Id., the strong, coarse language of the boor, rustic. Vi* 
canus^Si villager, inhabitant of a villafi;e : Lacedcemonii vicwn 
tnaritimum improviso occupavere. Vicani pritao territi 
sunt, Liv. 


894. Sacer, Sanctus, Sackosanctus, Augustus, Reli- 
Giosus; Sacrum, Sacrificium. «Sacer, sacred, as the prop- 
erty of the gods, acknowledged as such by public authoriQr^ 
opp. prof anus ^ not sacred, that which is destined for common 
use, without reference to a deity: Mdes sacra; Sacra 
profanaque omnia polluere. Sail., and consecrated to the gods 
below, i. e. to death, accursed: Intestahilis et sacer esto. 
Hor. Sanctus, holy, of moral perfection, pure, spotless,^ 
virtuous, and inviolable, as placed under the protection of a 
deity : Sanctissimus et justissimus judex, Gic. Legato^ 
rum nomen ad omnes nationes sanctum inviolatumque sem* 
per fuit. Caes. Sacrosanctus, that which must not be 
violated by high penalty, most holy : Sacrosancta potestasi 
Tribunorum. Liv. Augustus, inspiring admiration and 
reverence by superhuman external perfection, venerable, 
magnificent: Ornaius hahitusque humano augustior. Liv. 
Templum augustissimum. Id. Religiosus, he .who 
conscientiously avoids touching sacred things, religious, e. g. 
testis; senatores sancti et*religiosi. Gic, and of objects 
which we consider with religious veneration : Signa sacra 
et religiosa. Gic. — Sacrum, something holy, a sacrifice 
as something sacred: Sacrum piaculare; Romulus sacra 
Diis aliis facit. Liv. Sacrificium, a sacrifice, as sacred 
action: Sacrificium lustrale in posterum diem parat, 

895. Sacerdos, Pontifex, Antistes. Sacer doSy a 
priest or priestess of superior rank, inasmuch as they perform 
holy rites, as a general signification; Pont if ex, a high- 
priest, who had the superintendence over the service and the 
other orders of priests. The college of the pontiffif consisted 

896. Salire. 899. Sancire. ^TTt 

originally of four patricians, later of eight, half plebeians, by 
Sulla of fifteen, under a Pont if ex maximus : Numa PotiP- 
pilius sacris e principium numero pontifices quinque pr(B' 
fecit, Cic. Antistes^ fern. Antistita^ superintendent of 
a temple and its holy rites, which he assists in celebrating : 
Sacerdotes Cereris aique illius fani antistita, Cic. 

896. Salire, Saltare, Tripudiare. SalirSy hopping, 
leaping : de muro ; but Destlire ex equis, Liv. Saltare^ 
making leaps, jumping, dancing: Salire alacritatis est; 
saltare elegantice. Cic. Tripudiare, stamping the ground 
in dancing : In funeribus ret puhlica exsultans ac tripudi- 
ans. Cic. 

897. Salus, Valetudo, Sanitas. Sdlusy the desired 
condition and state, uninjured, state of well-being, in contra- 
distinction to that which is not agreeable ; hence, the preser- 
vation and salvation from perils, the weal : rei publicce. Me- 
dicis non ad salutem^ sed ad necem uti. Cic. Valetudo^ 
health, i. e. state of health as continued condition, and as 
which it may be good or bad : honay adversa, mala, Sani- 
tas, health, which is undisturbedness of the natural and desir- 
able state of body and soul, uncorruptedness of either : Sani- 
tas incorrupta. Cic. 

898. Salutare, Persalutare, Salvere. Sdluiare^ 
greeting, manifesting our esteem, &c., by the expression of 
our wishes for the welfare of another ; Persalutare^ greet- 
ing all, one by one: Domus te nostra salutat, Cic. Om" 
nes vos nosque quotidie per salutat. Id. S^aZt? ere, being 
in health, feeling well ; wishing this to some one : Salvehia 
a meo Cicerone. Cic, Cicero wishes to be remembered. 

899. Sancire, Sciscere, Cavere. Sancire, placing 
something under the protection of the gods, and thus securing 
it against all violations of its perfections, as sacred, inviolate, 
irrevocable, decreeing as absolute, e. g. leges : Lege ncUura^ 
communi jure gentium s and turn est. Cic. Solon capite 
s an X it, si qui in seditione non alterius utrius partis fuis- 
set, Id., he ordained by penalty of death. Sciscere^ ac- 
knowledging something, and confirming by one^s vote ; 
decreeing by majority of votes, legem^ 629. Athenienses 
sciverunt,ut JEginetis^ qui classe valebant^ px>llice& praci- 
derentur. Cic. Cavere, ordering, providing, in so doings 
for the future, that something be done or not be done : Ep%^ 
euros testamento cavity ut dies ejus natalis post mortem, agi^* 
retur. Cic. 


378 900. Sanguis. 902. SaHare. 

900. Sanguis, Cruor, Sanies, Pus, Tabum, Tabes. 
Sanguis^ blood, as vital principle and component part of 
the body, inasmuch as it gives spirits and strength, and flows 
in the body : Sanguis per venas in omne corpus diffunditur^ 
Cic. Cruor^ the blood which flows from a wound, which 
came originally from some hurt : Cruor em inimUi quam 
recentissimum telumque e eorpore extraetum ostendere, Cic. 
Sdnies, spoiled blood, bloody juice or water; Ptia, Gren. 
piiris^ matter in an ulcer; Tdhum^ dissolved and putrefying 
blood, and every similar liquid: Exit sanguis ex vmnere 
recenti aut jam sanescente; sanies est irUer utrumque tern' 
pus ; pus ex ulcere jam ad sanitatem spectante, Cels. 2H- 
lapsa cadavera tab a, Virg. Tahes^ the sharp, corrosive 
liquid into which a body gradually dissolves and corrodes (as 
it appears), the gradual vanishing of a body by melting, pu- 
trefaction, disease: Lentdque miserrima tahe liquitur^ ut 
glacies incerto saucia sole. Ovid., by a slow poison. 

901. Satelles, Stipator, ApparitobJ, Lictor, Accen- 
sus. SdtelleSy satellite, is a soldier of a prince, always at 
his side, to execute his orders; Stipator^ commander of a 
body-guard, to protect the person of another; Apparitor^ 
an ofticial servant, a person who is always present with his su- 
perior, to execute his orders; hence, also, St at or ; both are 
general designations. Lictores, the persons who, as a 
guard of honor, carry the fasces before a dictator, consul, and 
proetor, and execute the punishment of death; Accensus, a 
supernumerary, who is added to the regular number of ser- 
vants or persons in waiting, e. g. to the lictors ; it is used also 
of young, newly-enlisted soldiers: Vides tyranni sat el' 
lites in imperils, Cic. Stipatores corporis constituU^ 
eosdem ministros et satellites potestatis. Id. Sit lictor 
non sucB, sed tuce lenitatis apparitor. Id. 

902. Satiare, Saturare ; Satias, Satietas, Fastidium, 
Nausea. Satiare, satisfy, so that one has taken enough 
of nourishment ; Saturare {satur^ssXis^ed and full), satis* 
fying to such a degree that no further food can be received ; 
what in coarse language we would express by crammed fbll : 
Cihus satiat. Curt. Exsatiati cibo vinoque. Liv. Nee 
cytiso saturantur apes, nee fronde capella. Virg. — 5d- 
tias. Gen. satiatis, ancient, and Satietas, satiety, the be* 
ing satisfied ; surfeit, when a thing has no longer charm for 
attraction, has no longer any interest for us : Satias amoris 
turn cepit. Liv. Omnibus in rebus similitudo est satietatiM 

90a Satudare. 905. Scire. 879 

mater. Cic. Fastldium^ disgust, dislike, as consequence 
of satiety : Cibi satietas et fastidium subamara aliqua re 
relevatwr. Cic. Nausea^ nauseousness, the feeling sick, 
inclination to vomiting, sea-sickness : Navigavitnus sine nau^ 
sea. Cic. 

903. Satisdare, Satisfaceke, Prjestare. Satisdare^ 
giving bail, guaranty, opp. Cavere sibi, causing that sufficient 
bail or guaranty be given to us, and Satis accipere^re» 
ceiving bail : Postulabat ut procurator judicatum solvi satiS" 
dareU Cic-; the mandatarius was asked to bring guaranty 
for the payment of the sum which the convicted person would 
eventually be obliged to pay. Satisfacere^ procuring sat- 
isfaction, satisfying, e. g. by paying damages, bail, making 
payment : HeracUdes pecuniam Hermippi fide sumsit a jPm- 
fiis : Hermippus Fufiis satisfacit et fidem suam liber at, 
Cic. PrcBStare^ standing good for something, performing 
something, which we have taken upon ourselves, to which we 
have obliged ourselves : Istam culpam^ quam vereris^ ego 
prcesiabo, Cic, I will take the responsibility upon myself. 
PrcBstitimus^ quod debtdmus. Id. 


Cathedra. Scamnum, a bench*, a coarse chair ; ScabeU 
lum^ Scabillum, a low bench, a footstool i Ante focos olim 
longis considere scamnis mos erat. Ovid. 5c d He, every 
seat fit to sit upon: Vivoque sedilia saxo, Virg. Sella 
(for sedela)^ a chair: curulis. Subsellium^a lower bench 
near an elevated seat, as those of the Senators in the curia^ 
in front of the tribune of the prsetor, before the rostra : Se* 
dere in accusatorum subselliis. Cic. Cathedra (xof^* 
idga), every chair, also a sedan chair, as Sella; generally 
an arm-chair: Pcmituit multos vance sterilisque cathedra, 

905. Scire, Noscere, Callere; Sciens, Scitus. Scire^ 
knowing (in German toissen)^ having a clear perception of 
something and having this ready in the memory: Nan sciunt 
(pv^eri) ipsi viam^ domum qua redeant? Plant. Noscere^ 
becoming acquainted with (in Grerman kennen lernen)^ obtain- 
ing knowledge of something; nosse^^ knowing (in German 
kennen)^ being acquainted wiUi the marks of distinction of some- 
thing : Apollo quiim tnone/, tU se quisque noscat^ non id prce^ 
dpit^ ut membra nostra out statttramfiguramque noscamus. 
Cic. No 9 « 6, is the knowledge as result of external or internid 
perception ; Scire^ as of memory or understandiDg, whicLb 

880 906. Scnhere. 908. Scurra. 

makes application of it. Callere^ being full of calluses 
{callum^ see Callis^ 590), having a thick, hard skin, from 
working or walking ; hence, having gained an accurate 
knowledge or perfect skill in something, by dint of applica- 
tion and practice ; being perfectly versed in something : Pcb- 
norum jura non calles, Cic. — Sciens^ knowing: Quia 
hoc homine scientior {rei militaris) unquamfuU? Cic, 
who did understand better military matters? Scttus^ wise, 
clever, he who applies and practises well what he knows, 
skilful ; and that which is made, contrived, with intelligence, 
fine, nice: Scita Thalia lyrcB. Hor. Scita interroga^ 
tiones, Quinctil. 

906. ScRiBERE, Perscribere, Conscribere, Componebe ; 


writing, drawing up in writing ; Perscribere^ writing down 
punctually and minutely, informing in writing: Scr there 
epistolam; Indicvm dicla^ responsa^ senatus consultum per» 
scrihere. Cic. Conscribere^ writing together, respect- 
ing the local relation, e. g. vohimen ; miliies^ upon a list, i. e. 
enlisting; Componere^ placing together, with reference to 
order and art: res gestas, Hor. Scriba^a, scribe, secre- 
tary ; generally, manumitted slaves, who received public ap- 
pointments with salary from the senate and high magistrates : 
Scribarum or do est honestus^ quod eorum hominum Jidei 
tahul(B publica periculaque magislratuum committuntur, Cic. 
NotariuSy a stenographer, short-hand writer, who, with ab- 
breviations (notce)^ writes speeches and transactions while 
proceeding, reporter; also A ctuari us {agere), & stenogra.' 
pher: Or alio ab actuariis excepta^ male suhsequentHms 
verba dicentis. Suet. Librarius^ one who copies and sells 

907. ScRiPTURA, PoRTORiuM, Decumje. Scrtpturo^ the 
tax on pastures in Roman provinces, for the use of which the 
graziers had themselves with the amount of their cattle 
entered at the publican's; Portorium^ port-duty on import 
and export : Syracusanorum p or turn et scrip tur am eadan 
sodetas habebaL Cic. DecumcB^ tithe of the grain, which 
was paid by the farmers of Roman lands in the provinces : 
Pro singulis decumis ternas decumas dare, Cic. 

908. ScuRRA, Sannio, Parrasitus. Scurra^ a merry- 
andre w : facetus ; Sannio^ buffoon : Ridicvhu sannio 
vultu, imitandis moribus, voce, denique corpore ridetur ipso'. 
Cic. Pdrdsttus (7r«^(xWo;), properly, a co^eaXer; a par» 

909. Scutica. 912. Securis. 381 

asite, one who flatters others, and allows every thing to be 
done with him, in order to a free table: Parasiiorum in 
commdiis assentatio faceta, Cic. 

909. Scutica, Flagrum, Flagellum, Verber, Lorum. 
Scutica, a whip of thongs; Flagrum and Flagellum^ 
a whip to chastise slaves and criminals, often furnished with 
pricks (scorpiones) : Ne scutica dignum horribili sectere 
f lag ell 0, Hor. Verher, a. scourge, as flexible and to be 
swung, rare: Gradivus ictu verberis increpuit. Ovid. 
Lorum, a thong, cowhide: JBdilem servi puhlici lor is ce- 
ciderunt, Cic. 

910. Secessus, Recessus, Secretum, Solitudo ; Secre- 
Tus, Sejunctus, Seclusus. Secessus, a place remote 
from noise, solitary : Carmina secessum scribentis et otia 
qucBrunt. Ovid. Recessus, a receding, remote corner: 
Mihi solitudo et recessus provincia est. Cic. Secre* 
turn, a secluded, hidden place, where we are secure against 
intruders: Seer eta SidyllcB, antrum immane, Virg. Soli" 
tudo, solitude, place where we are quite alone. — Secretus, 
secluded, remote and hidden: SecretcB valles. Tac. jSc- 
junctus, placed out of connexion with other things, separ- 
ate : Bonum ab honestate non sejunctum, Cic. Seclusus^ 
secluded, separated as if by a partition : Videt in valle re* 
ducta seclusum nemus, Virg. 

911. Secundus, Proximus. iSe cun (2 1£$, the second, the 
one who follows after the first, according to number and 
rank ; Proximus, the nearest among others, near to an ob- 
ject: Id secundum erat de tribus. Cic. Hcbc fait altera 
persona Thebis, sed tamen secunda,itaut proxima esset 
EpaminondcB. Nep. 

912. Securis, Bipennis, Ascia, Dolabra. Securis^ 
an axe, hatchet: Icta securibus ilex. Virg. Bipennis^ 
a double axe, with two wings, as it were, used by the wood- 
man, and in war: Bex tonsa bipennibus. Hor. Ascia^ 
the instrument used by carpenters to lop and square the wood, 
the broad surface of which intersects perpendicularly the * 
plain of the helm, as used at present: Rogum ascia ne po» 
lito. XII Tabb. Dolabra, a similar instrument, with a 
long helm, the iron of which, however, which is opposite to 
the edge, is pointed, to clear away trees, tear down walls, 
and also used as a weapon: Miles correptia securibus et 
dolabris,ut si murum perrumperet^ cadere tegmina et car* 
pora. Tac. 

882 913. Sed. 916. Semm. 

913. Sed, Verum, Vero, At, Atqui, Autem. The an- 
tecedent sentence is connected with another position opposed 
to its meaning, by Sed, but, separating the positive from the 
negation, that which is more definite from the indefinite ; 
Verum (the truth is), but, correcting by the statement of the 
still more accurate truth ; Vero (as adverb, in truth, verily, 
even), but, and in particular, adding still more by an addition, 
expressed confirmingly, of something still more important and 
weighty; At, ancient Ast, but, on the other hand, opposing 
something different or the entire contrary ; hence, when we 
make objections, resolutions, or call upon a person to do a 
thing; At qui {at -qui), yet, nevertheless, against this, con- 
firming the contrary ; hence, in conclusions, if a specific minor 
position is opposed to the general major; Autem, the but 
which continues, distinguishes only the antecedent from the 
opposite, which, as continuation, stands in connexion with it : 
Non numero hac judicantur, sed pondere, Cic. Non testis 
matione census, verum victu atque cuitu terminatur pecunuB 
modus. Id. In vita plena Italicarum mensarum sapiens nemo 
efficietur unquam, moderatus vero multo minus. Id. Tu ere- 
bras a nobis literas exspecta: ast plures etiam mittito. Id. 
O rem,inquis, difficilem atque inexplicabilem f At qui expli- 
canda est. Id. Croesus hostium vim sese perversurum putavit^ 
pervertit autem suam. Id. 

914. Seditiosus, Turbulentus, Tumultuosus. Sedi' 
tiosus, seditious, inclined to sedition, making, causing it; 
Turbulentus, stormy, turbulent, exciting disorder and con- 
fusion, e.g. condones: Seditiosus civiset turbulentus. 
Cic, a citizen who causes riots and disturbances everywhere. 
Tumultuosus, riotous, full of riot and noisy disorder: In 
otio tumultuosi,in bello segnes, Liv., noisy and riotous. 

915. Seges, Messis. Seges, the field with corn sown, 
and the corn from the time of germination to the maturity of 
the grain: Seges dicitur quod aratum satum est, Yarr. 
Luxuriem segetum depascit, Yirg. Messis, the mown 
grain, and the crop ready to be mown: Graoidis oneraH 
messibus agri, Ovid. ^ 

916. Semen, Sementis. Semen, seed, the seed-grain: 
Sulcis committer e semina, Virg. Sementis^ the sown 
seed, when it is strewing out on the field, and when it has 
been sown; and the season of sowing: TJt sementem feee^ 
ris, ita metes, Cic. Tarn semente prohibita^ fructus ca^ 
nuus inieribat. Id. 

917. Semianimvs. 919. Sentmtiam dicere. 388 

917. Semianimits — is, Seminex, Semivivits. Semior 
nimus and- Semianimis^t half-dead, almost without life: 
Semianimes volvuntur equi. Virg. Seminex^ half-dead 
from external injury, half- killed: Seminecem in acervo 
ccRsorum corporum inventum, Liv. Semivivus^ almost 
without life, and without power or strength of life : Ibi homu 
nem^ fumo excruciatum^ semivivum reliquit. Cic. 

918. Senex, Senior, Annosus, Longjevus, Vetulus; 
Senescere, Vetustiscere, Inveterascere. Senex^ an age 
above sixty years, an old man, with the conditions peculiar to 
this age. Senior,, the elder one, is used only in reference 
to junior : Vetus proverbium monet^ mature fieri senem^ si 
diuvelis esse senex. Cic. Centurice seniorum ac junio" 
rum, Liv., i. e. to the seventieth year. Annosus (in Ger- 
man bejahrty literally translated, be-yeared)^ burdened with 
years; it is more than senex: Pontificum libros^ annosa 
volumina vatum. Hot. LongcBvus^ of very high age (in 
German hochbetagt^ literally translated, high-be-dayed)^ poet- 
ical, as is likewise grandcevus^ with the idea of venerable- 
ness: Conjux longcBva DorycZi. . Virg. Veiulus^ pretty 
old, oldish ; as sul^tantive, also, in a detractive sense : Sero 
sapiunt, Tu tamen^ mi veiule^ non sero. Cic. — Senes» 
cere^ growing old in age, and according to quality : Tacitia 
senescimus annis. Ovid.; hence, growing too old, that is, 
gradually losing powers and good quaUties (the first, in Grer- 
man, altern ; the second, veraltem) : Oratorum laus jam 
senescit, Cic. Vetustiscere^ growing old, according to 
existence, and thus growing in strength: Vina vetustis' 
cunt, Colum. Inveterascere^ growing old in something, 
according to duration, settling firmly, taking root firmly, root- 
ing in : Macula penitus jam insedit atque inveteravit in 
populi Romani nomine. Cic. Inveteraverant mUites 
bellis, Cses. (the German ergrauen^ growing gray in, during 
some state of things.) 

919. Sententiam dicere, ferre, pronuntiare ; Sitp- 
FRAGiuM, Suffragia ferre. Sententiam dicere^ say- 
ing, stating one^s opinion, judgment, distinguishes the judging 
person from others : Sententiam f err e^ giving one's judg- 
ment, vote ; Votvm^ voting, distinguishes the opinion or judg- 
ment of others; Pronuntiare^ pronouncing the opinion, 
judgment, distinguishes the mode and manner of publication 
or utterance: Senatui placet^ C. CiBsarem senatorem eue, 
sententiamque loco pratorio dicere. Cic In senaHn 

384 920. SqHttraiim. 028. Servare. 

Mine vUa cupiditate de hello, de pace eententiam feraU 
Id. Prator palam de iella ac tribunali pronuntiat (sen» 
tentiam). Id. — Suffragium (suffrago^ properiy, the 
striving up for something), and Suffragia ferre, giving a 
vote for or against something, voting, and obtaining votes 
from others; Suffragium refers to the result of votings 
Suffragitty to the voters: Suffragii ferundi cau$a con^ 
veniunt. Cic. Ego te suffragium tulisse in ilia lege, non 
credidi. Id. Quasitum es/, suffragia magistratu man- 
dando clam^ an palam f err e melius esseL Id. Jndieas^te 
ne gratuita quidem eorum suffragia tulisse. Id. 

920. Sefaratim, Seorsum, Singulatim. Separattm^ 
separate, removed or separated from the rest, opp. conjune* 
tim; Seorsum, Seorsus (se - versus) , on a place situate 
to the side, removed from the neighbourhood of others, opp. 
una, simul ; Singulatim, singly, each one for itself : Medio^ 
cribus intervallis separatim copias collocaverai, Csbs. 
Seorsum arma ac tela seponebantur, Cic. Ad ea, qwB 
dixerunt, singulaiim unicuique respondeo. Id. 

921. Sequi, Insequi, Insectari. Sequi (connected with 
the root of seeking), following, going behind : Hos tota OT' 
menta sequuntur a tergo, Virg. Ins e qui, following close 
behind, upon the heel, pursuing sharply : fugientem, aliquem 
gladio siricto. Cic. Insectari, pursuing hotly, pressing : 
Impios agitant insectanturque Furice, Cic. 

922. Serere, Seminare, Plantare, Spargere. Sire^ 
re, sowing, planting, placing seed, seedlings, or shoots in the 
ground, for the purpose of propagating the plant : hordea cam^ 
pis. Virg.; arhoris. Cic; hence, Consitio,\he sowing or 
planting a field, bed, &c. (in German besden, bepflanzen) ; 
Insitio, engrafting, inoculation of trees : Venerit insitio; 
fac ramum ramus adoptet. Ovid. Seminare, sowing, cov- 
ering with seed: agrum. Colum. Hordeum seminari de» 
bet post aquinoctium. Id. Plantare, planting a vegetable, 
plant, in the ground : Hoc modo plantantur Punica, cO' 
ryli, vites. Plin. Spargere, strewing out, about, manu 
semen. Cic. — Literce kumanitatis spar see sale. Id. 

923. Servare, Ad — Conservare, Custodire. Ser- 
vare, paying attention to something, taking care of it, that it 
may not suffer injury, saving, preserving : Ortum Camiculce 
diligenter quotannis servare, conjeciuramque caperci saHtu^ 
brisne an peslilens annus futurus sit. Cic. Hunc ordinem 
laboris quietisque milites servarunU Lav. Servare, 

924. Servus. 925. Sestertius. 385 

Jidem^ keeping faith, keeping one's promise, being attentive 
that we do not act against it ; Stare in Jide^ being constant 
in one's faith. Adservare^ watching something, preserv- 
ing something with one's self: tdbulas^ aliquem privatis cuS' 
todiis. Cic. Conservare^ keeping something together and 
protecting it against injury, diminution, or ruin : rem famili- 
arem diligentia et parsimonia, Cic; hence, Servator^ the 
saver, preserver : rei puhliccB ; Conservator^ the protector 
and supporter: imperii. Custodire^ watching over, pro- 
tecting against injury, and watching that something do no in- 
jury, or withdraw from superintendence or watch : corpus j 
domumque ; aliquem tit parricidam. Cic. 

924. Servus, Mancipium, Verna, Puer, Famulus, Mi- 
nister ; Serva, Ancilla, Famula ; Servus a manu, ad 
MANUM. Servus^ slave, serf, as belonging with his body to 
a master; Mancipium, as property by captivity of war or 
sale ; Fern a, as property by birth, born in the house of the 
master of his parents; Puer^ as a young fellow, lad (as the 
word boy is frequently used in English where slavery exists) ; 
Famulus^ as waiter, servant who belongs to the house-people 
(familia) ; Minister^ as servant, assistant officially, on ac- 
count of his office : Servorum jus^fortuna^ conditio infima 
est. Cic. Mancipia sunt dominorum facta nexu^ aut 011- 
quo jure civilL Id. Hic^ qui verna natus est. Plaut. Mi» 
hi venit obviam tuus puer. Cic. Heris adhibenda scBvUia 
in famulo s. Id. ; but also Fa mulus sacrorum. Id. itf t- 
nistri dapibus mensas onerant et pocula ponunt. Virg. — 
Serva, the female slave, as bodily belonging to her owner; 
Ancilla, the house-maid, the servant who performs domes- 
tic labor; Famula, the servant, as serving, waiting female: 
Inter an c ill as sedere jubeas, lanam carrere. Plaut. — Ser- 
vus a manu, a pedibus, designates the peculiar service of 
the servant, a scribe, a messenger, or boy for errands; ad 
manum, ad pedes, the casual position in which a slave ha(>- 
pens to be locally : Servum a pedibus meum Romam 
mist. Cic. Potes audire ex cliente tuo, quern servum stbi 
ille habuit ad manum. Cic; otherwise, the destination of a 
slave, or for what he is employed : Servos ad remum daho' 
mus. Liv., i. e. remiges. 

925. Sestertius, — a, um. Sestertius, the smdM ses- 
iertius, worth originally two and a half asses, and hence 
marked LLS, IIS (2 libra et semis), afterwards HS, a silver 
coin, according to which a sum below and above one iViousand 


386 926. Si. 927. SibOare. 

was expressed: Sestertia sc. pondo, counted only the CH' 
tire thousands of smaller sestertii^ from two to nine hundred 
and ninety-nine ; Sestertium sc. pondus^ was an entire one 
hundred thousand of small sestertii^ which from ten were 
counted with numeral adverbs: Sexcenta sestertia^ that is, 
six hundred thousand; decies sestertium^ or only de^ 
cies^ was said instead of decies centum millia sestertium s, 
nummum •=■ one million. Superjicium cedium cBStimarunt HS 
vides ; Formianum HS ducentis quinquaginta millihus, Cic. 

926. Si, Quum; Si non, Si minus, Sin, Nisi. S«, if, 
is used with an antecedent position, which indicates the con- 
dition, the supposed existence of a state as ground of the con* 
sequence contained in the succeeding position ; Qtitim, when, 
so of\en as, states an occurrence as actual case, with refer- 
ence to a contemporary consequence : Si valehiSy quum 
recte navigari poteril^ turn naviges. Cic. — By Si non^ if 
not, we distinctly negative the reality of a single notion in 
opposition to the affirmation, in such a conditional position ; a 
less positive negation is expressed hy Si minus^ if not en- 
tirely, at least if not ; Sin^ if however, provided however, in- 
dicates the contrary to the antecedent condition. Si express- 
ing apprehension of the contrary ; iVt, Nisi^ if not, provided 
not, except if, expresses that condition without which that 
which is stated would not take place ; hence, the if not can 
only be taken in the sense of apprehension : Dolorem si non 
potero frangere^ occultaho, Cic. Si feceris id, magnam 
hdbebo gratiam; si non feceris, ignoscam. Id. Si poS' 
sent, castellum expugnarent : si minus potuissent^ agros 
Remorum popularentur, Cses. Equidem ego vobis regnum 
trado firmum, si honi eritis; sin mali, imbecillum. Sail. 
Meus hie est homo, ni omnes dt atque homines deserunt, 
Plaut. Memoria minuiiur, nisi earn exerceas. Cic, if thou 
dost not practise it; si earn non exerces, would designate 
an actually not practising, in opposition \,o si exerces, as 
appears from the following sentences : Fuit apertum, si Co- 
non non fuisset, Agesilaum Asiam regi fuisse erepturum. 
Nep. Habuisset tanto impetu ccepta res fortunam, nisi tarns 
homo Syracusis ea tempesiate fuisset, Archimedes is ereU. 

927. SiBiLARE, Stridere, Fremere, Frendere. St hi' 
tare, hissing, whizzing, of a tone which proceeds from a 
narrow opening, or is produced by a small body cutting the 
air rapidly: serpens, aura; Populus me sib Hat. Hor. 

928. Signare. 930. Signum. 387 

Siridere, screaming, loud and pipingly, disagreeable: Bel' 
lua Lernce horrendum stridens, Virg. Forihus car do 
stridehat anis. Id. Fremere^ gnarling, snarling, growl- 
ing: leo^ currus: Arrius consulatum sibi er^tum /remit 
Cic. Frendere^ gnsishing, grating : dentihus. 

928. Signare, NoTARE. iSi^n are, signing, that is, pro- 
viding with a sign, a sign-manual, seal, stamp : JEs^ argentum 
publice sign ant 0. XII Tabb. No tar e^ signing, i. e. 
making marks of distinction on or in an object, in order to 
know it again, or to remember certain things by it : Digitis 
charta no lata meis. Ovid. IHem mihi notaveram, Cic, 
hence, Censoria notatio^ disgrace, and no^io, the inquiry, 
by the censor. 

929. SiGNiFicARE, Declarare, Indicare ; Indicium, Ves- 
tigium. Significare^ giving to understand by signs: 
Gallic uhi major atque illustrior incidit res^ clamors per 
agros significant. Caes. DecZarare, making that some- 
thing be seen clearly, demonstrating with clearness and per- 
spicuity : Lucidentam plagam accepit^ ut declarat cicatrix. 
Cic. Monsirare^ showing to the senses, pointing out, to 
make something discernible and known: monatra^ quod 
biham. Plaut. Indicare^ indicating, informing of, against : 
Puer rem omnem domince indicavit, Cic. (^lemadmodum 
animo affecti sumus^vultus in die at. Id. — JneZtctum, in- 
dication, by which we arrive at the knowledge of something 
unknown, hidden ; Vestigium^ footstep, trace, track, trail : 
Indicia et vestigia veneni. Cic. 

930. Signum, Insigne, Specimen ; Vexillum. Signum^ 
a sign, mark, by which we know a thing, or from which we 
conclude upon something: morhi^ doloris ; Insigne, the 
prominent sign, which is known by its prominence, and 
through which something distinguishes itself: BuUa^ indict' 
um aique insigne fortunes, Cic; hence, the sign or em- 
blem of honor, of an office or of merit : Rex sedehat cum 
purpurea et illis insignibus regiis, Cic. Specimen^ 
that by which we judge the quality of a thing, proof, pattern : 
popularis judicii, Cic. — Signum^ the field-sign, ensign of 
the foot ; with the legions, a golden eagle on a hasta ; with 
the manipulus^ it was a hand stretched out, on a pole, under 
which were the name of the*cohors and medallions with the 
images of the gods; Vexillum^ a standard for a smaller 
body of infantry, 624 ; with the cavalry and allies, a square 
piece of cloth hanging down from a spear : Sign a in Tiostes 

388 931. Siloa. 934. Singuli. 

inferre. Gees. Cornelius manu monstrahat^vexilla se suo' 
rum cernere equitum. Liv. Vitellius urbem introiit inter 
signa atque vexilla, Tac. 

931. SiLVA, Saltus, Nemus, Lucus. Silva (vlij, and 
the German Holz)^ wood, forest, with a thick growth of trees : 
Me in silvam abstrudo densam et asperam. Cic. SaltuSj 
the leap, and a mountainous country, where many leaps are 
to he made, in order to proceed ; mountain wood with pas- 
tures, a mountain-chain covered with forests : PyrentBi^ 
Thermopylarum ; Furculce Caudina salt us duo alti, angusti 
sUvosique sunt, montibus circa perpetuis inter sejuncti, Liv., 
mountain-chains with passes. Nemus, a low pasture wood, 
opp. siluce; also, a pleasure-grove, nursery: Est nemus 
HcemonicB, prcerupta quod undique claudit silva: vocatU 
Tempe. Ovid. Lucus, a grove or forest sacred to a deity^ 
a sacred grove: Templum erat Lacinia Junonis, Lucus 
ibiy frequenti silva et proceris abjetis arboribus septus^ in 
medio pascua habuit. Liv. 

932. SiMFLiciTAS, Candor, Sinceritas. Simplicitas, 
simplicity, naturalness, naiveti, frankness; Candor, bright 
whiteness, faithfulness, true- hearted ness, is without dissimula- 
tion and confiding, while simplicitas is open and without 
reserve ; Sinceritas, the purity, probity, without falseness 
or malice : Convivalium fabularum simplicitatem tn ert- 
men ducere. Tac. Animi candor in caris amicis cognitus, 
Ovid. Vtilius Jiomini nihil est quam rede loqui : sed. ad per^ 
niciem agi solet sinceritas, Phoedr. 

933. SiMULARE, DissmuLARE, Adsimulare. Simulare, 
making similar, pretending that something be as it is not ui 
reality : cegrum, playing the patient, pretending to be ill ; see 
449, and prce se ferre, 85. Dissimulare, making dissim- 
ilar, doing as if a thing were as it is not, not allowing some- 
thing to be perceived: metum: Res diutius iegi dissimu^ 
larique non potuit, Cses., concealing. Qua non sunt^ 
simulo ; quce sunt, ea dissimulantur. Assimulare^ 
il««imtZ are, comparing, imitating: grandia parcis. Ovid., 
giving the appearance to a thing, as if it were so, pretending, 
of the endeavour to produce an imitation so perfect that it 
deceives : Assimulata familiaritas, Cic. 

934. Singuli, Universi. Singuli, all taken singly, 
every one, each in particular ; Universi, 746, all, without 
exception, all together: Dum singuli pugnant^ universi 
vincuntur. Tac. 

935. Sinus. 940. Solus. 389 

935. Sinus, Gremium. Stnus^ every sinkings half-round 
hollow, or deepening of a surface ; the bosom, the folded part 
of a garment, which covers the breast, the deep fold of the 
toga, which originated from the grasping and holding of the 
same with the left arm ; a gulf: Algentis manus est calf ad" 
enda sinu. Ovid. Gremium^ the lap, the curvature of a 
sitting person, produced by the abdomen and the upper thighs : 
Puerum in gremio patris ponere. Ter. Mtolia in sinu 
pads posita medio fere Grcecice gremio continetur, Cic. 

936. SiTiRE, Ardere. Sit ire rem^ thirsting, designates 
violent desire; Ardere rem and re, burning, indicates the 
violence of an appetite, of a passion: Nee sitio honoreSy 
nee desidero gloriam. Cic. Ardere studio historice^ invi» 
dia, dolore, ird. Id. 

937. SiTULA, SiTELLA, Urna, Situla^ St t ell a^ a. bucket 
to draw water, the vessel to receive the votes at election : 
Sit ell am afferto cum aqua. Plaut. Urna, a water-pot, a 
vessel to keep the ashes of the dead, and for the vote-tablets 
at elections: Amnem fundens Inachus urna. Virg. Ossa 
refer antur in urna. Ovid. 

938. SoLERE, SuEvissE, CoNsuEVissE. jSoZere, being 
wont to do, repeating the same action under the same circum- 
stances ; Suescere, becoming accustomed ; Suevisse^^ be- 
ing accustomed, wont, repeating something regularly, because 
it gives us pleasure : Fieri solet; Has Greed Stellas Hya- 
das vocitare suerunt. Cic. Consuevisse^ being familiar 
with a custom: Qui mentiri solet^ pejerare consuevit. 

939. Solium, Tribunal, Thronus. Solium, an ele- 
vated place, throne: regale Jovis. Ovid. Trihiinal, an 
elevated staging, bent out arch-like in front, in the open mar- 
ket, where the magistrates, who administered justice, were 
sitting in their sella curulis : Prcetor de sella ac trihunali 
pronuntiat. Cic. Thronus^ for solium, not used before 

940. Solus, Unus, Unicus. jSoZm*, sole, alone, without 
company or companion: Solus errabat in litore Pompdus. 
Cic. Unus, one, not several or many: Pompdus plus po' 
test unus, quam ceteri omnes. Cic. Si tu solus, aut quivis 
unus cum gladio impetum in me fedsset. Id. Unicus, the 
only one as to number and kind, that is, excellent: Q!ua 
tanta vitia fuerunt in unico filio 7 Cic. Archimedes, uni» 
eus spectator cceli siderumque» Liv. 


390 941. Somnus. 944. Spectare. 

941. Somnus, Sopor; SoiMnium, Insomnium, Visum. 
Somnus (sopire)^ natural, sound sleep; Sopor^ the fast» 
deep sleep, as that of the intoxicated, ill, exhausted : Jtinci 
semine somnum alHci^ sed modum servandum^ ne sopor 
fiat, Plin. — Somnium^ the dream, the vivid hut confused 
representations in the sleep: Somnia fallaci ludunt teme^ 
ran'a node. Tibull. Insomnium^ the image or phantom 
of the dream, as vapid, unreal appearance ; more common is 
Visum^ a sight in the dream: Atlantes insomnia non oi- 
sunt, Plin. Visa somniantium, somniorum, Cic. 

942. Sonus, Sonor, Sonitus, Fragor. Sonus^ the 
sound of the voice, of a musical instrument; Sonor^ the 
tone or sounding, inasmuch as the ear is affected thereby ; 
Sonitus (sonare)^ the noise, the continued state of a strong 
sounding: Nervorum ac tibiarum sonos elicere. Cic. jS^ 
quisque pericuJo intentu^ so no rem alterius pralii nan ae» 
cipiehat, Tac. Sonitus imitatur Olympi, Virg. Frd» 
gor^ the cracking noise of breaking bodies: Propulsa froz- 
gorem silva dat. Ovid. Codum tonat fragor e. Virg., 

943. SoRS, Caput; Pecunia. Sors^ 183, capital invested 
and bearing interest; Caputs as capital, in contradistinction 
to interest; Pecunia^ as money in general; hence it is 
always used with more definite distinctions, e. g. credita 
pecunia: Cures^ ut salva sit non sors modo, sed etiam 
usura plurium annonim, Plin. Quinas hie capiti mereedes 
exsecat, Hor., he deducts at once five per cent from the cap- 
ital, i. e. per month ; annually, therefore, sixty per cent. 

944. Spectare, Speculari, Conspicere, Conspicari, 
tueri, contemplari, considerare ; spectaculum, mu- 
Nus, LuDi. Spectare {specere^ in German spdhen^ in CoU' 
spicere)^ continuedly, repeatedly looking at, being spectator 
of, from desire of information and interest: Spectaium oc- 
niunt ; veniunt spectentur ut ipsa, Ovid. Speculari^ 
repeatedly and intently, sharply looking toward, at something, 
in order to discover something, to espy it, waiting and look- 
ing intently until it be seen (German erlauem) ; Spectare, 
is the open, frank viewing ; Speculari^hy stealth, cunning : 
Speculabor^ ne quis consilio venator adsit, Plaut. Con^ 
spicere, seeing something which suddenly appears to the 
eye, beholding suddenly, at last (in German erblicken) ; Con" 
Sjo I cart, distinguishing clearly in the distance, perceiving : 
Trans vallem et rivum muUitudinem hostium conspicO' 

945. Sperare. 947. Stamen. 391 

tur. Cses. Tueri^ gazing at, staring at, in order to see it 
rightly, beholding: Tuens oculis immitem Phinea torvis, 
Ovid. Ccelum tueri. Id. Contemplari^ dwelling on an 
object in looking at it, beholding with interest, pleasure, ad- 
miration ; the beholding, connected with mental action or 
» sensations, contemplating: Oculis contemplari pulchritU" 
dinem rerum ccelestium. Cic. Conslderare^ beholding, 
viewing considerately and with reflection : Pictores et poeta 
suum quisque opus a vulgo considerari vult, Cic. — Spec» 
taculum, something which is arranged to be beheld, and for 
beholders, a seat in the theatre, and a spectacle, inasmuch as 
it interests the beholder: Lufice siderumque. Munus^ a 
public spectacle, especially the gladiatorial games, as present 
to the people: Antiochus rex gladiatorum munus majore 
cum ierrore hominum, insuetorum ad tale spectaculum^ 
quamvoluptate^dedit. Liv. Lwdi, public and solemn games, 
inasmuch as they were brought about and performed : RomU' 
lus ludos par at ^ Consualia: indici deinde Jinitimis spec- 
taculum juhet, Liv. 

945. Sperare, Confidere, Suspicari; Spes, Exspec- 
TATio. Sperare^ hoping, looking forward to something de- 
sirable, with reasons of probability ; Confidere^ hoping for, 
expecting something with certainty, with confidence : De 
Miltiade non solum bene sperare^ sed etiam confidere 
cives poterant sui^ talem futurum^ qualem cognitum judica- 
rant. Nep. Susj^i cart, expecting something desirable se- 
cretly, supposing : Me consdlatur spes, quod valde suspicor 
for By ut infringatur hominum improbitas, Cic. ; more fre- 
quently, suspecting. — Spes, expectation of; properly, view 
at something desired, with interest, hope; Exspectatio, 
expectation of something which is to happen (properly, view 
at it) : Si spes est exspectatio boni, Tnali exspectatio- 
nem esse necesse est metum. Cic. 

946. Spina (Spinus), Acus, Aculeus. Spina, thorn, 
prick of plants and of the hedgehog, and the like, e. g. rosa- 
rum; animantes spinis hirsutcB, Cic. {Spinus, a. thorny 
bush, tree : Sp in i prunaferentes, Yirg.fheiWthorn,) Acus, 
a needle, sewing-needle, or for embroidery: Pingere dcu. 
Ovid. Aculeus, the sting of insects, point of an arrow, 
e. g. vespcB, sagitta: Aculei contumeliarum, Cic. 

947. Stamen, Subtemen, Trama, Tela. Sldmen, the 
warp, the longitudinal threads inwoven cloth; Subtefnen, 
the woof or weft, the cross-thread ; Tram a, thfe throwing in 

3d2 948. Staiio. 950. Stomachari. 

or drawing through of ihe^weft (?) ; TeZ a, the whole tissue, 
cloth, which was woven perpendicularly before the weaver, 
from below upward (in Egypt, from above down): Tela 
jugo vincta est : stamen secemit arundo. InserUur medu 
vmradiis subtemen acutis. Ovid. 

948. Static (Prjesidium), Vigilia, Excubije ; Portus, 
Navale. Staiio^ a post, place where soldiers are quar- 
tered, in order to watch or defend it ; also, the watching sol- 
diers themselves, a piquet; (as outpost, this was called Fra^ 
sidium^ 139.) /i, qui pro portis castrorum in statione 
erant,' Cubs. Marcellus stationes prcBsidiaque dispo' 
sidt^ ne quis impetus in castrajieri posset. Liv. Vigilia^ 
night-watch, watch, the keeping watch in the night for secu- 
rity's sake, especially in the camp, on account of which the 
night was divided into four equal parts {prima — quarta ri- 
gUia) ; in the plural, the watching soldiers, soldiers on guard» 
contradistinguished from Stationes^ day- watches, guards : 
Fore^ut minus intentcein custodiam urMs diumcB stationes^ 
ac noctuTTKB vigilicB essent. Liv. ExciibicB^ the watch* 
ing without doors, the camp, generally during night; also # 
those who are on guard : Vigilum excuhiis obsidfire poT"^ 
tas. Virg. Vino madenies ex cub ice. Claudian. — Statio^ 
an anchorage, place where vessels may ride at anchor ; For^ 
tus^ haven, port, for the reception and protection of vessels: 
Appiu^ naves ad ostium portus in statione habere cob^ 
pit. Liv., ride at anchor. Navale^ a wharf where vessels, 
are built, docks, where repaired, and a naval port, navaji ar* 
senal: Naves Antiatium in navalia Romce subductcB. Liv. ' 

949. Sterilis, Infecundus. Sterilis^ sterile, that which 
does not bear fruit, designates the effect ; Infecundus^ des- 
ignates the cause, the want of productive power, energy: 
Sterilis vacca^ arena; Frinceps infecunditati terra- 
rum obviam iit. Tac. 

950. Stomachari, Indignari, Irasci, Succenseee. Sto^ 
mdchari^ being angry, is the displeasure (stomackus) at in-^ 
justice, wrong ; /neZign art, 540, becoming indignant, dis- 
pleased, a less internal displeasure at unworthy treatment ; 
Irasci^ enraging, being enraged, the effect, the breaking 
out, as violent effect of that displeasure, risen to a high de- 
gree ; Succensere^ being agitated and in great rage, desig- 
nates the continuation of the state of mind excited by wrong^: 
Amariorem ms senectus facit : stomackor omnia. Cic. JSt 
casum insontis mecum indignabar amid. Virg. IraS'^ 

951. Stramentum. 953. Suh. 393 

cimur intempestive accedentihus aut impudenter rogantU 
bus, Cic. Ex perfidia et malitia dii hominibtis irasci et 
succensere consuerunt. Id. 

951. Stramentum, Palea, Gluma, Acus. Strdmen' 
tum^ poet. Stramen^ straw of blades; Slramentis incU' 
hat undeoctoginta annos natus. Hor. Pdlea^ chaff, threshed 
husks and straw leaves : Palece jactaniur inanes, Virg. 
Gluma, the husk around the grain, in its natural state; 
AcuSj Gen. Aceris, the pointed, hair-like prolongation of the 
ears: Gluma, folliculus grani, Varr. Argillamixto dcere 
e frumento. Id, 

952. Studere, Operam dare, Vacare literis, Discere. 
Stud ere Uteris, arti, 433, studying a science, art, desig- 
nates the zealous endeavour of becoming master of it ; Ope^ 
ram dare, taking pains, designates the exertion in doing so; 
Vacare, having leisure for sciences, the time which we 
employ for the study; Discere, learning: Studium est 
animi assidua et vehemens ad aJiquam rem applicata magna 
cum voliiptate occupatio, ut philosophicB, poeticcB, literarum. 
Cic. Qui eloquentice vera dat operam, dat prudentia. Id. 
Athenis domicilium remanet studiorum, quihus vacant 
cives. Id. 

953. Sub, Subter, Infra, Sus, Susum, Sursum, Super, 
Supra. Sub, under, in the direction toward the lower part 
of a thing, with the Accusative ; with the Ablative, under, of 
the situation of a higher object above or close by : Sub-mon» 
tem succedere ; sub muro consistere, Cses. Sub vespe» 
rum porlas claudere. Id., toward, close to evening. Sub 
liter as Lepidi statim recitata sunt ttu2. Cic, immediately 
after. In compounds, Sub signifies under, e. g. subcenturio; 
upward, from beloto up, e. g. subvehere, sub ire; close by, 
approaching, e. g. succedere; and from below up toward us, up- 
ward, e. g. subnasci; hence, imperceptibly, under the hand^ 
secretly y a little, in sub dolus, subviridis, subtristis. Sub' 
ter, under, below, opp. supra; in a region below, moving 
along in the direction under the lower surface of a higher 
object: Grues dormiunt capile subter alam condito. Plin. 
Omnes ferre subter densa testudine casus. Virg. In» 
fra, below downward, in the direction to, toward the lower 
side of a higher object: Infra Saturni stellam Jovis Stella 
fertur, Cic. Infr a scriptum est. Id., as postscript. jSi/s, in 
compounds, otherwise Susum, generally Sursum, up, up- 
wards : Sus que deque ferre, not caring for it; Suspen^ 

894 954 Subinde. 956. Suffiure. 

dire^ hanging up, hanging, i. e. suspending : Tignis nidum 
suspendil hirundo. Virg. Suspensus^ suspended, anx- 
ious, irresolute: Civitas suspensa metu^ between fear and 
hope. Nares, eo qiwd omnis odor nd supera fertur^ recte 
sursum sunt, Cic, going upward. Super^ over, there- 
over, beyond: Super terra tumulum statuere columeUam* 
Cic. Requiescere fronde super viridi, Virg. Supra^ 
over, above, situate toward the upper side of a thing, opp. «n- 
fra: Mare supra terrain est. Cic. Murus supra cete- 
r<B mod urn altitudinis emunitus erat, Liv. Tihi ea poUi* 
ceor^ qua supra scripsi, Cic, above, locally. 

954. Subinde, Interdum, Identidem. Subinde^ imme- 
diately after, the case may happen once or repeatedly : Hoe 
sedaia contentione alia subinde exorta est, Liv. TVoiu- 
fag(B dimissi cum donis^ut subinde^ ut qtusque res nova 
decreta esset^ exploratam perferrent. Id., every time immedi- 
ately after. Interdum^ sometimes, now and then: Inter" 
dum fio Jupiter^ quando lubet, Plaut. Identidem^ at 
repeated times, one time upon the other : AnimadvertU so^ 
rorem sponsi nomen appellantem identidem, Cic. 


Subjicere, Subdere. Substituere^ placing instead of 
another; Sufficere^ 286; Subrogare, proposing a per- 
son to the people for election, in the place of another (askmg, 
begging the people): Nunc pro te Verrem suhstituisti 
dlterum civitati, Cic, a second Verres, worse, periiaps, than 
thou art. Valerius nee collegam subrogaverat in locum 
Bruti, Liv. — Suppon ere, laying under: anaium ova gal» 
linis. Cic Dea Paridis arbitrio formam corporum suontm 
8 upp osuerunL Cic , subjecting. Testamenta amicorum ne 
exspectas quidem, atque ipse supponis. Id., falsely substi- 
tuting. Subjicere^ throwing under, signifies the same, 
only with less care : gallinis ova, Plin. ; cervices suas securi ; 
bona civium voci prcBconis. Cic. Testamenta subjiciunU 
Id. But, Subjiciunt se homines imperio alicujus et potes» 
tati. Cic, not supponunt, Subdere^ putting under, below, 
to the lower part, in the sense of adding: Jugo subdidit 
leones, Plin. Si cui Jionores subdere spiritus potuertaU, 
Liv., animating, inspiring. Majestatis crimina subdeban^ 
tur. Tac, charging falsely with it. 

956. SuFFicEBE, Suppetere, Suppeditare. Sufficere 
(putting under close to it), giving assistance, furnishing help, 
comfort, e. g. umbras pastoribus, Virg., is also used as intran» 

967. Suffrago. 960. SuppUcatio. 395 

sitive for being in a condition to serve us in what we want, 
sufficing: Nee jam vires sufficere cuiquam^ nee ferre 
operis laborem posse, Cses., they are not sufficient. Scriba 
sufficere non potuerunt. Cic, they could not write enough. 
Suppetere, coming close up to it, being there for use, ready 
for want : Pauper non est^ cut rerum s upp etit usus. Hor. 
Nee jam arma nostriSy nee vires suppetunt. Cses., they 
have none left. Suppeditare (see 690), of things, being 
in sufficient quantity: Parare ea^ qucB suppediteiit ad 
cultum et ad victum, Cic. Manuhi(B vix in fimdamenta fani 
suppeditavere, Liv. 

957. SuFFRAGO, PoPLES. Suffrdgo^ the bend or curve 
of the hind -quarters, also of birds : Aves^ ut quadrupedes^ alas 
in priora curvanty suffragines in po^teriora, Plin. Po- 
ples, knee-hollow, the part of the leg behind and opposite to 
the knee, with men and animals: Elephas poplites intus 
flectity hominis modo, Plin. 

958. Sulcus, Lira, Porca, Elix, Collicije. Sulcus^ 
furrow, as impression, deepening; Llray the side of the 
furrow, made by the board of the plough; Porca^ the ele- 
vation made by ploughing, and its surface; £Zt a?, a water- 
furrow, gully; Collicice, a, gutter, or the ditch into which 
the gullies empty, also the gutter of the roof, which otherwise 
is called Deliquice. 

959. SuMTus, Impensa, Impendium. Sumtus^ expense, 
by which our own fortune is diminished; Imp ens a^ ex- 
penses, incurred to obtain something, or to effect it; Impen* 
dium, the expenses, costs, which are paid, inasmuch as they 
are considered as loss ; hence, also, the interests we have to 
pay upon borrowed capital: Sumtum in rem militarem fd' 
cere. Cic. Servi^ qui opere rusiico faciundo facile sumtum 
exercent suum. Ter., gaining back the expenses. Arationes 
magna i mp ensa^ magno instrumento tuebatur, Cic. QuaS' 
turn sibi instituit sine impendio. Id. 

960. SuppLicATio, Gratulatio, Obsecratio. Suppli' 
catioy 748, a public, extraordinary feast of prayer and 
thanksgiving, when all the temples were open, processions 
and prayers were held, games exhibited, and lectistemia were 
prepared for the gods ; as feast of joy and thanks especially, 
it was called Gratulatio (properly, wishing joy, gratula- 
tion: Sera gratulatio reprehendi non solet, Cic), gener- 
ally in honor of an absent general, on account of great victo- 
ries; Obsecratio (properly, a solemn prayer for mercy 

3d6 961. Supremus. 964. Suspido. 

and grace of the gods), as public feast of prayer to divert 
impending evil, which, for instance, was feared on account 
of bad signs: Quoniam ad omnia jndvinaria supplicaiio 
decreta est^ celebralote illos dies cum conjugibus ac liherU 
vestris, Cic. Gralulationem tuo nomine ad omnia deo" 
rum templa fecimus. Id. Civitas religiosa^ in principiis 
maxime novorum bellorum^ supplicationibus habitis jam^ 
et obsecralione circa omnia puhinaria facta^ ludos Jovi 
donumque vovere consulem jussit. Liv. 

961. SurREMus, SuMMus, Maximus. Supremus^ the 
highest, supreme in relation to lower ones: Supremus pita 
dies^ the day of death as the last, highest end of life, as we 
say a high uge ; Summus, the highest, greatest, most per- 
fect, with relation to high and superior ones : Summum^ quo 
nihil sit superius, Cic. Gracchus omnia infima summis 
paria fecit. Id. ; not supremus^ which designates the highest 
point. Vixit ad summam senectutem. Id. Summa solus 
reipubliccB; Summa res publica. Id. (not «um ma rei pub» 
lic(B,) Supremus and Summus designate only the third 
dimension from the base to the vertex; Maximus, the 
greatest, largest, extension in all directions or dimensions, 
and intensively the highest degree and superiority of strength : 
Rescripsi epislola maxim cb. Audi nunc de minuscula. Cic. 
Maximus dolor brevis est; summus dolor plures dies 
manere non potest. Id. 


gere^ rising, giving one^s self a direction upward, rising from 
a lying or sitting posture: e lecto^ a mensa; Exsurgere, 
rising from the place where we were lying or sitting : Manas 
mihi date^ exsurgite a genibus ambce. Plaut. ; hence, rising 
again, as to condition, rising, as to the career of a person or 
thing : Aucioriiate vestra res publica exsurget et in aliquo 
statu tolerabili consistet. Cic. Exoriri, originating out of, 
coming forth, making one's or its appearance: Exoriare 
aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor, Virg. Sol exoriens. Id. 
Exsistere^ 414, stepping forth. 

963. Sus, PoRcus, Verres, Aper. Su«, hog, name of 
the genus, of wild and domestic swine : Immundi sues, Virg. 
Porcus, fem. Porca, a young, or at least not old, tame 
hog: Porco bimestri. Hor. Verres^ a boar, uncut; 
Aper^ the wild hog, wild boar: Erymanthius, 

964. Suspicio, Conjectura, Conjectio. ^Suspicio^ihe 
suspicion, that behind the external appearance of a* thing 

965. TaMa. 966. Talus. 397 

there is something concealed which is not clearly percepti- 
ble ; active^, suspicion which we have ; passive^ suspicion 
created by a thing: Suspicio artificii apud eos^ qui res 
judicant^ oratori adversaria est. Cic. Injidelitatis suspici» 
on em sustinere, Cses. Conjectura^ conjecture, a suppo- 
sition on grounds of probability upon facts, a conjectured 
opinion, judgment: Ex ipsa re conjecturam fecimus. 
Ter. Conjectio^ the guessing, the interpretation: somni' 
orum. Cic, 


965. Tabula, Pictura ; Tabulatum, Tabitlatio, Con- 
TiGNATio. Tabula^ a picture, as body, substance, i. e. the 
tablet, &;c. on which something is painted: Tahulas bene 
pictas collocare in bono lumine. Cic. Pictura^ painting, 
as process, the picture, as product of art: Pictura in ia* 
bula^ textilis. Cic. — Tabula^ a board; Tabulatum^ a 
story of a building, because the stories are divided by boards : 
Turris tabulatorum quatuor, Cses. Tabulation the 
flooring, the boarding of a story : Ne tela missa tabuiatio' 
nem perfringerent. Caes. Contignatio, the juncture or 
joining of the beams for a floor or roof; also the beams thus 
joined themselves: Ea contignatio^ quce turri tegimento 
esset futura. Caes. 

966. Talus, Calx; Tessera, Alea; Tessera, Testa. 
Talus (uoTQcc/alog)^ the ankle-bone; Calx^ the ankle (with 
the idea of tightness, hardness ; hence. Calculus, a little stone, 
and Callis) : Amictus atque usque ad talos demissa purpu' 
ra. Cic Nudis calcibus anguem premere. Juvenal.— 
Tdlus^ the ankle-bone of the hind-feet of quadrupeds with 
cloven hoofs, which unites the shin with the foot, and, used 
as dice, had marks on the four flat sides only ; one was 
marked with 1, Unto s. As, the opposite with 6, Senio, the 
two others with 3 and 4, temio, quatemio ; Tessera {xia* 
osQtt, neut.), a die (of cubic form), with all six sides marked. 
The ancients played with four tali, and with three tessera; 
the luckiest throw with the tali, was, if each one showed a 
different number ; with the tessera, if they presented three 
sixes ; these best throws were called Venus ; Cants was the 
worst throw, when each talus showed the same number, or 


396 967. Tangere. 969. Tegere. 

each tessera presented an As : Nobis ex lusionihus muUia la- 
los relinquutU et tesseras. Cic. Ut quisque Canem out 
Sent on em miser at y in singulos talos singidos denarios im 
medium conferebat: ([uos tollebat universos^ qui Venerem 
jecerat. Suet. Alea^ game at dice, in general : Jacta alea 
esto. Suet., let the die be thrown ! let 's dare the throw ! — Tes» 
sera^a small tablet, mark, marked among soldiers with the 
watchword, by which those on guard knew their party ; with 
those who stood in the relation of hospitality, to know again 
their friends: Tesseram conferre si vis hospitaUm^ eccctm 
attuli. Plaut. Testa^ an earthen vessel, a fragment of it, 
especially as verification, proof {testis) of voters and persons 
in the relation of hospitality : Test arum suffragia, Nep. 

967. Tangere, Tractare, Palpare ; Tangit, Spectat, 
Pertinet, Attinet. Tangere^ touching, used of a light 
collision of two bodies : aliquem digito ; Non omnia dicarn et 
leviter unumquodque tan gam, Cic. Tractare^ touching 
repeatedly and on several sides, with more surface of the 
fingers or hand (in German betasten ; in English we have no 
single word to express the sense of tractare^ but it is in part 
in the words fingering, handling, grabl^ing, fumbling, though 
each of these has an additional and specific meaning) : Seu 
puer unctis tract av it calicem manibus. Hor. ; hence, treat- 
ing of a subject : artem tmisicam, Ter. ; gubemacvla rei pub» 
licce, Cic. Palpare^ patting, caressing by stroking with the 
palm: Taurus pectora prcebet palp and a manu. Ovid. — 
Tangit me res^ cura^ it touches me, designates a very near, 
sensible, and personal interest ; Spectat me, it has reference 
to me, I am interested in it, the object for which the thing is 
intended; Pertinet ad me^ it belongs to my province, has 
reference to me, a nearer relation of the thing to me : Bene' 
Jicia^ quce ad singulos spectant; quce ad universos perti» 
nenU Cic. Attinet ad me, it relates to me, a relation to 
me only in a certain respect : Incensus studio ^ quod ad agrum 
colendum attinet, Cic. Ego^ quod ad me attinet, tO" 
ceo. Id. 

968. Tantisper, Tamdiu. Tantisper, so long as, so 
long until, designates the idea while^ during ; Tamdiu, so 
long as, designates the wearisome duration: Latendum tan» 
tisper ibidem, dum defervescat hcec gratulatio. Cic. Totos 
dies scribo ; tantisper impedior. Id. Ego te abfuisae 
tamdiu a nobis dolui. Id. 

969. Tegere, Operire, Cooperire ; TEOuMENnm, Opes» 

970. Telu7n. 399 

cuLUM, Tectorium. Teg ere, covering, with a cover, for 
protection and safety ; per ire {ob-perire), covering over, 
covering entirely, with the cover of a vessel, for instance, 
opp. aperire ; Co op erire, cowering all over: Ferce latihulis 
se tegunt. Cic. Cui pellis humeros o per it, Virg. TJhi 
ahiere intro^ operuere ostium, Ter. Opertus dedecore 
et infamia. Cic. Cooperire aliquem lapidihus, Liv. — 
Tegumentum, the cover serving to cover over: Tegu- 
ment a corporum vel texta vel suta, Cic. Operculum, a 
cover, with which a vessel is covered, or which is placed over 
some article : Cadus csreo obturatas operculo, Plin. Tec- 
tor turn, a coat of liquid with which a body is covered, 
painted over: Ex columna tectoriam vetv^ delitum est, et 
novum inductum. Cic. 

970. Telum, Tormentum, Hasta, Sarissa, Lancea, 
G^suM, Sparus, Tragula, Framea, Pilum, Spiculum, 
Sagitta, Jaculum, Falarica, Verutum. Telum, 104, an 
offensive arm in general, arms which wound ; Tormentum, 
a projectile thrown from a machine for projection : Tantum 
prima acies aberat, uti ne in cam telum tormentumve 
adigi posset. Cses. ifas^ a (originally a pole, branch; Teu- 
tonic Ast), a pike, of the Roman hastati, with the iron, four- 
teen feet long; Sarissa, the long, Macedonian spear; 
Lancea^ the lance, which was also thrown; Gee sum, the 
light and short hunting-javelin of the Gallic mountaineers ; it 
was thrown: Jere pastor all habitu, agrestibus telis, falci- 
bus gcesisqv^ armati, Liv. Sparus and Sparum, a 
spear with a long thin point; similar is Tragula, a short 
javelin: Galli inter carros rotasque mataras ac tragulas 
subjiciebant, nostrosque vulnerabant, Caes. Framea, the 
short spear of the Germanic tribes : Rari gladiis aut majori- 
bus lanceis utuntur hast as, vel ipsorum vocabulo fra- 
me as, gerunt, angusto et brevi ferro, sed ita acri et ad usum 
tiabili, ut eodem telo vel cominus vel eminus pugnent. Tac. 
Pilum, the spear of the Roman foot, the wood five feet and 
a half, of wild cherry (cornus), and the point three quarters 
of a foot, of the thickness of a finger, which Marius, however, 
ordered to be made shorter and somewhat like an angle, so 
that it could not be taken out of the wounded body without 
lacerating it. Every heavily-armed man had two pila, with 
the throwing of which the battle began. Caes. 1, 52. Spu 
culum, every point, the iron point of the spear or arrow, and 
the spear or arrow itself; SigitiOt wnow: Alexander <a- 

400 971. Temeritas. 975. Testis. 

gitta ictus est^ qucR in medio crure fixa reliqtterat spicu* 
lum. Curt. Jdculum^ a javelin, as general name; Pdla- 
rica^ a larger throwing spear, which was thrown by ma- 
chines, sometimes also by the hand; Verutum^ a speer 
similar to the verw (spit), which penetrated deeply: Pilis 
plerisque in scuta^ verutis in corpora ipsa fixis. Liv. 

971. Temeritas, Inconsiderantia. Temeritas, thought- 
lessness, which acts without reflection, with haste and boldness 
or temerity, opp. sapientia: Multi faciunt multa temerita' 
te quadam, sine judicio vel modoy vel repentino quodam tm- 
petu animi concitati. Cic. Inconsiderantia^ want of 
reflection and thought, of proper consideration, inconsiderate- 
ucss: Milonis in hoc uno ineonsiderantiam ego sustine" 
bo, ut pater 0. Cic. 

972. Tempestas, Procella. Tempest as, ihe time, as 
quality, the season, and the weather, bad weather, storni, 
tempest: FoRda tempestas, cum grandine ac tonitribus 
codo dejecta, Liv. Procella, the storm, which pushes 
along, makes quake, the high gale of wind at sea: Temp e 8^ 
tates sunt imbres, nimbi, pro eel Ice, turMnes, Cic. 

973. Tentorium, Tabernaculum. Tentorium, the 
tent of extended cloth, skins, as in a Eoman camp (sub pelli' 
bus diirare. Liv.). Tiberius sape sine tentorio pemocta" 
bat. Suet. Ta Z>er» a cm Zwm, every lightly built hut or tent 
erected only for a passing purpose, for protection against rain 
or sunbeams ; also of the camp tents and camp huts : Han^ 
nibal profectus est nocte, tabernaculis paucis in speciem 
reliciis. Liv. 

974. Terere, Fricare, Tergere, Verrere. Terere^ 
rubbing, rubbing off; lapidem lapide, lignum ligno ; in 
area fruges, threshing; viam, stepping on the way. Frt' 
care, rubbing, in producing a feeling on an animate body, 
and in making smooth: caput, corpus oleo ; Sus fricat oT' 
bore costas. Virg. Tergere, wiping, drying or cleaning 
by wiping: Hie leve argentum, vasa aspera t erg eat dU 
ier. Juvenal. Verrere, sweeping with a broom, brush : 
Verre pavimentum, niHdas ostende columnar, Juvenal. 

975. Testis, Arbiter, Conscius ; Testari, Testificabi, 
Antestari; Testamentum, Codioilli. Testis^ 125 (prop- 
erly, one who himself is a proof, testa, 966, of the truth of a 
thing), the witness, as confirming: Mearum ineptiarum tes» 
tis et spectator, Cic. Arbiter, the observing witness, 
listener, 93. Conscius, one who knows of somethingi a 

»76. TetiO^. Vt%. Tigmm. 401 

person privy to a thing, a fellow«criiiiinal : AcemcOor pui 
facmoris mtdtos dixerit teateB et eon§ci69 etfe. Ad Bie* 
renn. — Testari^ becoming a witnees, giving evidence, and 
testifying to one's last ¥dll, directii^ by testament : Camfm 
sepuicrisprfBliate'Siatur. Hor. Tester omnea deoa. Oc., 
calling upon all the gods as witnesses: DefUi piq^i r$ 
testari. Id. Teat^icari^ calling upon one as witness, 
and proving by one's own assertion, by efficient proofii : JDeo» 
hominesque testificor^me UH pr€Bdixiaae, Cic. Faei hoc 
teatificandi amoriamei cauaa. Id. il»<e«< art, calling 
upon one to be witness, in doing which, the person who called 
upon the other, touched him by the ear-lap : htdamat : Licet 
anteatari? Ego veto oppwM (mricuUm. Hor.-*-.Testo* 
men^um, the testament, as lesal written direction, by which 
a person pronounces his last will respecting his proper^, ^d 
the actions he imposes upon his heirs: MvMer taatamanio 
heredem fecit filiam, Cic. Codi^ilZj, a direction in form 
of a letter, in which the testator requested the heir, already 
appointed by the testament, to do one or another thing after 
the testator's death, to pay a legacy, dec ; an addition to the 
testament: Seneca aine uUoimeria aolemMi crematmr. Ha 
codicillis prcBacripaerat. Tac 

976. Texere, Nere. Tea;ere, weaving,ihakingatis(iuet 
designates the alternating covering of the thread, and, in |;en- 
eral, the connexion, juncture of parts braided and. ehtwmed 
with one another: tekun ; fiadnam virgia f eminam; PaatBua 
haailicam texuit iiadem atUifuia colmmia,' Cic Nire^ 
spinning, and weaving (connected with the Teutcmic fuiA, 
near, ndhen^ bringing near tc^ther, keeping it so, see IViie- 
tere, 637): Nerunt fataleafortia JOa Dea. Ovid. 2hiil>- 
eam^ molli mater quam never at auro* Yirg,, 

977. Tibia, Fistula. Tihia^ the flute, a straight reed 
with holes bored in it, into which the air was blown at the 
upper end in a atraight direction, not as is the tease with our 
common flute: Tibia dextra mum habet fcrammyaimUira 
duo : quorum unum aeutum aanum haheti aUenm grevem. 
Varr. The tUneen played two flutes at the same time. Fia* 
tula^lhe shepherd's or Pto's flute, consisting (oi from three 
to seven reeds, one l^ the other, and successively shortened : 
Diapar aeptenia fiatula camiis. Ovid. 

978. TiGNTTM, Teabs. TtgmiM, the hewn beam,'ft i»eoe 

of building material ; Trmba^ M Trmt^^ the beam befSove 

it baa been under the hands of Ike «aiMiiiter, tbo •• tite : 

34» «^ 

402 979. Tirocinium. 981. Togm. 

Sordida terga suis^ nigro pendentia tig no. Ovid. Itinera 
duo^ qu<E ad portum ferehant, maximis prafixis trahihuSj 
atque eis prcBacutis, prcesepit. Goes. Seeuribus ccBsa aceides* 
set dbiegna ad terrain trabes, Cic. 

979. Tirocinium, Rudimentum, Elementtjm. Ttroei' 
nium^ the occupation of an apprentice, apprenticeship, the 
years of this period, the proof- piece to be made by an ap- 
prentice : Tirocinium ponere et documentum eloquentuB 
dare. Liv. Rttdimentum^ the first principles, first instruc- 
tion in an art, as means of un-ruding, removing rudeness^ 
524: Imhutus rudimentis militicB. Veil. Elementum^ 
the original substance, first elements of a science or branch 
of knowledge: Aqua vahntissimum elementum est. hoc 
fuisse primum piitat Thales. Senec. Hcec forsitan puerorum 
element a videantur. Cic. 

980. TiTULus, Index. Titulus^ inscription, by which 
we know what a thing is or contains : lihri legis^ imaginis ; 
the name of one^s office, also an assumed name of something 
high, pretext: Consulem requireham^ qui tamquam truncus 
atque stipes^ posset sibstinere tamen tiiulum consulatus. Cic. 
Titulum belli prcetendere. Liv. Index, indicator, index, 
that which betrays something: Vultus indices oeuli. Cic, 
the book-title, which indicates the contents. 

981. Toga, Stola, Palla, Trabea, Pallium, Sagum-, 
Paludamenttjm, Chlamys, Ljena, Lacerna, Pjenula. 
Over-garments are : Toga, the solemn dress, or full dress 
article of the* Romans in times of pe^ce, a white, round man- 
tle, which was thrown over the head, and covered the whole 
body from the shoulders down to the knees, for men and 
women: Pads est insigne et otii toga, Cic. Toga prc^ 
texta^ with a purple stripe around the lower end, for free cit»- 
izens' children, priests, and superior magistrates; virilis^ 
pura^ recta^ communis^ the simple white toga, from the sevens 
teenth year ; Candida^ colored with chalk, worn by those who 
electioneered for high offices (eandidati)^ and at festivals ; 
pulla, 119, sordida^ the unwashed and worn off toga, used by 
accused persons. Stola, the wide, folded gown^ down to 
the ankles, with pointed sleeves, worn by married ladies of 
distinction, a tunica, below with a wide, full flounce {instita) ; 
Pa ZZ a, the equally long lady's mantle, open in front, and 
kept together by hooks, worn over the stola : Ad talos stola 
demissa et circumdata palla. Hor. Trabea^ a mantle 
round the body, open in front, and kept together above by a 

982. Torquere. 983. Torris. 403 

hook and a noose, white, with wide purple stripes, a dress of 
honor of the knights, of scarlet for augurs and images of 
gods : Trabeati equites, Tac. Pallium^ the Greek 
mantle, wide and comfortable, peculiar to philosophers ; Sd« 
giun, the short, soldier's mantle, of a square piece of coarse 
cloth, and hooked together on the breast, also for farmers, 
&c. : Sagulo gregali amictus. Liv. Consular es to gati so» 
lent esse^ quum est in sagis civitas, Cic. Pdliidamen» 
tum^ the warrior's, especially the general's, mantle, differing 
from the sagum in length, substance, and color : Coccum im.' 
peratoriis dicatum paludamentis, Plin. Chlamys^ the 
Greek sagum, shorter and closer. Cloaks against rain and 
for travelling, of closer texture, are : Lana^ long and wide, 
was also worn over the toga; Ldcerna, lined with fringes, 
and provided with a cap {cucullus) to cover the head ; P<b- 
nula, also Penula, very similar to the toga, only closer and 
shorter, sometimes also of leather (scortea),